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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2009

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Message From the Editor-in-Chief

    Page(s): 1245 - 1250
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  • Low-Power H.264 Video Compression Architectures for Mobile Communication

    Page(s): 1251 - 1261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to reduce the computation and memory access for variable block size motion estimation (ME) using pixel truncation. Previous work has focused on implementing pixel truncation using a fixed-block-size (16 times 16 pixels) ME. However, pixel truncation fails to give satisfactory results for smaller block partitions. In this paper, we analyze the effect of truncating pixels for smaller block partitions and propose a method to improve the frame prediction. Our method is able to reduce the total computation and memory access compared to conventional full-search method without significantly degrading picture quality. With unique data arrangement, the proposed architectures are able to save up to 53% energy compared to the conventional full-search architecture. This makes such architectures attractive for H.264 application in future mobile devices. View full abstract»

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  • Full RDO-Support Power-Aware CABAC Encoder With Efficient Context Access

    Page(s): 1262 - 1273
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a full-hardware context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coder (CABAC) encoder, which is the entropy coding tool adopted in the main and higher profiles of the video coding standard H.264/AVC. All CABAC coding features are implemented in hardware (HW), and different coding modes including rate-distortion optimization (RDO) are fully supported. An efficient memory access scheme is also proposed to reduce context RAM access frequency, context RAM size, and operation delay for RDO context state backup and restoration. Constant throughput of 1 bin per cycle is achieved in different coding configurations. The CABAC encoder is physically implemented in 0.13 mum process, and its post-layout simulation can be run at 328 MHz. The chip takes up 1.41 mm2, and dissipates 0.79 mW to support 720p60 HDTV real-time encoding in RDO-off mode. Compared to the state-of-the-art reference design, the most significant advantage of this design is that a full HW implementation of CABAC encoder is proposed, which minimizes the computation on the host processor and data transfer on the system bus. Power consumption is minimal compared to reference designs using the same technology. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Rate Control Algorithm for Low-Delay MPEG-4 Object-Based Video Encoding

    Page(s): 1274 - 1288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an improved rate control algorithm for jointly encoding multiple arbitrarily shaped video objects in the context of low-delay MPEG-4 compliant video coding. The algorithm provides adequate mechanisms for dealing with deviations between the ideal and the actual behavior of video scene encoders, notably: 1) compensation mechanisms (e.g., rate control decisions) that are able to track these deviations and compensate them to allow a stable and efficient operation of the encoder, and 2) adaptation mechanisms (e.g., estimation of model parameters) that are able to instantaneously represent the actual behavior of the encoder and its rate controller. The proposed solution efficiently allocates the available resources, i.e., target bit rate and bitstream buffer space, aiming at maximizing the average scene quality and minimizing quality fluctuations along time and among the various video objects. The results show that this solution outperforms the usual reference solutions, notably those specified in the rate control informative annex of the MPEG-4 visual standard. View full abstract»

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  • A Spatio-Temporal Auto Regressive Model for Frame Rate Upconversion

    Page(s): 1289 - 1301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1090 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a spatio-temporal auto regressive (STAR) model for frame rate upconversion. In the STAR model, each pixel in the interpolated frame is approximated as the weighted combination of a sample space including the pixels within its two temporal neighborhoods from the previous and following original frames as well as the available interpolated pixels within its spatial neighborhood in the current to-be-interpolated frame. To derive accurate STAR weights, an iterative self-feedback weight training algorithm is proposed. In each iteration, first the pixels of each training window in the interpolated frames are approximated by the sample space from the previous and following original frames and the to-be-interpolated frame. And then the actual pixels of each training window in the original frame are approximated by the sample space from the previous and following interpolated frames and the current original frame with the same weights. The weights of each training window are calculated by jointly minimizing the distortion between the interpolated frames in the current and previous iterations as well as the distortion between the original frame and its interpolated one. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed STAR model is able to yield the interpolated frames with high performance in terms of both subjective and objective qualities. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable Video Streaming With Fine-Grain Adaptive Forward Error Correction

    Page(s): 1302 - 1314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate a fine-grain adaptive forward error correction (FGA-FEC) coding scheme for scalable video bitstreams. In our work, both the embedded source bitstream and the error-control codes are granularly adapted at block level in intermediate overlay nodes to satisfy heterogeneous users with both different video frame-rate/spatial resolution/quality preferences and different network connections. The proposed FGA-FEC scheme encodes and adapts the embedded source-coded bitstream in such a way that if part of the video source data is actively dropped, parity bits protecting that piece of data are also removed, yielding an efficient result without any transcoding. View full abstract»

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  • Forward Error Correction for Multipath Media Streaming

    Page(s): 1315 - 1326
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the problem of joint optimal rate allocation and scheduling between media source rate and error protection rate in scalable streaming applications over lossy multipath networks. Starting from a distortion representation of the received media information at the client, we propose a novel optimization framework in which we analyze the performance of the most relevant forward error correction and scheduling techniques. We describe both optimal and heuristic algorithms that find solutions to the rate allocation and scheduling problem, and emphasize the main characteristics of the compared techniques. Our results show that efficient unequal error protection schemes improve the quality of the streaming process. At the same time we emphasize the importance of priority scheduling of the information over the best available network paths, which outperforms traditional first-in-first-out models or network flooding mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • Refining Side Information for Improved Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

    Page(s): 1327 - 1341
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2006 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding is a particular case of distributed video coding, which is a recent video coding paradigm based on the Slepian-Wolf and WZ theorems. Contrary to available prediction-based standard video codecs, WZ video coding exploits the source statistics at the decoder, allowing the development of simpler encoders. Until now, WZ video coding did not reach the compression efficiency performance of conventional video coding solutions, mainly due to the poor quality of the side information, which is an estimate of the original frame created at the decoder in the most popular WZ video codecs. In this context, this paper proposes a novel side information refinement (SIR) algorithm for a transform domain WZ video codec based on a learning approach where the side information is successively improved as the decoding proceeds. The results show significant and consistent performance improvements regarding state-of-the-art WZ and standard video codecs, especially under critical conditions such as high motion content and long group of pictures sizes. View full abstract»

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  • Reconstructing Videos From Multiple Compressed Copies

    Page(s): 1342 - 1351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A single source video may be compressed using different encoders with different settings. In the context of online video sharing, many such video copies exist, and an end user may have access to a few of them and would like to reconstruct a video sequence with quality superior to all available copies. In this paper, we propose a scheme to improve the video quality by projecting the reconstructed video onto the quantization constraint sets defined by multiple video copies. Experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of improving video quality both subjectively and objectively. View full abstract»

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  • Informationally Decentralized System Resource Management for Multiple Multimedia Tasks

    Page(s): 1352 - 1364
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (701 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An increasing number of networked and battery-powered devices require the simultaneous processing of multiple high-complexity dynamic multimedia tasks. Existing resource allocation solutions include both centralized approaches and distributed approaches. Centralized approaches typically have two fundamental limitations. First, multimedia algorithms typically have a large number of operating points and thus requires high implementation complexity to optimally allocate resources across multiple applications, making centralized solutions unsuitable for dynamic environments. Second, autonomous multimedia applications may not be willing to reveal information about their private utility functions, since such information can be exploited by other selfish applications to gain an unfair performance advantage by strategically misusing the system resources. On the other hand, existing decentralized solutions typically solve only resource-constrained utility maximization problems, without regard to other system platform-dependent costs and objectives, and without considering application dynamics. To address these limitations, we present in this paper a decentralized low-complexity resource management solution that can optimize a variety of system performance objectives without requiring applications to provide their utilities. We demonstrate analytically and experimentally that our algorithms converge quickly to their respective optimal solutions and are thus practical in dynamic environments. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential Particle Generation for Visual Tracking

    Page(s): 1365 - 1378
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel probabilistic tracking system is presented, which includes a sequential particle sampler and a fragment-based measurement model. Rather than generating particles independently in a generic particle filter, the correlation between particles is used to improve sampling efficiency, especially when the target moves in an unexpected and abrupt fashion. We propose to update the proposal distribution by dynamically incorporating the most recent measurements and generating particles sequentially, where the contextual confidence of the user on the measurement model is also involved. Besides, the matching template is divided into non-overlapping fragments, and by learning the background information only a subset of the most discriminative target regions are dynamically selected to measure each particle, where the model update is easily embedded to handle fast appearance changes. The two parts are dynamically fused together such that the system is able to capture abrupt motions and produce a better localization of the moving target in an efficient way. With the improved discriminative power, the new algorithm also succeeds in handling partial occlusions and clutter background. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world data verify the effectiveness of the new algorithm and demonstrate its superiority over existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Video Fingerprinting Based on Symmetric Pairwise Boosting

    Page(s): 1379 - 1388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a video fingerprinting method based on a novel binary fingerprint obtained using a feature selection algorithm called the symmetric pairwise boosting (SPB). The binary fingerprints are obtained by filtering and quantizing perceptually significant features extracted from an input video clip. The SPB algorithm, which is a generalization of the conventional asymmetric pairwise boosting (APB), selects appropriate filters and quantizers from a class of candidate filters and quantizers in such a way that perceptually similar and dissimilar pairs of video clips are correctly classified as matching and non-matching pairs, respectively. The binary form of the novel fingerprint makes it conducive to an efficient database search, and the experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the APB-based video fingerprinting methods in terms of both robustness and discriminability. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Video Region-of-Interest Coding Based on Leaky Prediction

    Page(s): 1389 - 1394
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A video region-of-interest (ROI) scalable coding scheme can ensure the priority of ROI. Error protection schemes can be used to guarantee the correct receipt of the ROI stream when transporting ROI scalable video over an error-prone network. However, we find that the correct receipt of ROI bitstreams cannot ensure the correct decoding of ROI due to the unique issue of the cross error propagation between ROI and background in ROI scalable coding. In this letter, we propose an ROI scalable coding framework based on leaky prediction (LP) for robustly transporting video over an error-prone network. Although several LP approaches have been proposed to improve layered coding, they cannot be applied to ROI scalable coding straightforwardly due to the cross error propagation issue. We deploy a leaky factor to weigh the two predictions: one from the constrained motion estimation (ME) within the ROI layer of the reference frame, and the other from the unrestricted ME in the overall reference frame. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances the robustness of ROI scalability while maintaining coding efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • High-Throughput H.264/AVC High-Profile CABAC Decoder for HDTV Applications

    Page(s): 1395 - 1399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter we propose a high-throughput VLSI architecture design for H.264 high-profile context-based adaptive binary arithmatic coding (HP CABAC) decoding for HDTV applications. To speed up the inherent sequential CABAC decoding, we eliminate the bottleneck by proposing a look-ahead decision parsing technique on the grouped context table with cache registers, which reduces 62% of cycle count on average as compared with the original CABAC decoding. In addition, the proposed design supports the macroblock adaptive frame field coding tools in H.264 main profile coding and 8 times 8 transform in H.264 high-profile coding. It achieves the real-time processing for H.264 CABAC decoding up to L4.1@30 frames/s with maximum 60 Mbits/s when operating at 105 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Color Correction Preprocessing for Multiview Video Coding

    Page(s): 1400 - 1406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In multiview video, a number of cameras capture the same scene from different viewpoints. There can be significant variations in the color of views captured with different cameras, which negatively affects performance when the videos are compressed with inter-view prediction. In this letter, a method is proposed for correcting the color of multiview video sets as a preprocessing step to compression. Unlike previous work, where one of the captured views is used as the color reference, we correct all views to match the average color of the set of views. Block-based disparity estimation is used to find matching points between all views in the video set, and the average color is calculated for these matching points. A least-squares regression is performed for each view to find a function that will make the view most closely match the average color. Experimental results show that when multiview video is compressed with joint multiview video model, the proposed method increases compression efficiency by up to 1.0 dB in luma peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) compared to compressing the original uncorrected video. View full abstract»

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  • 2010 IEEE international symposium on circuits and systems

    Page(s): 1406
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  • Why we joined ... [advertisement]

    Page(s): 1407
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 1408
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it