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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Theoretical characteristics of a tunable two-electrode Fabry-Perot (TEFP) laser diode

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1931 - 1934
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4032 KB)  

    The theoretical tuning characteristics of a two-electrode Fabry-Perot (TEFP) laser diode are derived using a relative simple model. This type of laser can be used as a tunable source. Tuning can be achieved by driving the device along a constant-power contour while the wavelength changes during the travel of the operating point. The characteristics indicate constant-power FM and constant-wavelength AM operating modes for the TEFP device. The laser exhibits ability similar to that of a multielectrode distributed-feedback or distributed-Bragg-reflector laser.<> View full abstract»

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  • On the theory of planar spectrographs

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 2017 - 2022
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB)  

    The theory of planar spectrographs is presented. It is proven that by no means all aberrations up to the order of x4 can be corrected over a finite spectral range. A general procedure to construct gratings with two stigmatic points of (nearly) arbitrary wavelength and location is proposed. Rowland-type and flatfield spectrographs are discussed as numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Improved extinction ratio of waveguide electroabsorption optical modulators induced by an InGaAs absorbing layer

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1907 - 1911
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB)  

    The authors demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the extinction ratio of an InGaAsP waveguide electroabsorption optical modulator can be greatly improved by adding an InGaAs absorbing layer. They use both a simplified slab waveguide analysis and the full three-dimensional beam propagation method to study the light propagation in such modulators. The predicted increase in extinction ratio is then experimentally demonstrated in fabricated devices. The calculations are extended to a modulator integrated to a laser. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the gain degradation of high concentration erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by introducing inhomogeneous cooperative up-conversion

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1789 - 1799
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)  

    The gain degradation of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with high erbium ion (Er3+) concentration at 1.48- and 0.98-μm pump wavelengths is modeled by introducing inhomogeneous cooperative up-conversion (IhCU). General formulas describing the gain degradation as a function of IhCU rate are obtained by solving rate equations for population probabilities in the relevant Er3+ energy levels. The experimental results, such as low gain for high Er3+ concentration, and higher saturated gain with counterpropagation than with copropagation pumping, which have not yet been explained theoretically, are qualitatively explained by this model. Good agreement between the measured and calculated gain is obtained. The gain degradation characteristics at 1.48- and 0.98-μm pump wavelengths are analyzed with this model. The advantage of counterpropagation pumping is determined qualitatively. The noise figure degradation is also evaluated View full abstract»

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  • Intermodulation distortions of broad-band modulated laser diodes

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1901 - 1906
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    For modulation frequencies with arbitrary frequency spacing the intermodulation distortions of laser diodes have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The second-order distortions only depend on the resulting intermodulation frequency, whereas for the third-order distortions the position of each modulation frequency must be considered. With respect to subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) communication systems, it was found that carriers with large frequency differences can increase the third-order intermodulation distortions up to 15 dB compared to those for closely spaced carriers View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of N×N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1800 - 1806
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    An integrated passive N×N optical star coupler on silicon wafer is described. Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) are analyzed and utilized as the input and output waveguides of the N×N coupler. Combining the exact solutions of the slab ARROW waveguide with the effective index method, a 5×5 coupler is analyzed. In the slab waveguide analysis, the input waveguides are coupled to their neighbors. The interaction of the waveguides is described in terms of the normal modes of propagation. The resultant field distribution is then diffracted into the free space region which separates the input and output sections. The radiation illuminates the receiving aperture from which the receiving N waveguides branch out, each output element obtaining equal power levels. Different types of loss such as spillover loss and mismatch loss were analyzed and estimated for N=5. A 5×5 star coupler with a transmission efficiency of 56% at a wavelength of 1.3 μm is achievable View full abstract»

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  • Fiber-optic ladder networks for inverse decoding coherent CDMA

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1952 - 1962
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB)  

    Coherent fiber-optic networks are used to improve upon incoherent CDMA schemes. If a single-channel network is used between transmitters and receivers, standard coherent correlation takes place. If several parallel spatial channels (fibers and/or polarizations) are used, ideal inverse decoding can be implemented, with perfect δ-function response of the matched decoder. The two-channel case is studied in detail. The rules for finding inverses of a given coding network and the relationship between matched networks for one-channel decoding and two-channel inverse decoding are given. Phase and frequency differences among stations imply that unwanted signals add up incoherently. The ideal two-channel network with inverse decoding has no loss due to encoding/decoding, only inevitable loss due to the broadcast network. In experiments using a single fiber between a transmitter and a receiver by orthogonal polarizations, δ-function inverse response was observed View full abstract»

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  • Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1974 - 1984
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)  

    Nematic liquid crystal (NLC) technology-based optical systems for controlling phased array antennas are presented. These systems can provide low-cost, high-quality (>6-b), phase-based antenna control for very large phased arrays (e.g. 5000 elements). An experiment demonstrating NLC-based antenna phase control is performed, with 0-3π phase shift measured for a 60-MHz carrier. A novel time-multiplexed radar beam scanning approach is introduced to counter the slow response of the NLCs, allowing fast 200 beams/s antenna scanning rates View full abstract»

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  • Analytical and experimental study of waveguide optical polarization splitter with Langmuir-Blodgett cladding layer

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1807 - 1813
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    The waveguide-type optical polarization splitter, which utilizes birefringence of a Langmuir-Blodgett cladding layer, is studied theoretically and experimentally. By means of the beam propagation method based on Galerkin's principle, characteristics of the polarization splitter are analyzed. Results of the numerical calculation predict excellent polarization splitting properties with a crosstalk of -30 dB and an insertion loss of less than 0.1 dB for both TE and TM polarization. Successful operation of the polarization splitter was demonstrated in an experimental device View full abstract»

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  • Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1985 - 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)  

    A novel polarization modulated direct detection (PM-DD) system suitable both for binary and multilevel transmission is presented. At the transmitter the optical field is polarization modulated by a standard modulator. The receiver is based on the estimation of the Stokes parameters of the received optical field by means of a direct-detection optical front end and baseband electrical processing. The Poincare sphere rotation induced by the fiber is compensated by means of a purely electronic algorithm and the decision is performed in the Stokes space. The system performance is evaluated by an analytical model when the only relevant noise source is the receiver thermal noise and when erbium-doped optical amplifiers introduce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The system is completely compatible with a direct-detection-based optical network, and it is possible to implement efficient multilevel modulation formats View full abstract»

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  • On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1860 - 1868
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)  

    The local normal mode transfer matrix method (TMM) is introduced and developed for the rigorous analysis of distributed feedback (DFB) waveguide devices. This approach is valid for relatively large grating depth and index difference and applicable to both TE and TM modes. Remarkably simple analytical expressions for the coupling coefficients and the power reflectivity are derived and the correspondence between the transfer matrix method and the coupled-mode theory (CMT) is established. Comparisons with the coupled-mode theory have been carried out and some salient features of the DFB structures are discussed. The natural links among the transfer matrix method, the Bloch wave approach, and the coupled-mode theory are also revealed and discussed. The analysis demonstrates unambiguously the power of the transfer matrix method and its overall advantages in terms of not only accuracy and scope of validity but also simplicity and insightfulness View full abstract»

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  • Polarization rotation in periodic loaded rib waveguides

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1825 - 1831
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    Polarization rotation in an asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguide is analyzed by a scalar coupled-mode theory with vector correction. The scalar modes of the dielectric loaded rib waveguide are calculated by using a simple variational method. The polarization rotation is found to be caused by a geometric effect due to the asymmetric loading of the waveguide. By phase-matching the two polarized modes through the periodic loading, complete polarization rotation can be achieved View full abstract»

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  • Ring resonators composed of GeO2-doped silica waveguides

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1781 - 1788
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    Ring resonators composed of GeO2-doped silica waveguides fabricated on silicon substrates by a flame hydrolysis deposition method are described. GeO2-doped silica waveguides are developed to provide a lower propagation loss than that of TiO2 -doped silica waveguides. Since the finesse and transmission at resonance is determined mainly by total loss in the ring, the loss characteristics of the fundamental components are investigated in detail. Experimental and theoretical investigations show that a finesse of the ring resonator for GeO2-doped silica waveguides is about 2.7 times higher than that for TiO2-doped silica waveguides with the same transmission at resonance View full abstract»

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  • Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1939 - 1951
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    Through analysis and simulation, the authors investigated the performance of four carrier-synchronization techniques suitable for both homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying: the discrete-time decision-directed loop, the analog decision-directed loop, the Costas quadriphase loop, and the fourth-power phase-locked loop. Accounting for shot noise, laser phase noise, and feedback delay, they optimize the loop natural frequency and specify laser-linewidth requirements. The performance discrepancy between the best and worst of these loops is found to be small; accounting for inherent loop delays only, the linewidth requirements range from ΔvT<2.5×10-5 to ΔvT<5.2×10-5, where Δv is the beat laser linewidth and T is the baud interval. Hence other considerations, such as ease of implementation, will govern the design choice for most practical systems. For the case when propagation delays in the feedback loop are significant, a simple and accurate method for estimating the laser-linewidth requirement and corresponding optimal natural frequency is presented View full abstract»

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  • Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1814 - 1824
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)  

    The authors propose new wavelength-insensitive directional couplers (WINCs) with series-tapered waveguides in the coupling region. The wavelength-insensitive characteristics are investigated with respect to the geometric symmetry of the series-tapered coupling structure. An approximate analysis of three types of WINC is made using simple transmission matrix multiplication. These new WINC's were fabricated based on silica-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) on silicon substrates. The experimental results for the wavelength-insensitive responses of the series-tapered coupler, which was designed in detail with the beam propagation method (BPM), are in good agreement with the calculated results. The novel wavelength-insensitive characteristics of these couplers are also demonstrated for the first time View full abstract»

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  • New ultra high-speed VUG-SIBH laser structure with 2 ps-RC product

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1935 - 1938
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    A new all-MOVPE low-RC BH laser structure with semi-insulating (SI) InP layers was designed. This structure was designed to avoid a selective epitaxy step. The fabrication process consists of three MOVPE steps. An extremely low capacitance below 0.6 pF and a series resistance around 3 Ω; (RC product <2 ps) of the laser structure was observed. Using this structure a 1.3-μm bulk laser had a nicely smooth optical response with a bandwidth well in excess of 18 GHz (the measurement limit). A fitting procedure, using the laser response transfer function, confirmed a negligible RC product (2 ps), a power limited bandwidth of about 22 GHz, and excellent RF modulation efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Phase noise cancellation in a carrier recovered optical heterodyne receiver

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1963 - 1973
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    The performance and application of an optical heterodyne receiver which uses a carrier recovery demodulator are described. Phase sensitive demodulators used in coherent optical transmission are compared, and the suppression of both phase noise and frequency instability of light sources by a carrier recovery (CR-) demodulator is described. A carrier recovered PSK (CR-PSK) demodulator and a phase noise canceling circuit (PNC) for a coherent SCM receiver are introduced as examples of CR-demodulators. The relationship between laser diode spectral linewidths and the delay time difference between the two paths in the CR-PSK demodulator necessary to keep the system performance within a certain power penalty is then derived. In a preliminary experiment using 560-Mb/s CR-PSK transmission, a receiver sensitivity of -51.6 dBm was obtained, and a laser phase noise suppression of about 1/2 that of DPSK was confirmed. The results suggest the possibility of constructing a heterodyne receiver which has no AFC-loop. Applications of a CR-demodulator to an optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system and to a multivalue modulation scheme are discussed View full abstract»

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  • High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1998 - 2005
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    Characteristics of the low-coherence optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) are presented, and optical waveguide diagnosis using the OTDR is demonstrated. Ultrahigh sensitivity in the shot noise limited operation is discussed, and jagged-shaped Rayleigh-backscatter signals are predicted and observed experimentally. Signal smoothing by widening the resolution from 14 to 400 μm can drastically reduce the jagging. In the experiment, polarization-sensitive and insensitive OTDRs using a fiber-coiled piezoelectric phase modulator are proposed. Measurements of beat length and bending loss, quality characterization of low-loss waveguides by polarization-sensitive OTDR, and cancellations of polarization fading in discrete backreflection and polarization jagging in Rayleigh backscattering by polarization-insensitive OTDR are successfully demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Ultrafast soliton-trapping AND gate

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 2011 - 2016
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)  

    An ultrafast, all-optical, soliton-trapping AND gate that consists of a birefringent optical fiber followed by a frequency filter is demonstrated. The gate is sensitive to the timing of the input pulses and provides an output with a large energy contrast. The performance of the gate is characterized by varying the total input energy, the ratio between the energies of the two input pulses, and the arrival-time difference between the input pulses. It is shown that the gate efficiency (characterized by its ON-OFF contrast ratio) increases with increasing pulse energy up to the limit where Raman effects become dominant in the fiber, and the optimal performance of the gate is obtained with two input solitons having equal energies. The gate efficiency degrades with increasing difference of arrival time of the two input pulses, but a contrast ratio of 5:1 can still be obtained for a full pulse width of timing mismatch. The experimental results are in agreement with numerical simulations using the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of the gain and signal-to-noise ratio of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1869 - 1878
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)  

    The effects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) on the gain and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the DEDFA with 100-km fiber length and with bidirectional pumps are numerically studied. It is found that the gain and SNR are significantly enhanced by the SRS with practical parameters. For 1.55-μm signal and 10-μW initial signal power, there are 8.8-dB gain enhancement and 3.3-dB SNR enhancement for 1.48-μm pump wavelength and 75-mW initial pump power. The characteristics of the gain and SNR enhancements due to SRS are studied for different signal wavelength, signal powers, pump wavelengths, pump powers, and effective fiber cross sections. The results show that the gain and SNR are decreased by SRS only for the unpractical high pump power and/or small effective fiber cross section View full abstract»

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  • Design of high power low noise polarization insensitive ridge waveguide laser amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1879 - 1889
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    The ridge waveguide structure is proposed to obtain traveling wave polarization insensitive amplifiers with high saturation power and low spontaneous emission factor. A detailed model is presented, based on an accurate electromagnetic analysis of the active waveguide. Thermal effects and first principles calculations of semiconductor characteristics are included. A positive detuning of the operating wavelength with respect to the semiconductor peak gain wavelength is proposed to reduce the dependence of the polarization insensitivity on the operating point. The advantages of ridge waveguide devices with thin active layers operating at high carrier densities are theoretically demonstrated, and a design procedure is outlined. Finally, the model is validated with published experimental data View full abstract»

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  • Polarization-independent in-line optical isolator with lens-free configuration

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1839 - 1842
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    A fiber-embedded polarization-independent optical isolator that consists of an isolator chip, and thermally expanded core (TEC) fibers, and that has no lens elements was developed. The chip was made of birefringent crystal plates, rutile polarization-splitters, a quartz half-wave plate, and a Faraday rotation garnet, with the chip embedded into a TEC fiber. By utilizing the proper orientation flat formed on the edge of each plate, alignment of these plates was simplified. Measured backward and forward losses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm are >40 dB and ~2.5 dB, respectively, which agree with predicted values. It is also shown that the characteristics would be dramatically improved by utilizing new polarization splitters instead of rutile plates. Experimental results support the promise of constructing fiber-integrated isolators which then enable the mass-production of inline isolators View full abstract»

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  • Soliton technique to characterize single-mode fiber dispersion

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1777 - 1780
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    Transmitting subpicosecond pulses at moderate powers over a few meters of fiber creates a notch in the pulses' power spectra in the vicinity of the fiber's zero-dispersion wavelength. This is caused by the interaction of nonlinear self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion. This phenomenon can be used to determine the zero-dispersion wavelength of single-mode fibers View full abstract»

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  • New applications of a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator to in-line optical gates with ASE noise reduction effect

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1912 - 1918
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)  

    The authors propose new applications of a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator to an inline optical gate for a 2R (reshape and retiming) repeater in optical amplifier systems, an n :1 optical demultiplexer in time division multiplexing systems, and an optical switch. The small polarization dependence of the modulator is essential for inline use. By utilizing the monotonic increase of the extinction ratio with increasing applied voltage, the electroabsorption modulator driven by a large-signal sinusoidal voltage can produce a time domain square-shaped gate function with variable gate width. Furthermore, amplified spontaneous emission noise of optical amplifier systems can be reduced in both time and wavelength domains at the off-state of the modulator, due to noninterferometric wide wavelength operation of the modulator. Experimental results for a 2R repeater, an n:1 (n=4, 8) optical demultiplexer, and optical gates for switching are also demonstrated at over 10-Gb/s repetition rate View full abstract»

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  • Coiled-fiber sensor for vectorial measurement of magnetic field

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 2006 - 2010
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    New results on the polarization properties of a matched fiber-coil (i.e. one beat length per turn) immersed in a magnetic field are described. It is shown that both components Hy and Hz, perpendicular to the coil axis, can be simultaneously measured. Sensing coils of 1-cm diameter, with multiple turns of fiber, were fabricated. Using 100-turn heads, a sensitivity of 0.01 G was achieved for the vectorial fiber sensor View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs