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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date April 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

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  • Training & Education

    Page(s): 1
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  • You Can't Get There From Here

    Page(s): 1
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  • Electromigration in Double-Layer Metallization

    Page(s): 2 - 7
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    The electromigration of the top stripe in aluminum double-layer metallization systems was investigated. The current density dependence and the activation energy characterization are important in double-layer metallization. The step-coverage and coating effects of SiN is better than that of Si02. New phenomena associated with electromigration have been observed as follows: 1. The mean lifetime is affected by the material of the dielectric layer. This material effect might be related to the hardness of layer. 2. The mean lifetime due to electromigration depends on the magnitude and polarity of the electric field applied between adjacent stripes. Ordinary stress tests for electromigratfon are done where current is conducted only in the top stripe and not in the bottom stripe. Our results show that this situation is realistic under conditions existing in microelectronic circuits. The proposed method for stress testing should be used to simulate actual condition in microelectronic circuits. We emphasize that the stress test method used to disclose this electric field effect is important for accelerated stress testing, especially for metallization in VLSI circuits and multi-layer systems. The failure mechanism due to the electric field effect can be explained in terms of the applied electric field deflecting current-carrying electrons in the metal stripe, and is independent of leakage current between stripes. View full abstract»

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  • Our Past Editors

    Page(s): 7
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  • The Linear Software Reliability Model and Uniform Testing

    Page(s): 8 - 16
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    The Jelinski-Moranda, Shooman, and Musa software reliability models all predict that the software error detection rate in a software system is a linear function of the detected errors. The basic differences among the models are that the error rates are, respectively, in terms of calendar-time, manpower, and computer-time. The models are simple to use for estimating the number of errors still in the tested software. Published studies generally show that error rates during system testing correlate best with the Musa model, and progressively less with the Shooman, and Jelinski-Moranda models. Simulation shows that, with respect to the number of detected errors, 1) testing the functions of a software system in a random or round-robin order gives linearly decaying system-error rates, 2) testing each function exhaustively one at a time gives flat system-error rates, 3) testing different functions at widely different frequencies gives exponentially decaying system-error rates, and 4) testing strategies which result in linear decaying error rates tend to requlire the fewest tests to detect a given number of errors. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 16
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  • The Dependency Model: A Tool for Calculating System Effectiveness

    Page(s): 17 - 24
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    The Dependency Model (DM) is a mathematically unsophisticated but useful and practical tool for measuring the effectiveness (reliability, availability, maintainability, efficiency, etc.) of a complex system. Contrary to classical models, the DM does not require arbitrarily chosen statistical distributions or expensive simulations for its application. The large computer storage and running time requirements, the need for an accurate random number generator, and the inherent stochastic inaccuracy associated with such Monte Carlo techniques are thereby avoided. However, the DM does require the user to assign relative weights to the elements of the system, and to measure the performance of the lowest level elements considered. Common models such as GEM, TIGER, and REX assume a series-parallel structure. Although this might be sensible when applied to the lowest replaceable units (LRUs) in a hardware structure, it is unreasonable to apply it to components further up in the hierarchy, or to software. Thus, redundancy is not clearly defined for software. If there is an error in the code, placing identical programs in parallel does not eliminate that error. The series-parallel logic structure allows only for each component to be up or down, with no gradation. In contrast, the DM measures the degree of failure of a component or system, in addition to the probability and method of failure that can be determined from classical models. The elementary structure and flexibility of the DM yield additional benefits. View full abstract»

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  • Units of Equipment Available Using Cannibalization for Repair-Part Support

    Page(s): 25 - 28
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    This paper presents a mathematical model to predict the number of units of equipment available in the future. The components of this equipment are subject to Poisson failures and replacements are obtained by cannibalization. A numerical example is presented, and some difficulties encountered in the practical application of this model are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 28
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  • A System Reliability Model with Classes of Failures

    Page(s): 29 - 33
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    This paper presents an approach to system reliability involving s-dependence of the workload as well as the system configuration. Four classes of failures are described and then incorporated into the workload model. Mean time to failure and the system reliability are the functions of parameters estimated by monitoring a real system. The model allows multiple classes of users and priority requests to be represented. The model is validated using measurement data collected in an IBM installation. View full abstract»

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  • Mean Time to Achieve a Failure-Free Requirement with Imperfect Repair

    Page(s): 34 - 37
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    This paper obtains expressions for the mean test time to achieve a failure-free requirement with imperfect repair, under two plans. First do complete repair (good as new) at an even number of failures and partial repair (bad as old) otherwise. Next do complete repair at every k-th failure and partial repair otherwise. Plan 1 is a special case of plan 2 (with k = 2). View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 37
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  • A Conditional Probability Approach to Reliability with Common-Cause Failures

    Page(s): 38 - 42
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    This paper presents a conditional probability method to evaluate the reliability or availability of a system whose components failures can be s-independent or have a common-cause. Different failure types can be in each cut-set. By applying pivotal decomposition, the chain rule of conditional probability, and the recursive rule of probability of a union of events, I obtain the steady-state system unavailability. This approach requires the failure & repair rates of each component due to s-independent causes, the occurrence rate of each common-cause failure, and the mean duration of each common-cause. Hence it is practical and useful. The general model in the adverse environment assumes s-dependency and faces the dilemma of how to estimate the transition rates of each component. View full abstract»

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  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 42
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  • Consecutive-k-out-of-n:F System With Sequential Failures

    Page(s): 43 - 45
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    For consecutive-k-out-of-n:F systems in which failures occur one at a time, a time-to-failure model is developed. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Consecutive-k-out-of-n:F Component Sequencing

    Page(s): 46 - 49
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    A consecutive-k-out-of-n:F system is an ordered linear arrangement of n components that fails if and only if at least k consecutive components fail. Suppose that all components are interchangeable, that component failures are s-independent, and that component failure probabilities need not be equal. When k = 2, a certain ordering of the components minimizes the probability of system failure regardless of the particular component failure probabilities. This paper characterizes all other values of k and n for which such an optimal configuration can be determined without knowledge of the component failure probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 49
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  • Strict Consecutive-k-out-of-n:F Systems

    Page(s): 50 - 52
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    A method is given for calculating the failure probability function for consecutive-k-out-of-n:F systems which operate in such a way that isolated strings of failures of length less than k (which do not cause system failure) do not occur, or are immedately corrected; ie, when system failure occurs it is because all failures present are in strings of length at least k. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Papers ߞ Computer Programs

    Page(s): 52
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  • Estimation of Weibull Shape-Parameters for Two Independent Competing Risks

    Page(s): 53 - 56
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    This paper presents a technique to estimate Weibull shape parameters of life distribution of two components in a series system. The data consist of lifetime of the system only, that is, it is not known which component caused the system failure. The relations among cumulative hazard functions of the system at virtual observation limit are used for estimation. This technique is useful for 1) analysing this common kind of life-test data, and 2) estimating parameters of the smallest extreme value distribution. A numerical example including the experimental data on electron tubes is discussed briefly. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 56 - 59
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  • Maximum Likelihood Estimation For The 2-Parameter Weibull Distribution Based On Interval-Data

    Page(s): 57 - 59
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    MLE techniques are presented for estimating time-to-failure distributions from interval-data. Interval-data consist of adjacent inspection times that surround an unknown failure time. Censored interval-data bound the unknown failure time with only a lower time. The 2-parameter Weibull distribution is examined as the failure distribution. Parameter estimates from interval-data and from the midpoints of the intervals are compared for 6 shapes of the Weibull distribution. The results from Monte Carlo simulation runs are used to examine the s-bias and S-variability of the parameter estimates. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong