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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Dec. 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • The Foundation of Reliability

    Page(s): 401
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  • Levels of Corrective Action

    Page(s): 401
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  • How to Hand-Check a Symbolic Reliability Expression

    Page(s): 402 - 408
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    Checking symbolic reliability expressions is very useful for detecting faults in hand derivations and for debugging computer programs. This checking can be achieved in a systematic way, though it may be a formidable task. Three exhaustive tests are given. These tests apply to unreliability and reliability expressions for noncoherent as well as coherent systems, and to cases when both nodes and branches are unreliable, or when the system has a flow constraint. Further properties of reliability expressions derived through various methods are discussed. All the tests and other pertinent results are proved and illustrated by examples. View full abstract»

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  • On Being Late

    Page(s): 408
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  • Catastrophic Failure Modes Limit Redundancy Effectiveness

    Page(s): 409 - 411
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    This paper shows that it is essential to know the failure rates of the failure modes in order to decide effectively about employing redundancy. In general, all redundancy decisions fall into one of two regions: 1) additional redundancy is effective, and 2) additional redundancy is not effective. This paper quantifies the boundary between these two regions. There will always be a point at which the reliability is decreased with further redundancy due to the diminishing returns caused by the catastrophic failure modes. Any design using redundant components must examine the trade-off criteria before choosing to use redundancy or the manner in which redundant components are interfaced. MIL-HDBK-217 is deficient in that the composite failure rate is not broken down into the relative failure rates of various failure modes. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 411
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  • The Logarithmic Expression of Reliability Quantities

    Page(s): 412 - 413
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    Taking the logarithm of probabilities associated with reliability allows them to be expressed on a simple scale. The resulting values increase with increased system reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 413
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  • The Pioneer 10/11 Program: From 1969 to 1994

    Page(s): 414 - 416
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    The Pioneer 10/11 program began in the summer of 1969 and had as its objective the exploration of the Asteroid Belt¿that region between Mars and Jupiter¿and the exploration of Jupiter. Two flight spacecraft were built¿Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. Pioneer 10 was launched in 1972 March, passed by Jupiter in 1973 December, and continued on a trajectory that will allow it to escape the solar system. Thus Pioneer 10 became the first man-made object to pass successfully through the Asteroid Belt, to encounter Jupiter, and to escape from the solar system. Pioneer 11 was launched in 1973 April and passed by Jupiter in 1974 December. As a result of Jupiter's influence on its trajectory, it turned around at Jupiter, crossed back through the solar system, then beyond the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and then encountered Saturn in 1979 September. This encounter was beyond the original objectives and was made possible by the long life and reliability of the spacecraft. Pioneer 11 became the first man-made object to encounter Saturn. At present, Pioneer 11 is also on a solar-escape trajectory although in the opposite direction from Pioneer 10. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 416
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  • Practical Preventive Reliability Using Matrix Forms

    Page(s): 417 - 421
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    This paper describes a practical new tool to improve the reliability of equipment. It uses a matrix form to help monitor anticipated component faults precisely. The tool provides the practical measures necessary to generate matrix tables that accurately display all causes of failure and all planned programmatic analyses, tests, processes, and inspections. When completed, the matrix tables give users in-depth visibility of the degree of protection against component failure that is provided by the program's preventive measure plans. The matrix form is an excellent technique for tracking, and thereby influencing, the reliability of nonelectronic spacecraft subsystems or components. It has been applied successfully to improve the reliability of nonelectronic spacecraft subsystems and devices. No electronic applications have been tried, but the procedure can be useful in the electronics field, eg. in integrated circuit production planning, and perhaps in process control, inspection or test lines for other electronic components. The drawing of forms, and the recording/manipulation of the data can be computerized. The matrix form procedure can result in a cost increase to a design agency from programmic additions that are inferred from review of the matrices. The major cost to a reliability group is incurred usually in producing detailed fault tree information for the matrices. View full abstract»

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  • From Fault-Tree To Fault-Identification

    Page(s): 422 - 425
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    A practical way is given of identifying actual faults, by using a fault tree's complete system of minimal cutsets. For instance, for a fault tree where 20 cutsets are considered with 30 possible primal events, any of them can be found in at most three steps by the proposed FID-algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Algorithm for Optimal Design of Diagnostics

    Page(s): 426 - 436
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    Even though much work has been done in developing models to design diagnostic tests for fault isolation in electronic systems, there is still a lack of efficient, fast procedures. A new approach to the cost-effective design of fault isolation procedures is investigated. It is oriented specifically toward built-in-test (BIT) diagnostic subsystems for modular electronic equipment. The problem is formulated as a search tree. A branch and bound technique is used to find the optimal sequence of tests for the automatic BIT diagnostic to isolate a single malfunctioned unit among a group of Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Dominance and branching rules are developed, and the algorithm is presented. An example problem is solved to illustrate the efficiency of the branch and bound algorithm. Computational results are given and discussed. The following conclusions can be drawn. 1. The branch and bound approach can be used successfully in designing a cost-effective fault-isolation procedure. Because of the branching and dominance rules, many of the non-optimal solutions are eliminated early in the solution procedure which could efficiently reduce the size of the required search tree, as well as the time and storage needed to find the optimal solution. 2. The proposed branch and bound algorithm is efficient in solving problems of size up to eight LRUs. 3. Even though the size of problems solved efficiently by the algorithm is limited to eight LRUs, this size is still greater than the size of any problem reported to be solved optimally in any previous work. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability and Maintainability Considerations in Computer Performance Evaluation

    Page(s): 433 - 436
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    This paper describes the application of R&M concepts to computer performance evaluation. The relevance of reliability to maintenance cost of computer system is established. Although a simple reliability model is used, one can use more complex models. The mathematical model for maintenance cost analysis must be tailored for individual cases, depending upon the maintenance philosophy of the organization. The computer performance analysis from maintenance view points should examine software reliability and recovery procedures, which are relatively difficult in distributed processing. View full abstract»

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  • Resilient Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems

    Page(s): 437 - 443
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    This paper presents the resiliency features of the optimistic approach to concurrency control and demonstrates how it lends itself to a design of a reliable distributed database system. The validation of concurrency control, integrity control, and atomicity control has been integrated. This integration provides a high degree of concurrency and continuity of operations in spite of failures of transactions, processors, and communication system. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 443
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  • General Probability of System Failure

    Page(s): 444 - 449
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    This paper presents a general method to determine probabilities of failure of any fixed subset of coherent system components under various conditions. The method uses a known reliability structure of the system and the known joint probability distribution of its component times-to-failure. This method is universal and can be applied in many cases. Nevertheless, for large systems it is troublesome. In practice a problem is solved using a numerical program. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 449
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  • Probability of Component or Subsystem Failure Before System Failure

    Page(s): 450 - 457
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    A method of determining the probability of having a given set of components failed and another set of components working at the time of system failure is based on the notion of boundary probability. The method is simple and easily applied to any s-coherent system for which the reliability structure is known. The application of this method is limited to the case of continuous probability distributions of time to failure because no simple method of computing boundary probabilities in the discrete case could be found. This is not, however, a major limitation of the method since in the majority of practical applications continuous random variables representing times to failure are used. The method can be extended to the case of non-s-independent random variables. Several examples illustrate the procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Fault-Tree Analysis by Fuzzy Probability

    Page(s): 453 - 457
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    In conventional fault-tree analysis, the failure probabilities of components of a system are treated as exact values in estimating the failure probability of the top event. For many systems, it is often difficult to evaluate the failure probabilities of components from past occurrences because the environments of the systems change. Furthermore, it might be necessary to consider possible failure of components even if they have never failed before. We, therefore, propose to employ the possibility of failure, viz. a fuzzy set defined in probability space. The notion of the possibility of failure is more predictive than that of the probability of failure; the latter is a limiting case of the former. In the present approach based on a fuzzy fault-tree model, the maximum possibility of system failure is determined from the possibility of failure of each component within the system according to the extension principle. In calculating the possibility of system failure, some approximation is made for simplicity. View full abstract»

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  • An Accurate Probability-of-Failure Calculation Method

    Page(s): 458 - 460
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    Based on rules of transformation of stochastic variables, a general and complicated multiple probability of failure integral is transformed to a more convenient integral. The two main advantages are: 1) The generally complicated integration area is transformed to a rectangular integration area where numerical integration techniques easily apply. 2) Under quite weak restrictions the integral dimension is reduced by one. Errors related to truncation of integration limits, the numerical integration technique and approximate integrand expressions are analyzed. An upper error bound due to truncation of integration limits is given. Approximate integrand expressions are recommended to save computer time. A 5-dimensional fatigue calculation example is given. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 460
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong