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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Oct. 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 53
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • On Being Elementary

    Page(s): 305
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  • How To Begin

    Page(s): 305
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  • Reliability Techniques in the Service of Industry

    Page(s): 306 - 308
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    Failures which occur in any industrial activity reduce the profitability and safety of commercial ventures. Numerical estimates of reliability, availability, and profitability are based on an understanding of the fundamental concepts of reliability engineering. These estimates assist comparison of alternative design or improvement strategies for process plant. Although a reliability assessment is concerned largely with equipment failures, the important part played by human reliability can be estimated and included in such studies. Plant reliability interacts with the morale of the workforce; morale is unfortunately not easy to quantify. The methods and procedure of a reliability analysis are described. A degree of flexibility in the assessor's approach is useful when the rigour of the study must be adjusted to suit practical cost considerations. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 308
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  • An Error Detection Model for Application During Software Development

    Page(s): 309 - 312
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    A variation of the Jelinski/Moranda model is described. The main feature of this new model is that the variable (growing) size of a developing program is accommodated, so that the quality of a program can be estimated by analyzing an initial segment of the written code. Two parameters are estimated from the data. The data are: a) time separations between error detections, b) the number of errors per written instruction, c)the failure rate (or finding rate) of a single error, and d) a time record of the number of instructions under test. This model permits predictions of MTTF and error content of any software package which is homogenous with respect to its complexity (error making/finding). It assists in determining the quality, as measured by error contents, early on, and could eliminate the present practice of applying models to the wrong regimes (decreasing failure rate models applied to growing-in-size software packages). The growth model is very tractable analytically. The important requirement for applications is that the error-making rate must be constant across the entire software program. View full abstract»

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  • Annual Reliability & Maintainability Symposium Proceeding Price List for 1981

    Page(s): 312
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  • 1982 Program

    Page(s): 312
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  • Stochastic Reliability-Growth: A Model for Fault-Removal in Computer-Programs and Hardware-Designs

    Page(s): 313 - 320
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    An assumption commonly made in early models of software reliability is that the failure rate of a program is a constant multiple of the (unknown) number of faults remaining. This implies that all faults contribute the same amount to the failure rate of the program. The assumption is challenged and an alternative proposed. The suggested model results in earlier fault-fixes having a greater effect than later ones (the faults which make the greatest contribution to the overall failure rate tend to show themselves earlier, and so are fixed earlier), and the DFR property between fault fixes (assurance about programs increases during periods of failure-free operation, as well as at fault fixes). The model is tractable and allows a variety of reliability measures to be calculated. Predictions of total execution time to achieve a target reliability, and total number of fault fixes to target reliability, are obtained. The model might also apply to hardware reliability growth resulting from the elimination of design errors. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 320
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  • Use of Q-GERT Network Simulation in Reliability Analysis

    Page(s): 321 - 324
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    Reliability analysis for all but the simplest systems often is unmanageable. This paper proposes Q-GERT simulation for such analysis. Q-GERT as opposed to the original GERT analysis, is a relatively easier networking model. Thus, determining the reliability of both simple and complex systems from individual component test data lends itself quite readily to Q-GERT analysis. Although the examples are rather simple, mathematically tractable systems, it is possible to extend Q-GERT procedures to more complex systems. The probability distributions for these more complex systems may be either user defined or may be chosen from any one of 11 different predefined functions. The only requirement for the use of Q-GERT is that input data describing the model be provided by the analyst. The basic format of the Q-GERT model facilitates this description of the input network. Thus, Q-GERT is a useful tool for analyzing complex systems and facilitates analysis where the mathematical calculations are either intractable or very complex. View full abstract»

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  • Book Reviews

    Page(s): 324
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  • A New Algorithm for the Reliability Analysis of Multi-Terminal Networks

    Page(s): 325 - 334
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    In a probabilistic network, source-to-multiple-terminal reliability (SMT reliability) is the probability that a specified vertex can reach every other vertex. This paper derives a new topological formula for the SMT reliability of probabilistic networks. The formula generates only non-cancelling terms. The non-cancelling terms in the reliability expression correspond one-to-one with the acyclic t-subgraphs of the network. An acyclic t-subgraph is an acyclic graph in which every link is in at least one spanning rooted tree of the graph. The sign to be associated with each term is easily computed by counting the vertices and links in the corresponding subgraph. Overall reliability is the probability that every vertex can reach every other vertex in the network. For an undirected network, it is shown the SMT reliability is equal to the overall reliability. The formula is general and applies to networks containing directed or undirected links. Furthermore link failures in the network can be s-dependent. An algorithm is presented for generating all acyclic t-subgraphs and computing the reliability of the network. The reliability expression is obtained in symbolic factored form. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Papers

    Page(s): 334
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  • Extended Abstracts

    Page(s): 334
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  • Limitations of Minimal Cut-Set Approach in Evaluating Reliability of Systems with Repairable Components

    Page(s): 335 - 338
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    This work shows that, when system components are repairable, system reliability cannot be evaluated exactly by means of the fault tree approach; only a system reliability lower bound can be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Use of a Fault Tree with Delayed Inputs

    Page(s): 339 - 344
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    For a redundant propulsion system with energy constraints it is shown that fault tree analysis with delayed inputs is an effective means to simplify probabilistic reasoning, i.e. to replace such reasoning by simpler, straight forward analysis that relies heavily on a special pseudo-Boolean algebra. View full abstract»

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  • Book Reviews

    Page(s): 344
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  • Fault Diagnosis by Mathematical Programming

    Page(s): 345 - 352
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    This paper presents the problem of fault diagnosis for logically represented continuous systems that can be formulated through nonlinear mathematical programming. This problem is transformed to an integer-programming problem and solved. Possible modifications and extensions of the problem are given. Although failure tables must be prepared in ordinary fault diagnosis, they are not necessary with this mathematical programming approach. By modifying constraints in the mathematical programming problem, difficulties such as multiple faults, correlated faults, modifications of test conditions and cycles in the system, which are encountered in the ordinary failure table approach, are made tractable. View full abstract»

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  • Book Announcements

    Page(s): 352
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  • Failure-Frequency Evaluation of Complex Systems Using Cut-Set Approach

    Page(s): 353 - 356
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    The paper develops a new method for evaluating failure frequency of complex systems with 2-state components, from corresponding cut sets. The method is derived by direct application of cut-set techniques to the failure frequency formula obtained by Buzacott and Singh. The method is suitable for computer implementation and can be used for cut-set diagrams with overlapping and non minimal cut-sets. Two examples are presented and the results are compared with those obtained by a common approximate approach. View full abstract»

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  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 356
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  • A Heuristic Algorithm for System Failure Frequency

    Page(s): 357 - 361
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    For reliability analysis, the choice between tie-sets and cut-sets is not a matter of convenience but depends on assessment of computational effort. The system configuration alone determines the preference of the approach. The present paper offers a faster algorithm for evaluating system failure frequency using both approaches. An expression for system failure frequency between two specified nodes is derived using either tie-sets or cut-sets. The expression is in terms of failure frequency, availability, and unavailability of the system elements. A heuristic algorithm to obtain the expression can be programmed for a computer. The algorithm is illustrated through an example. The manner in which Abraham's algorithm can be used to determine system probability of failure using cut-sets is suggested. The algorithms are also useful for evaluating sensitivity coefficients. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong