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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 1981

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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Who Speaks For Maintainability?

    Page(s): 209
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  • AQL Is Not PAQ!

    Page(s): 209
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  • Special Issue on Maintainability Preface

    Page(s): 210 - 211
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  • Maintainability Applications Using the Matrix FMEA Technique

    Page(s): 212 - 217
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    The Matrix Method of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) provides an organized and traceable analysis from the piece-part failure-mode through all indenture levels to system-level failure effects. This paper describes a methodology for reversing the buildup process for maintainability analysis. The output of this reverse process identifies each system-failure effect individually and the related indentured, lower-level composition of contributing sources of failure. The results of this technique provide source data for identifying different levels of ambiguity for fault isolation, evaluating test point adequacy, formulating replacement level criteria, developing maintenance diagnostic charts and procedures, validating maintenance concepts, and segregating most-probable faults for spare parts requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Papers

    Page(s): 217
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  • Extended Abstracts

    Page(s): 217
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  • A Modern Maintainability Prediction Technique

    Page(s): 218 - 221
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    This paper describes recently developed maintainability prediction techniques that are comprised of two distinctly separate procedures. The first is a detailed procedure that can produce very accurate predictions limited only by the quality of the input data. The second is an early procedure (applicable earlier in the equipment development than the detailed procedure) that yields less accurate predictions due to its use of estimated rather than actual equipment data. Both procedures can be applied at any equipment or system level, at any level of maintenance, and for any maintenance concept pertinent to avionics, ground electronics, and shipboard electronics. The implementation of these mehtodologies allows the user to track the overall system maintainbility parameters throughout the design and development of a system. Using these techniques and procedures, the user can evaluate whether or not the maintainability design requirements will be met, before the system is fully developed. If it appears that the maintainability requirements will not be met, then the designers can be informed. Thus, time and money can be conserved by carefully tracking the maintainability parameters through system development. The techniques are being incorporated into MIL-HDBK-472, ``Maintainability Prediction''. View full abstract»

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  • Landmarks in R&M Engineering: #12 On Performance Evaluation

    Page(s): 221
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  • Design & Evaluation Methodology For Built-In-Test

    Page(s): 222 - 226
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    This paper provides guidelines and procedures to optimize the design of built-in-test (BIT) during the conceptual phase of system design. Optimization of the BIT design is achieved by properly specifying three key design parameters: BIT effectiveness, mean corrective maintenance time, and BIT reliability. These parameters together with the BIT design-to-cost target form the baseline criteria for designing the BIT equipment during subsequent phases. The paper provides straightforward mathematical tools, sensitivity analyses, and tradeoff procedures. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 226
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  • Diagnostic Specification-A Proposed Approach

    Page(s): 227 - 231
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    The U. S. Air Force experience with operational test and evaluation of weapon system diagnostics has not been good. Many of the problems encountered stem from poorly written specifications. The development of successful diagnostic systems is predicated on the user's identifying valid system requirements and accurately articulating these requirements, via specifications, to the contractor. This paper identifies important considerations in developing user requirements and presents an approach to diagnostic specifications for future systems. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 231
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  • Models for Hardware-Software System Operational-Performance Evaluation

    Page(s): 232 - 239
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    Stochastic models for hardware-software systems are developed and used to study their performance as a function of hardware-software failure and maintenance rates. Expressions are derived for the distribution of time to a specified number of software errors, system occupancy probabilities, system reliability, availability, and average availability. The behavior of these measures is investigated via numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 239
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  • Software Maintainability - What It Means and How to Achieve It

    Page(s): 240 - 245
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    The terms reliability and maintainability are often misunderstood in the software field since software does not `break' or `wear out' in the physical sense; it either works in a given environment or it does not. This means that the program is either right or wrong in the environment. However, it does not follow that a program that is right is reliable or maintainable. For the purposes of this paper a program is maintainable if it meets the following two conditions: ¿ There is a high probability of determining the cause of a problem in a timely manner the first time it occurs, and ¿ There is a high probability of being able to modify the program without causing an error in some other part of the program. There are three important topics in developing a program which fulfills the above criteria: documentation, standards, and system architecture. This paper discusses the third topic since it is the real key to the development of maintainable software. A particular architecture of structured modular design using controlled communication between modules is presented together with its relationship to maintainability and reliability. The benefits of this approach are: ¿ High isolation between modules. ¿ Communication visibility and monitoring. ¿ Error location. ¿ Overload control. ¿ Simplified control program. ¿ Transparency to multicomputer configurations. A method is presented for calculating maintainability parameters related to this architecture, and examples of these calculations are given and interpreted. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 245
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  • Fault-Tolerance In a Multiprocessor, Digital Switching System

    Page(s): 246 - 252
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    Since the introduction of computer-controlled telephone switching systems, fault-tolerance requirements have been described in terms such as ``no more than two hours downtime in 40 years'', and ``no more than 2 calls in 10 000 lost by the system.'' As microprocessors, pulse code modulation (PCM) and multiprocessing have been added to switching systems, system architects have had to rethink system implementations in striving to meet these goals. This paper describes how the challenge is being met in a family of field-proven, multiprocessor-controlled PCM switching systems. View full abstract»

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  • Book Reviews

    Page(s): 252
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  • Maintenance Techniques in Distributed Communications Switching Systems

    Page(s): 253 - 257
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    The reliability and maintainability design criteria that were a part of large central-control communication systems, have been combined to produce deferred maintenance concepts in fully distributed communication systems. Combining these concepts allows the achievement of a cost-effective life-cycle design for communication switching systems. In a hardware/software environment one should not separate hardware maintainability and software maintainability, nor separate the reliability and maintainability of the system. Reliability models are being developed that reflect a constant rate for transient faults and a decreasing rate for catastrophic faults. The relationship of software bugs to their number and type of manifestation is being defined. Designs for primarily non-attended system sites should include appropriate maintenance concepts in order to be cost effective. If two or more individual repairs can be made with each maintenance visit to a site, the total area maintenance staff can be reduced. Implementation of deferred maintenance techniques can raise the availability level of the services provided, especially for a distributed communication switching system. Several examples of practical techniques for developing deferred maintenance concepts are presented, and topics such as the manning versus non-manning of sites, the time of day effects on state diagrams, centralized maintenance, and computer modeling techniques are discussed. The current and potential maintainability concepts and analysis tools that are discussed in this paper can be used to develop cost-effective maintenance concepts as distributed systems become more prevalent. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 257
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  • Logistic Simulation - A Credible Tool for Decision Makers?

    Page(s): 258 - 264
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    Logistic simulation and sensitivity analyses can prove useful in management reviews of major weapon system acquistion programs. The F/A-18 analyses were instrumental in quantifying the importance of achieving projected field reliability levels, the adequacy of supply support funding, and the importance of test equipment capacity in achieving aircraft readiness objectives. Logistic simulation inputs and assumptions need to be subjected to critical examination in each application. In the case reviewed, it was found that the commonly used assumption that mean failure rates are constant values, known with certainty, introduced significant errors in prediction of operational readiness and sensitivity analysis results. The variability of mean demand has potentially far reaching implications concerning future support planning but further work is required to fully understand, characterize, model, and develop logistic support approaches that accommodate the variability. Logistic simulation has the potential to become an accepted support planning and analysis tool that will meet the new DoD management demands to quantitatively link system design and support decisions to operational readiness objectives. Further understanding of the ``real world,'' and incorporation of this understanding in input data and modeling techniques are required if the full potential of this support planning tool is to be realized. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 264
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong