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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 52
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Editorial The Tyranny of Tools

    Page(s): 97
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  • A New Approach To Inference From Accelerated Life Tests

    Page(s): 98 - 102
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    In a recent paper, the authors have proposed a new approach for making inferences from accelerated life tests. Their approach is appreciably different from those that have been considered in the past, and is motivated by what is actually done in practice. Prior information which is generally available to the engineer is incorporated by adopting a Bayesian point of view. The usual assumptions about the failure distributions and the acceleration functions, which are appealing from a statistical point of view, have been sacrificed to achieve greater reality. We apply this new approach to some real life data arising from an accelerated life test. In the process, we explain our new approach in a manner which makes it easy to understand and apply by the reliability practitioner. Because of the nonparametric nature of the approach, the statistical precision of the results is less than that which can be achieved by making parametric assumptions. On the other hand, the chance of selecting an incorrect model is diminished. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 102
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  • Accelerated Life Testing - Step-Stress Models and Data Analyses

    Page(s): 103 - 108
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    This paper presents statistical models and methods for analyzing accelerated life-test data from step-stress tests. Maximum likelihood methods provide estimates of the parameters of such models, the life distribution under constant stress, and other information. While the methods are applied to the Weibull distribution and inverse power law, they apply to many other accelerated life test models. These methods are illustrated with step-stress data on time to breakdown of an electrical insulation. View full abstract»

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  • Landmarks in R&M Engineering: No. 6

    Page(s): 108
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  • Acceleration Factors for IC Leakage Current in a Steam Environment

    Page(s): 109 - 115
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    Leakage current measurements were made across the surface of silicon test chips up to a temperature of 130°C (403°K) and 70% relative humidity (RH) to develop a more accelerated temperature-humidity-bias corrosion test. Several equations were fitted to the data in order to extrapolate the surface conductivity data to operating conditions. A smooth transistion from atmospheric pressure into the pressurized steam region was observed. The leakage current acceleration factor is the same at 130°C/60%RH and 85°C/85%RH for bare gold electrodes. For nitride-covered aluminum conductors the equlvalent conditions are 130°C/65%RH or 85°C/85%RH. The advantage in the steam region is a larger temperature differential between the sample and saturation; approximately 15°C as opposed to 4°C for the 85°C/85%RH. This makes the steam test easier to control, but might raise the temperature beyond the decomposition limits for organic packaging materials. For inorganic systems with nitride-covered aluminum electrodes, an acceleration by a factor of three compared to 85°%C/85%RH can be obtained at 140°C/70%RH or 17°C/60%RH. Coefficients were determined by multiple regression analysis for three forms of equations which express the surface conductivity in terms of reciprocal absolute temperature and RH. The acceleration factors determined by a power law are consistently lower than those determined by two forms of an exponential equation. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Papers

    Page(s): 115
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  • MIL-STD-781C

    Page(s): 115
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  • Statistical Demonstration of Fault-Isolation Requirements

    Page(s): 116 - 121
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    Methods are developed for obtaining the best test for the attribute demonstration testing of fault isolation requirements. Because fault isolation requirements are generally stated in terms of the probabilities of several events the multinomial distribution is used. Tables of required sample sizes are given for numerous commonly used cases. It turns out that the normal approximation to the multinomial distribution works well for the computations. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 121
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  • Dagger-Sampling Monte Carlo For System Unavailability Evaluation

    Page(s): 122 - 125
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    Reliability problems usually result in rare-event simulations, and hence direct Monte Carlo methods are extremely wasteful of computer time. This paper presents a new application of ``dagger-sampling'', for calculating the system unavailability of a large complicated system represented by a coherent fault tree. Since a small number of uniform random numbers generate a number of trials, dagger-sampling appreciably reduces computation time, and hence a large number of trials become possible for the rare-event problems. Further, dagger-sampling decreases the variance of the Monte Carlo estimator because it generates negatively correlated samples. View full abstract»

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  • A Powerful Numerical Method to Combine Random Variables

    Page(s): 126 - 129
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    The paper proposes a numerical method to combine random variables. The method is based on representing a distribution by a histogram with equal probability intervals. This is an improvement on the Monte Carlo technique. An example is given to illustrate the use of the method in Reliability, involving the evaluation of the top event probability of a fault-tree with s-dependent cut sets. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 129
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  • Fault Trees, Prime Implicants, and Noncoherence

    Page(s): 130 - 135
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    The K&H algorithm for finding the p.i.'s of a noncoherent fault tree is too long and complicated for the purpose. The example that was used by K&H to illustrate the algorithm is reworked with known methods to show that alternatives are available that require less work. This correspondence is a series of four letters published as a sequel to a paper by Kumamoto & Henley (K&H) that presented an ``algorithm based on top-down analysis particularly designed for noncoherent fault trees''. The first of these letters is by Locks, claiming that the article is too complicated and that a shorter procedure is available. This is followed by Reply #1 by Ogunbiyi and Reply #2 by K&H. The note is concluded with a rebuttal by Locks to both replies. View full abstract»

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  • Decomposition Methods for Fault Tree Analysis

    Page(s): 136 - 138
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    Some kinds of fault tree analysis are described for which cut set enumeration is inadequate. Modularization leads to more efficient computer programs, and also identifies subsystems which are intuitively meaningful. The problem of finding all modules of a fault tree is formulated as as extension of the problem of finding all ``cut-points'' of an undirected graph. The major result is a FORTRAN program (available as a Supplement) which can find modules of a 1000-event fault tree in a small fraction of a second. A generalized module is defined. View full abstract»

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  • Manuscripts Received

    Page(s): 138
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  • On Complementation of Pathsets and Cutsets

    Page(s): 139 - 140
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    This paper suggests a technique for generating the minimal cuts from the minimal paths, or vice-versa, for an s-coherent system. In this method, the path polynomial is expressed in a particular form and then complements of only simpler Boolean functions are required. Examples illustrate the method. View full abstract»

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  • Quantifying Software Validity by Sampling

    Page(s): 141 - 144
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    The point of all validation techniques is to raise assurance about the program under study, but no current methods can be realistically thought to give 100% assurance that a validated program will perform correctly. There are currently no useful ways for quantifying how 'well-validated' a program is. One measure of program correctness is the proportion of elements in the program's input domain for which it fails to execute correctly, since the proportion is zero i.f.f. the program is correct. This proportion can be estimated statistically from the results of program tests and from prior subjective assessments of the program's correctness. Three examples are presented of methods for determining s-confidence bounds on the failure proportion. It is shown that there are reasonable conditions (for programs with a finite number of paths) for which ensuring the testing of all paths does not give better assurance of program correctness. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 144
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  • Confidence Limits for Weibull Regression With Censored Data

    Page(s): 145 - 150
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    The response variable in an experiment follows a 2-parameter Weibull distribution having a scale parameter that varies inversely with a power of a deterministic, externally controlled, variable generically termed a stress. The shape parameter is invariant with stress. A numerical scheme is given for solving a pair of nonlinear simultaneous equations for the maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of the common shape parameter and the stress-life exponent. Interval and median unbiased point estimates for the shape parameter, stress-life exponent and a specified percentile at any stress, are expressed in terms of percentage points of the sampling distributions of pivotal functions of the ML estimates. A numerical example is given. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Page(s): 150
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  • Goodness-of-Fit Test for Extreme-Value Distribution

    Page(s): 151 - 153
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    A test of fit for the extreme-value distribution with unknown parameters is adapted from the work of Vasicek. This test, based on sample entropy, has desirable power compared with analogues of some nonparametric tests and the Mann test. The test statistic is easily calculated by use of the coefficient tables for the MVLUE. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong