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Electronic Computers, IRE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 1962

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Electronic Computers

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): nil1
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  • Special Analog-Hybrid Computer Issue

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 1
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  • Ten Years of Computer Simulation

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 2 - 6
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    The past and present of computer simulation are examined, and on that basis some predictions for the future are made. Deploring the analog vs digital concept fostered by some, the author stresses the complementary aspects of the two methods. Then, drawing heavily on the experience of others as well as his own, the more important improvements in simulation techniques and equipment of the past ten years are discussed. The two approaches to analog-digital simulation¿the hybrid-computer in which both techniques are combined in one machine, and the combined-simulation in which relatively pure analog and digital computers are connected to operate together¿are both viewed as attempts to capitalize on the unique advantages inherent in each method, and as presenting common problems. The requirement for better education, not only of the potential user¿the scientist, the engineer, and the researcher in other fields such as biology and medicine¿but of the undergraduate and the public, is found to be the greatest need. Improved equipment having greater reliability¿for somewhat less money¿is also needed. But it is predicted that that will come. It is the need for education which demands the attention of all who are interested in the furture of computer simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Operational Amplifiers Using Controlled Superconductors

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 6 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The use of controlled superconductors in analog-computer circuitry is discussed. It is shown that the operations of summation, multiplication by a constant, differentiation, integration, and multiplication of two variables may be performed by these circuits. It is pointed out that the advantages of compactness, reliability, and light weight that are inherent to the use of controlled superconductors are now obtainable for analog as well as for digital equipment. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Higher-Order Difference Methods in the Solution of Beam-Vibration Problems

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 9 - 17
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    Several higher-order difference methods are investigated and compared for the problem of finding the natural frequencies of the lateral vibration of a beam. All of the methods considered are applicable to either digital or analog computers, although particular reference is made to the analog computer. The methods considered in most detail use the same basic central difference approximation, the variations occurring in the method of representing boundary conditions. Three higher-order approaches to the problem of boundary conditions are presented. They are 1) the use of one-sided differences of fourth order, 2) the use of symmetry assumptions, and 3) the passive-circuit approach. Each method is shown to have its advantages, the final choice depending upon the particular requirements of the problem. Results are presented in the form of curves of percentage mode-frequency error vs number of cells for the various approximation methods. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of a Biological System on an Analog Computer

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 17 - 25
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    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a method for the construction of a mathematical model of a large biological system. This method, based on Gibbs' free energy hypothesis, uses the format of mathematical programming, while the actual computation is accomplished by the method of steepest descent. The biological system chosen to exemplify the mathematical method was the respiratory function of the blood in the human lung. This method is based on the postulate that chemical mixtures tend toward a reaction equilibrium which minimizes the potential, or free energy, of the system. We may thus write down the classical Gibbs free energy function for each chemical species, and require that total free energy relative to some standard state be minimized under the conditions of the experiment. The solution of the equilibrium problem consists of a set of mole numbers which minimizes the free energy function, subject to equations for conservation of mass and nonnegativity. The analog computer solution of the respiration model was undertaken not only to give fast, sensitive tests of the mathematical model and its assumptions, but also to obtain a simulation of the time dependent system. Examples of the mechanization of the equations are presented in this paper, and also results are computed for the static equilibrium of a canonical model. View full abstract»

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  • An Infinite-Resolution Function Generator

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 26 - 30
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    An electro-optical device is described which provides a continuously-variable dc electrical signal in response to a shaft rotation. The elimination of a mechanical contact provides low torque, long life, and high-speed operation. Shaping of the thin film resistance track associated with this device produces an interesting function generator. Data is presented for successful operation of the laboratory model. An analysis is provided of the requisite track shaping to produce arbitrary functions. The electrical equivalent circuit of the device is analyzed, and the conditions necessary for successful operation described. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Analog-Digital Computation

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 31 - 41
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    The relative advantages of analog and digital techniques in simulating complex, nonlinear systems in real-time are discussed. A hybrid configuration is suggested consisting of a basic digital computer and peripheral, high-speed analog elements used on a time-shared basis under the control of the digital program. Programs for function generation and for the solution of the aircraft roll equation are presented to illustrate the operation of the hybrid computer and the significant increase in the effective computing speed of the digital computer that results from the incorporation of peripheral analog elements. Further gains can be made by tailoring the order code and logic of the digital computer to the specific problem class of interest. The hypothesis is presented that a hybrid computer is technically feasible today that would be competitive with analog techniques on the basis of both cost and the ability to simulate natural aircraft frequencies in real-time. Moreover, such a computer would offer substantial advantages with respect to accuracy, dynamic range, flexibility, size, power consumption, and reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric Techniques for Eliminating Division and Treating Singularities in Computer Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 42 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    By using the analog-computer independent variable time, as a parameter, a differential equation can be transformed into a set of first-order equations containing no divisions. This makes it possible, by means of other mathematical transformations to prevent unbounded functions from occurring during a computation and sometimes to continue solutions through singularities. The discussion includes a detailed application of the method to a second-order differential equation containing both zero and infinite slopes in the solution. The graph of the solution is obtained without reprogramming and with less equipment than that required by usual techniques. View full abstract»

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  • An Analog-Digital Real-Time Computer

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 46 - 52
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    A new kind of digital computer employing analog computing techniques is introduced. Planned as the central calculator in a ``faster-than-real-time'' computing system for a space range, the computer employs many, high-speed, digital circuits in parallel to calculate the solutions to sets of nonlinear differential equations. Parallel computing equipment employing simple numerical algorithms are shown to be superior in speed and accuracy of solution of sets of many equations than a hypothetical system of an un limited number of conventional, stored program computers operating in unison. The operating and programming methods are described as an outgrowth of existing analog and digital computer techniques. The applications described indicate the effectiveness of the computer in the role of a prediction and control computer for a missile and space range instrumentation system. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Steam Generation in a Heat Exchanger

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 53 - 57
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    An analog-computer flow chart is developed for use in setting up a simulation of the steam-generation process in a heat exchanger. It is assumed in the paper that the rate of heat flow from the primary side of the heat exchanger to the secondary side is already known. The technique described considers only the process in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Factors such as variations in pressure, boiling-point temperature, induction water heat rate, heat of vaporization, specific volume of steam, and rate of secondary steam extraction are considered. Some simplifications are made e.g., that the secondary steam is always at saturation conditions and that water level control in the boiler is good. Use is made of steam table data in function generators so that a fairly large range of operating conditions can be simulated. View full abstract»

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  • Analog Computation of Green's Function for Integrating Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 57 - 63
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    A method is described for the analog computation of the solution of linear two-point boundary value problems, i.e., the problem of a linear ordinary differential equation with linear two-point boundary conditions. The nonhomogeneous problem, in particular, is considered; the differential equal for y on the real interval 0¿x¿1 is taken to be nonhomogeneous. The method for its solution is based upon the integral formula for the solution, namely, y(x) = ¿01G(x, t)f(t)dt, where G(x,t) is the Green's function satisfying two-point boundary conditions while f is a known integrable function. The paper describes a method for finding a specific set of initial value problems whose solutions, taken in linear combination, form the Green's function whose second argument (t) is fixed. This technique reduces the two-point boundary value problem to a set of initial value types and makes the continuous computation of the Green's function as a function of x for fixed t amenable to analog means. The application of the described technique to the adjoint boundary value problem yields a means for continuous computation of G as a function of the second argument (t) for fixed values of the first argument (x). This is the required form for the analog evaluation of the integral formula. The theoretical aspects of the method found are stated, after which an example of a simple non-self-adjoint problem from the study of structures is solved on an electronic analog computer. View full abstract»

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  • Accuracy Improvements of the Tapped-Potentiometer Function Generators

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 63 - 66
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    This paper describes a procedure for correct calculation of the resistance of the potentiometer function generator, including the load resistance of the generator. The possibility of generating the function by taking inequidistant values of the independent variable is also described as is the possibility of generating some special functions. View full abstract»

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  • Proposed IRE Standards for Analog Computers

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 67 - 79
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  • Analog-Computer Simulation of a Frequency Detector

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Analog-Computer Technique for Simulation of Dynamic Pressure in Re-Entry Studies

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 80 - 82
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  • Network Approximations of Variable Time Delays Require Caution

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 82
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Synchro Circuit with Output Proportional to Input Angle

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 82
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  • Exact Design Equations for Operational Amplifiers with Four-Terminal Computing Networks

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 82 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Maximal Autonomous Clocks of Sequential Machines

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 83 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Some sequential machinies contain input-independent parts and can therefore be input-inependent machine (an autonomous clock) and an input-dependent machine. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the flow table are obtained for the existence of autonomous clocks in sequential machines, and the properties of these machines and their clocks are studied. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetostrictive Delay Lines

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 86
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Electrical Assemblies with a Minimum Number of Interconnections

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 86 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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  • A Linear Vector Recognition Function

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 88
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is 

IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Full Aims & Scope