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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Group

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Subjective Probability and Prior Knowledge

    Page(s): 33
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  • The Effect of Ionic Contaminants on Silicon Transistor Stability

    Page(s): 34 - 38
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    The development of the beam-lead sealed-junction (BLSJ) technology (beam-lead contact metals-silicon nitride passivation) included many experiments to study the effects of various ionic contaminants on silicon transistor stability. Stress aging was performed on standard n-p-n silicon transistors (aluminum contacts and silicon dioxide protection) under various conditions of temperature, bias, contamination, and ambient. These experiments showed the following results. 1) Alkali ions and copper in a reducing ambient are detrimental to the devices. 2) A hydrogen ambient accelerates the effect of alkali ions on the transistor degradation. 3) The degradation is approximately a linear function of the reverse bias and the contamination level from 4 to 400 Å of sodium chloride. 4) Anions have only a secondary effect on the migration of alkali ions in the oxide. The BLSJ technology was developed to protect unencapsulated silicon devices from the degradation seen on standard transistors during the preceding experiments. Results have shown that the median time to failure of sodium-contaminated BLSJ transistors aged in air at 300°C is higher than that for standard silicon transistors aged under identical conditions. View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Multiple-Line Redundant Networks

    Page(s): 39 - 44
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    One means to assure high reliability in digital electronic equipment is to incorporate multiple-line redundancy in its design. This type of redundancy has been described frequently in the literature. This paper treats the problem of determining the design of a multiple-line redundant network which maximizes the reliability of the network. There is an extremely large number of feasible designs for moderately sized networks, and no computationally practical method exists for determining the optimum design. To provide a practical solution for this problem an algorithm is described which generates a small subset of all feasible designs. A dynamic programming algorithm then selects the best from the reduced set. Computational results show that the design discovered by these techniques, in most instances, has a reliability very close to that of the optimum, and that the time for the computation increases approximately as the fourth power of the number of logical elements in the network. View full abstract»

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  • A Generalized Limit Theorem for Reliability

    Page(s): 45 - 46
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    A new and more general limit theorem is proposed in place of the exponential limit theorem of Drenick. First it is shown that as time goes to zero, the hazard rate can be made to approach an almost arbitrary function. Next it is pointed out that in the exponential limit theorem (and others) the only practical and necessary effect of having the number of elements ``go to infinity'' is to force time to go to zero. Therefore the limit theorems are not as useful as was once thought. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization by Integer Programming of Constrained Reliability Problems with Several Modes of Failure

    Page(s): 47 - 53
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    Reliability optimization problems with N stages or subsystems in series, utilizing parallel or series redundant units, can be formulated and solved as integer programming problems. The systems considered have subsystems with components which can fail in several modes and are subject to linear and nonlinear constraints. Two situations are considered in which components within the subsystem 1) all fail in the same mode, or 2) all may fail in different modes. Expressions are developed for the probability of failure in each case. Two examples are solved. View full abstract»

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  • Management Decision Utilizing Cost-Effectiveness Modeling

    Page(s): 54 - 63
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    An example of how the specifics of a major subsystem are related to the decision rules developed from cost-effectiveness considerations is given. An extensive study of a subsystem for an advanced ship deployment system was conducted to select the cost-effective subsystem and specify the procurement parameters from many attractive subsystem alternatives. It is shown that for a subsystem whose performance does not limit the productivity of the primary system (achieves minimum productivity) the measure of effectiveness for a constant force size is lowest life cycle cost (LCC). Since only minimum productivity is needed for the lowest LCC, any expenditure which results in getting increased subsystem productivity is both unwarranted and irreconcilable with proper cost-effectiveness concepts as applied to subsystems. The lowest LCC subsystem alternative is shown to be capable of meeting minimum productivity requirements by parametrically analyzing the cost-effectiveness model. The productivity of the subsystem during the mission is a function of the following: equipment state at mission start (includes ``under repair'' states), mission dependability, and subsystem performance by equipment state. The subsystem meeting minimum productivity requirements and the lowest LCC was identified and became the management choice. View full abstract»

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  • Hazard Versus Renewal Rate of Electronic Items

    Page(s): 64 - 73
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    Two different indexes, the hazard rate and the renewal rate, which are implied by conventional uses of the bathtub-shaped curve, are often noted in reliability. The hazard rate is applicable for a single failure time of each item, such as that of a nonrepairable part; the renewal rate is applicable for multiple failure times of each item, such as those of repairable equipment. Occasionally, remarks are made in the literature concerning the mathematical models for the bathtub-shaped hazard rate but not for the renewal rate. Furthermore, bathtub-shaped hazard and renewal curves as conventionally used are each based on certain assumptions concerning failure time distributions. Little data have been recorded for electronic parts and equipment which would substantiate the widespread use of the conventional implications of the bathtub-shaped hazard and renewal rates. The validity of the assumptions concerning the underlying distributions of failure times affects the accuracy of the results of reliability analyses, such as prediction, data analysis, formal assurance tests, operational planning, and maintenance planning. A study of the applications-oriented literature suggests that the distinction between the hazard rate and the renewal rate, as well as some associated implications, are not generally appreciated. Thus the existing situation is apt to lead engineers astray as well as others with application interests. Basic concepts and definitions are emphasized and extensions and implications are sketched. References are selected and noted for those interested in further pursuit. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability in Digital Systems with Asymmetrical Failure Modes

    Page(s): 74 - 75
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    Most present-day reliability schemes using redundancy to mask the failure of individual logic modules employ majority voting with the assumption that the replicated modules have symmetrical failure characteristics. An analysis is presented of such schemes when the modules exhibit asymmetrical failure modes; that is, the probability that a module fails with a 0 output is not equal to the probability that it fails with a 1 output. A general expression is presented which gives the reliability of a network consisting of n identical modules feeding a k-out-of-n voter. It is shown that a simple majority element does not always represent the optimal choice. Plots illustrating the results are included. View full abstract»

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  • Conditional Maximum-Likelihood Estimation, from Singly Censored Samples, of the Shape Parameters of Pareto and Limited Distributions

    Page(s): 76 - 78
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    Use of the functional relationship between the exponential and the Pareto and limited distributions enables one to obtain conditional maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators, from singly censored samples, of the shape parameters of the Pareto distribution F1(y,¿,K) = 1 - (y - ¿)¿K and the limited distribution F2(x,¿,K) = 1 - (¿ - x)K by a simple transformation of the corresponding estimator of the scale parameter of the exponential distribution ¿¿mn, based on the first m order statistics of a sample of size n. Use is made of the fact that K¿mn|¿ = 1/¿¿mn and K¿mn|¿ = 1/¿¿mn, where 2m¿mn/¿ has the x2 distribution with 2m degrees of freedom, to set confidence bounds on the shape parameter K of the Pareto and limited distributions. The probability densities of K¿mn|¿ and K¿mn|¿, which for a given m are the same for any n ¿ m, are obtained by a simple transformation of that of ¿¿mn. The expected values of K¿mn|¿ and K¿mn|¿ are determined and from them the unbiasing factors by which the ML estimators must be multiplied to obtain unbiased estimators K¿mn|¿ and K¿mn|¿. Expressions for the variances of the estimators and for the Cramer-Rao lower bound are found. A section on numerical examples is included. View full abstract»

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  • Unbiased Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of a Weibull Percentile when the Shape Parameter is Known

    Page(s): 78 - 79
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    The maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator for a percentile of a Weibull distribution with a known shape parameter is considered. Multiplicative correction factors are listed for rendering the ML estimator mean or median unbiased in the cases where the samples are type II censored with or without replacement. The correction factors depend upon the number of failures and the shape parameter but are independent of the sample size and the percentile being estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 80
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  • List of Contributors

    Page(s): nil2
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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong