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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Reliability Group

    Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Notice to Readers

    Page(s): 93
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  • Special Issues

    Page(s): 93
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  • Foreword

    Page(s): 94
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Buddy or Burden

    Page(s): 95
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  • The Correlation Method for Computer-Aided Statistical Analysis

    Page(s): 96 - 101
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    Computer-aided statistical analysis of electronic circuits, designed to predict the effects of component-part variability on circuit performance, provides extremely useful assistance in performing a circuit design. The correlation method, a new computer-oriented technique of statistical analysis, provides precise estimates of performance variability, high speed of computation, and the computation of the distribution laws of circuit performance characteristics at a generic time instant. Thus, the quantitative characteristics of reliability can be predicted as functions of time. View full abstract»

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  • Relcomp: A Computer Program for Calculating System Reliability and MTBF

    Page(s): 102 - 107
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    A conversational time-sharing computer program called Relcomp can be used for rapid and economical calculation of the reliability and mean time between failures (MTBF) of systems consisting of serial and redundant units. Relcomp is simple to use and does not require any special knowledge of programming. A copy of the complete Relcomp program listing is provided in Tymshare Super Basic language. Use of the program to calculate the reliability and MTBF of a system, its subsystems, and blocks is illustrated by examples. View full abstract»

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  • Bias: A Network Analysis Computer Program Useful to the Reliability Engineer

    Page(s): 108 - 110
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    This paper briefly describes the Bias program1 and its application in reliability analysis. Except in the simplest of networks, the calculation of parameters for reliability analyses is not easily achieved. Because of the easy temperature variation and other features of the network analysis program Bias, it is extremely well suited to at least three commonly used reliability analysis procedures: failure mode and criticality, drift failure, reliability prediction (catastrophic failures). View full abstract»

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  • Computer Reliability Optimization System

    Page(s): 110 - 116
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    The short electronic system development time, the acute competitiveness, the emphasis on lower costs, and the insistence upon high reliability has fostered practical computerization of the manager's and designer's reliability function. This computerization attempts to achieve feasible system optimization. The Computerized Reliability Optimization System (CROS) was developed by Hoffman Electronics Corporation's Computer-Aided-Design, Analysis, and Reliability Group to provide an optimum solution to the present system reliability methods. CROS is a comprehensive set of computer programs and a complementary design and management method for handling the total reliability function from proposal effort through the production and field-data analysis. The organization, application, feasibility, and results of CROS are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Method of Solving Redundancy Optimization Problems

    Page(s): 117 - 120
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    The redundancy optimization problem is formulated as an integer programming problem of zero-one type variables. The solution is obtained making use of an algorithm due to Lawler and Bell. Objective function and constraints can be any arbitrary functions. Three different variations of the optimization problem are considered. The formulation is easy and the solution is convenient on a digital computer. The size of the problem that can be solved is not restricted by the number of constraints. View full abstract»

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  • A Computerized Algorithm for Determining the Reliability of Redundant Configurations

    Page(s): 121 - 124
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    A procedure is given for generating the reliability function directly from the Boolean algebra transmission function. This method is easily programmed on the computer so that it can be utilized both in the derivation of the reliability function and in the evaluation of the reliability. The easily obtained transmission function completely defines the relationship between elements in a configuration. Thus, by utilizing this technique, a large variety of complicated configurations can be easily evaluated and compared. View full abstract»

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  • A Multichannel High-Speed Data Acquisition and Processing System

    Page(s): 125 - 130
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    A computer controlled data acquisition and processing system is described which acquires multiple-channel analog data at high sampling rates and stores the information on a digital magnetic tape. The system then processes the tape by deleting redundant data, making an arbitrary number of predetermined potentially complicated determinations about the data, and printing output results in full English statements. The system has been successfully interfaced with a number of one-shot test systems and centrifuges. It has resulted in considerably more accurate, prompt, and consistent data than previous methods employing galvanometric oscillographs. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical Models: Uses and Limitations

    Page(s): 130 - 131
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    Mathematical modeling is a technique that engineers use to solve any practical problem. Its severe limitations and pitfalls are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • The Unserviceable Probability of a Class of Telecommunications Networks

    Page(s): 132 - 135
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    This paper discusses the use of computers in calculating the unserviceable probability of a class of telecommunication networks. The unserviceable probability for a pair of terminals in the network is derived and is so complicated that it is not feasible to calculate without the use of a computer. Under the condition that every junctor in the network has a small ratio of mean service time to mean time between failures, it is shown that the computer-aided methods available for calculating network unreliability and network blocking probability are also applicable to network unserviceable probability. For the general expression of the network unserviceable probability, no simple computer-aided method is yet known. However, no urgent need for a computer-aided method for the general expression of the network unserviceable probability is envisaged since practical networks usually have small ratios of mean service time to mean time between failures for each of its junctors. View full abstract»

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  • Study on the Validity of Electronic Parts Stress Models

    Page(s): 136 - 142
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    By using data on the failure rates of electronic components collected by a European Bank, we try to form an idea on the validity of the various models (Bazovsky model, MIL HDBK-217A standard model, exponential model, RADC TR-67 models) that represent the variations of the failure rate with respect to the thermal and electrical stresses. Two different approaches have been programmed on a computer: 1) conventional, using the linear regression analysis 2) more modern using the Fletcher-Powell method or methods derived from it (Fletcher-Reeves or Davidon). The results are given for four types of components. The models studied reflect, more or less accurately, what happens in real life. We define and give a value to a criterion, allowing the model to be chosen closest to reality. This paper, apart from its practical interest on the validity of currently accepted models and its theoretical interest on the use of methods for seeking extremes, shows how the computer can assist the reliability engineer with the filing of data, the statistical processing of these data, etc., right up to the automatic tracing of networks of curves. View full abstract»

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  • On-Line System Availability and Service Simulation (OLSASS)

    Page(s): 142 - 147
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    A methodology for establishing a generalized Monte Carlo model for system availability and service simulation is useful to perform on-line tradeoff analyses. An example of an on-line time-shared computer program for a model of an infrequently operating system covering a large number of operational applications is described in detail. Examples of implementing the model for a variety of situations are also included. Advantages of this program are the ready accessibility to the engineer of a variety of field support operation simulations and their resultant availabilities and logistics requirements. Through tradeoff of system design parameters and operational variables, the simulation provides the capability for rapid system optimization at low computer cost. View full abstract»

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  • A Pattern Recognition Technique for System Error Analysis

    Page(s): 148 - 153
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    The error analysis problem is the resolving of a limited set of measurements in terms of a large set of possible but improbable physical errors. The relation between the measurements and the errors is modeled in part as a set of linear undetermined equations ¿v = A¿r, where ¿v is a vector of the measurements and ¿r is a vector of error parameters, and in part by specification of the relations between the parameters ¿ri and the physical errors. An approximate solution to the model equations is deemed physically reasonable if it reflects one or only a few of the physical errors. To evaluate a candidate solution consisting of ¿r and its interpretation as physical errors, we introduce a criterion function ¿ = ¿0 + ¿1; ¿0 is a measure of ¿¿v - A¿r¿ and ¿1 is a measure of the likelihood of the composite physical error associated with ¿r. With this criterion, the common least-squares (pseudoinverse) solution of the model equations is shown to be inadequate (it minimizes ¿0 but not ¿). A pattern recognition technique is presented and shown to yield solutions that are both numerically and physically reasonable, i.e., both ¿0 and ¿1 are small. The technique is illustrated by application to miscalibration analysis using an inertial guidance system model. View full abstract»

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  • Results of a Computer Prediction of After-Radiation Reliability

    Page(s): 154 - 158
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    This paper describes the results of predicting the reliability of a circuit at different radiation levels. The conditional mean and variance of circuit output and the conditional reliability are predicted using Sceptre and test data on components exposed to different levels of radiation. These predictions are compared with the results of tests of the circuit. The difference between predictions and tests are examined and explained. The conclusions suggest a minor modification of the proposed method. We also suggest that this method of computer-aided reliability prediction can be a valuable design aid. This is especially true when there is a significant effect due to environmental variation, such as the effect of radiation on semiconductors. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability and Maintainability Parameters Evaluated with Simulation

    Page(s): 158 - 164
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    In order to achieve a high probability of mission success (reliability), prolonged manned space missions require low failure rates for critical subsystems or components whose failure can be corrected before a mission abort or mission degradation, i.e., in-flight maintenance is one method of increasing mission success probability. In-flight repair or replacement of subsystems, subject to random times to failure, must be made before the maximum subsystem downtime is exceeded. Also, in-flight maintenance must take into account such factors as crew availability, time to repair, redundancy, failure rates, maximum allowable downtimes, and distributions of the preceding factors. The deterministic approach to obtain mission success probability is often too difficult to be applied within budget constraints. Therefore, a computer program was developed to estimate the reliability through simulation. Failures and repairs within a space vehicle were simulated, assuming a specific number of crewmen initially available for repair, constant failure rate, and lognormal repair times. Various parametric and sensitivity analyses of the important parameters were performed to determine their effects on mission success. For example, the effect of a subsystem's mean time between failures on mission success for selected crew sizes (keeping other variables constant) can be shown. An important realistic feature of the program is the associating of a repair priority with each subsystem. A higher priority subsystem can displace a lower priority subsystem already under repair and can be placed ahead of a lower priority subsystem in a waiting queue. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Maintenance Man Loading Via Simulation

    Page(s): 164 - 169
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    This paper provides the results of a computer simulation performed to test compliance with a system maintenance requirement. Special attention is given to the selection of the simulation run time (sample size) and fitting a curve to the output data. The actual simulation program was written in the RCA Flow Simulation language which is similar to the IBM GPSS (General-Purpose Simualtion System) language. More specifically, the system requirement was as follows. The probability that the system maintenance-man loading exceeds 4-h repair time in a day (24 h) shall be less than 0.0025. Equipment failures and repairs were simulated via a computer. Equipment failure and repair probability distributions were used as input data. A year's operation was simulated in less than 2-min computer time. A simulation sample size of 360 days was selected on the basis of a statistical analysis using a nonparametric 0.60 confidence level. The results showed a maximum repair time in a day of 130 min, which indicates the system repair time distribution is considerably better than required. The output data were analyzed and the observed repair times were fit with an empirical distribution function. View full abstract»

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  • A Theoretical Analysis of System Quality

    Page(s): 169 - 177
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    Specification of the rationale for developing a system quality measure entails considerable analysis and a careful evaluation of certain fundamental and often cherished reliability measures, e.g., mean time between failures or mean uptime. From such an analysis has come the following conclusions. In order to adequately assess the effects upon system performance of differing kinds and amounts of redundancy and to predict more accurately system availability, any nonclassical measure should quantify both length and quality of performance. A measure has been developed that meets such requirements, is distribution free, and can be evaluated in terms of system history. Two evaluational models with their peculiar difficulties are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Cost-Based Availability Allocation Algorithm

    Page(s): 178 - 182
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    This paper develops a cost-based procedure for allocating the availability parameters (repair times and failure rates) to the various components that make up a system. The allocation is handled as a cost minimization problem, subject to the constraint of meeting a system availability requirement. The problem is solved using Lagrange multipliers and an example is stated and solved. This technique is applicable in the early stages of system design to determine the detailed component availability specifications (repair times and failure rates) that will allow a system requirement to be met. Furthermore, the technique is useful in the latter stages of system design when initial specifications have fallen short of the required goal, and modifications and improvements are required. The technique points out the problem components and defines the amount of improvement necessary. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Redundancy and Availability Allocation in Multistage Systems

    Page(s): 182 - 185
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    This investigation presents a method for determining the optimum mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair (MTTR), and the number of redundant units to use in a multistage system to achieve a given availability at minimum cost. The method (basically a dynamic programming algorithm) is illustrated by a three-stage example. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong