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Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2009

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Implications of Smoothing on Statistical Multiplexing of H.264/AVC and SVC Video Streams

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 541 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While the hierarchical B frames based scalable video coding (SVC) extension of the H.264/AVC standard achieves significantly improved compression over the initial H.264/AVC codec, the SVC video traffic is significantly more variable than H.264/AVC traffic. The higher traffic variability of the SVC encoder can lead to smaller numbers of streams supported with bufferless statistical multiplexing than with the H.264/AVC encoder (and even less streams than with the MPEG-4 Part 2 encoder) for prescribed link capacities and loss constraints. In this paper we examine the implications of video traffic smoothing on the numbers of statistically multiplexed H.264 SVC, H.264/AVC, and MPEG-4 Part 2 streams, the bandwidth requirements for streaming, and the introduced delay. We identify the levels of smoothing that ensure that more H.264 SVC streams than H.264/AVC streams can be supported. For a basic low-complexity smoothing technique that is readily applicable to both live and prerecorded streams, we identify the levels of smoothing that give (bufferless) statistical multiplexing performance close to an optimal off-line smoothing technique. We thus characterize the trade-offs between increased smoothing delay and increased statistical multiplexing performance for both H.264/AVC, which employs classical B frames, and H.264 SVC, which employs hierarchical B frames. We similarly identify the buffer sizes for the buffered multiplexing of unsmoothed H.264 SVC, H.264/AVC, and MPEG-4 Part 2 streams that give close to optimal performance. View full abstract»

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  • Macroblock-Based Frequency Selective Weighting for Visual Scalable Video Coding of H.264/AVC

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 559 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel macroblock-based frequency selective weighting scalable video coding (MBFSW-SVC) algorithm is investigated by exploring the characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) in SVC H.264/AVC for improving the coding efficiency. Compared with previous SVC schemes, the MBFSW-SVC can extend the quality layer with different frequency weighting for each MB according to the size of region of interests. For reasonable adaptation of the frequency weighting into the quality layer extension, the spatial context characteristics and the motion activities in each picture are taken into account. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme can improve the coding performance up to a 10-20% reduction of the bit rate with almost the same subjective video quality. In particular, the subjective quality is significantly improved in lower scalable quality layers with a small number of the encoding bit budget. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Degraded Audio on Memory for Speech Passages

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 569 - 576
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the US migrates to digital radio, broadcasters are making important decisions about the transmission rates they use on primary and secondary audio channels. One way to evaluate coders at different bit rates is to elicit consumers' opinions of the audio quality. However, it is evident from several lines of research that consumers' preferences do not always match their ability to process information efficiency. Therefore when evaluating coders at low bit-rates it is important to measure consumer's processing efficiency as well as examining their preferences. With regard to audio, past research has shown that degraded speech, including speech masked with noise and synthetic speech, impairs individuals' ability to recall content. The current research explores whether speech coded at very low bit rates (i.e., 9 kbps and 24 kbps) also impairs consumers' memory for text passages. Concurrently, we examine people's subjective ratings to see whether these ratings correlated with our objective recall measure. Results suggest that participants' recall of information dropped significantly at 9 kbps, a finding which has important implications for broadcasters. Participants' audio quality ratings did not correlate with their ability to remember story details, supporting the notion that merely asking consumers to rate the quality of a signal may not provide a complete picture of how impaired audio will affect their behavior. However, interestingly, their professed level of interest, comprehension, and enjoyment with the story did correlate with their memory scores, making these questions better candidates for subjective tests of very low bit rate coders. View full abstract»

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  • Is FM a RF-Based Positioning Solution in a Metropolitan-Scale Environment? A Probabilistic Approach With Radio Measurements Analysis

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 577 - 588
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent mobile devices have already contained a low-cost FM receiving function due to the continuing improvements in the device manufacturing. This paper shows that positioning based on FM signal is an alternative radio option while meeting the FCC requirement. We present a probabilistic location system using a wider-covered and longer-lived FM infrastructure. The performance is evaluated in two different metropolitan-scale environments including National Taiwan University (NTU) and Wen-Shan rural area. Both results show that the FM based location system not only satisfies the FCC requirement but also provides a comparable or even better performance to GSM based solution. Moreover, we completely analyze the realistic radio measurements of FM and GSM from four perspectives including temporal variation, spatial separation, measurement correlation and spectrum allocation. Most FM measurements are observed to provide a lower temporal variation but a weaker spatial separation than GSM. Fortunately, we discover that the lack of spatial separation can be compensated by adding additional sensed channels. This property is useful especially for a rural area where the available GSM base stations are limited and distant. Furthermore, we point out that the spatial separation of GSM signal decreases when the signal level is weaker than -90 dBm. At such a condition, FM reports a better accuracy than GSM even with the fewer channels. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Coverage and Indoor Penetration Loss of DVB-H Signal of Indoor Gap Filler in UHF Band

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 589 - 597
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the required radiated power of a DVB-H gap filler for good indoor coverage at 514 MHz in different types of houses is determined. A new criterion for the electric-field value and carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio corresponding with good reception is proposed. Measurements in 14 different houses (detached houses, semidetached houses, terraced houses and apartments) and 121 rooms have been performed for three different radiated power levels. Indoor penetration of a DVB-H signal at 514 MHz is investigated for the different categories and a measurement methodology is proposed. Rooms have been categorized according to their location with respect to the gap filler (same room, adjacent rooms, non-adjacent rooms, other floors, and outdoor locations). It is shown that the distribution of the room penetration loss is lognormal. A comparison with existing models is made and a model for penetration through different floors is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Avoiding Data Loss With Hard and Soft DVB-H Handovers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 598 - 606
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H) allows the efficient transmission of rich multimedia services to small, handheld terminals. Such portable terminals pose specific requirements on the transmission technology, such as the need for seamless cell handover. This paper first presents mechanisms which allow loss-free hard handovers with DVB-H using only a single receiver front-end. It is then shown how even 3G-like soft handovers are possible with DVB-H, still using only a single receiver front-end. The proposed schemes are evaluated using simulations and field measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Coded Decision Directed Demodulation for Second Generation Digital Video Broadcasting Standard

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 607 - 615
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T2) standard aims at providing high definition television and high rate services for the same spectrum allocation of current DVB-T standard. This goal is achieved by adopting new physical layer features that increase the spectrum efficiency. In this respect, the insertion of pilot tones in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signal, though allowing an efficient channel estimation, decreases the spectral efficiency. In this paper we evaluate performance of the coded decision directed demodulation (CD3) technique for channel estimation in DVB-T2. In fact, by iterating between decoding and channel estimation, with the latter obtained by using previously decoded symbols, CD3 is able to provide an accurate channel estimation with very few pilots, even in the presence of highly frequency dispersive and time-variant channels. Numerical results are provided for a comparison in terms of achievable throughput between DVB-T2 with CD3 and current DVB-T. Moreover, multiple antennas at the base station are also considered to provide spatial diversity and hence further improve system performance. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Solutions for Amplitude Distortions in an OFDM Signal at Communication Receivers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 616 - 622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (907 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of amplitude distortions happening in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal at communication receivers. It is shown in this paper that the amplitude distortion causes inter-carrier interference (ICI) in an OFDM system. Simple but efficient solutions are proposed for combating different amplitude distortions and subsequent ICI cancellation. Simulation results in typical urban channel and Gaussian channel show that extra gains are obtained by introducing these techniques into an existing OFDM receiver system. View full abstract»

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  • Data-Aided Synchronization for MF-TDMA Multi-Carrier Demultiplexer/Demodulator (MCDD)

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 623 - 632
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a data-aided (DA) synchronization method is developed to jointly recover symbol-timing, frequency offset, and carrier phase for MF-TDMA on-board processing (OBP) satellite system. The estimates, which are obtained from a block of symbols transmitted through an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel and a fast Rayleigh fading channel, can be obtained with reduced computational complexity and fast acquisition time. The estimation accuracy in terms of MSE is derived and illustrated. Its effect on the overall system BER performance is also discussed. Furthermore, the relationships between timing synchronization, frequency offset recovery, and carrier phase error compensation are also analyzed respectively. It is apparent that the proposed estimation method is not only accurate and efficient, but it makes the communication system robust to impairment parameters as well. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Non-Pilot-Aided Channel Length Estimation for Digital Broadcasting Receivers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 633 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Channel estimation and equalization techniques are crucial for the ubiquitous broadcasting systems. Conventional receivers for most broadcasting or wireless standards preset the channel length to the maximal expected duration of the channel impulse response for the adopted channel estimation and equalization algorithms. The excessive channel length often significantly increases the implementational complexity of the wireless receivers and leads to the redundant information which would induce the additional estimation errors. Moreover, such a scheme does not allow the dynamic memory allocation for variable channel lengths. This could further increase the power consumption and reduce the battery life of a mobile device. The knowledge of the actual channel length would, in principle, help the system designers decrease the complexity of the channel estimators using maximum likelihood (ML) and minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) algorithms. In this paper, we address this important channel length estimation problem and propose a novel autocorrelation-based algorithm to estimate the channel length without the need of pilots or training sequence. The associated threshold for the channel length estimation depends on the sample size, the signal-to-noise ratio and the leading/last channel coefficients. In addition, we provide the mean-square analysis on the effectiveness of the proposed non-pilot-aided channel length estimator through Monte Carlo simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Improving Delay and Jitter Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks for Mobile IPTV Services

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 642 - 651
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless mesh networking has recently emerged as a promising technology for the next-generation wireless networks. In wireless mesh networks (WMNs), it is practically attractive to support the low-cost quality-of-service (QoS) guaranteed mobile TV service. To meet this need, our study addresses how to improve the delay and jitter performance of mobile IPTV services over IEEE 802.11 based WMN. Particularly, we first discuss the adaptation of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer to construct a WMN with emphasis on mobile IPTV service; we then develop an enhanced version of Guaranteed-Rate (GR) packet scheduling algorithm, namely virtual reserved rate GR (VRR-GR), to further reduce the delay and suppress the jitter in multiservice network environment. Simulation results show that our proposed approach can satisfyingly prioritize mobile IPTV services in WMN, while providing non-IPTV services with what they need as well. View full abstract»

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  • Reception Power Estimation Using Transmitter Identification Signal for Single Frequency Network

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 652 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a single frequency network (SFN) based on the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television (DTV) system, receivers inevitably suffer from the interference generated by using the same frequency among multiple transmitters or repeaters. The amount of the interference can be handled by adjusting transmit power and time of each transmitter and repeater. Hence, it is crucial to estimate the individual reception power from each transmitter or repeater at the given point of interest. This paper presents an efficient method to estimate the individual reception power from each transmitter or repeater. The field test results are provided to evaluate the proposed method. The proposed method exploits the transmitter identification (TxID) signals which are embedded in existing 8-VSB signals. View full abstract»

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  • Channel Estimation Based on a Time-Domain Threshold for OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 656 - 662
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Channel estimation for OFDM systems is usually carried out in frequency domain by the least-squares (LS) method using known pilot symbols. The LS estimator has a merit of low complexity but may suffer from noise because it does not consider any noise effect in obtaining its solution. To enhance the noise immunity of the LS estimator, we consider the estimation noise in time domain named discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based channel estimation. Residual noise existing at the estimated channel coefficients in time domain could be reduced by reasonable selection of a threshold value. To achieve this, we propose a channel-estimation method based on a time-domain threshold which is a standard deviation of noise obtained by wavelet decomposition. Computer simulation shows that the estimation performance of the proposed method approaches to that of the known-channel case in terms of bit-error rates after the Viterbi decoder in overall SNRs. View full abstract»

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  • Transmitter Identification With Watermark Signal in DVB-H Signal Frequency Network

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 663 - 667
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmitter identification (TxID) technique is used to diagnose the operating status of radio transmitters in DTV distributed transmission network. In this paper, a new kind of TxID method for DVB-H SFN(single frequency network)system is proposed. We embed a signal (e.g. watermark) in the DVB-H signal to form the composite signal. The embedded signal will not alternate the system spectral efficiency. By watermarking theory, we demonstrate the required embedded level for watermarking signal to achieve a given bit error probability in different circumstance. Simulation results show that the receiver can distinguish the watermarking signal with low embedding strength even in wireless situation. At that embedding strength, BER performance degradation for the receiver can be ignored. View full abstract»

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  • Low Complexity Soft Decoder for Nordstrom-Robinson Code With Application to the Chinese DTTB Standard

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 668 - 673
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nordstrom-Robinson (NR) code followed by 4 quadrature-amplitude modulation (4QAM) mapping is one of the working modes in the Chinese digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) standard, where the outer code is a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. Since LDPC decoders usually accept soft rather than hard inputs for better error performance, soft NR decoders are highly recommended. In this paper, several novel low-complexity soft NR decoders are proposed with excellent error performance. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm based on the maximum, second and third maximum (MST) cross correlation values achieves very low complexity at the cost of performance loss only about 0.1 dB at bit error rate (BER) of 10-6, under both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and independent Rayleigh fading channels, compared to the ideal maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoder. View full abstract»

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  • Pilot-Assisted Fine Frequency Synchronization for OFDM-Based DVB Receivers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 674 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    After coarse synchronization in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, there might still be a residual frequency offset (RFO) and a sampling clock frequency offset (SFO), which seriously degrade the performance of the systems. This paper proposes a simple way of jointly estimating the RFO and SFO by using a continual pilot (CP) defined in an OFDM-based digital video broadcasting (DVB) system. For deriving an unbiased joint RFO and SFO estimator in the current DVB system, a CP subset is selected to simultaneously remove the effect of RFO and SFO. We can observe by simulation that the proposed frequency estimator endowed with a properly selected CP subset is unbiased and performs robustly. View full abstract»

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  • Bit-Based SLM Schemes for PAPR Reduction in QAM Modulated OFDM Signals

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 679 - 685
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose two bit-based selected mapping (SLM) schemes for reducing peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), called bitwise SLM (BSLM) and partial bit inverted SLM (PBISLM). Contrary to the conventional SLM which rotates the phases of QAM symbols in the frequency domain, the proposed schemes change the magnitudes as well as the phases of QAM symbols by applying binary phase sequences to the binary data sequence before mapped to QAM symbols. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes have better PAPR reduction performance with shaping gain than the conventional SLM scheme for the QAM modulated OFDM signals, especially for the small number of subcarriers. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to “Continuous Adaptation Enhancement in Linear Regression Algorithm for Clock Recovery in IPTV Environment” [Jun 09 485-490]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 686
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 55, no. 2, pt. 2, pp. 485-490, Jun. 09), due to a production error, the captions for Figs. 3-5 were placed incorrectly prior to final printing. The correct figures and their corresponding captions are presented here. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to “Content and Service Protection for IPTV”

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 686
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to a production error, an incorrect e-mail address was placed in the author's affiliation prior to final printing. The correct affiliation is provided. View full abstract»

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  • 59th Annual IEEE Broadcast Symposium

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 687
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting Shanghai China

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 688
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4 - C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting covers the field of broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects of broadcasting.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yiyan Wu
Communications Research Ctr Canada