By Topic

Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2009

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 58
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2910
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (52 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (45 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Verification of the Permeability Measurements of Thick Films at Microwave Frequencies

    Page(s): 2911 - 2915
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple theoretical model is developed for studying the magnetic behavior of films at microwave frequencies, and verified experimentally on the ferrite-polymer thick-film samples. The measured values of permeability by the proposed model/technique are found to be in good agreement with the values obtained by the standard cavity perturbation technique. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of the Effects of Flicker on the Blood-Flow Variation in the Human Eye

    Page(s): 2916 - 2922
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (519 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flicker annoyance measurement, regardless if it is performed by processing the supplying voltage or by evaluating the light emitted by the lamp, relies on the assumption of a proper model of the behavior of the complex eye-brain system in the presence of fluctuating light. The only experimental data available are the ones obtained, for a certain incandescent lamp, by asking several people to report their perception about the flicker to which they were subjected. In this paper, the possibility of achieving an ldquoobjectiverdquo evaluation of the flicker effects on a human subject is investigated. In particular, the increment of the blood flow in a vessel at the optic nerve is considered and taken as a possible index of annoyance due to flicker. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Integrated Model and Compensation of Thermal Errors of Silicon Microelectromechanical Gyroscope

    Page(s): 2923 - 2930
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the thermal interferential moment, the dynamic thermal error induced by accelerations of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope is analyzed. The electromechanical-thermal error is discussed. The integrated thermal error compensation method considering the electromechanical-thermal error and the dynamic thermal error induced by accelerations is proposed. The experimental results show that the bias temperature sensitivity is reduced by more than one order of magnitude compared with the raw bias temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. The integrated compensation method is reasonable and effective in the temperature error compensation of the MEMS gyroscope and outperforms the classical compensation method in performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of a Direct Interface Circuit for Capacitive Sensors

    Page(s): 2931 - 2937
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the theoretical analysis and performance results of a direct microcontroller unit (MCU) interface circuit for capacitive sensors based on the charge-transfer method, when stray capacitances are considered. The interface circuit can implement two alternative two-point calibration techniques that reduce the effects of stray capacitance, temperature, and MCU parameters that depend on the power supply voltage. The best measurement deviation achieved from 0degC to 50degC and for power supply voltage from 4.0 to 5 V is below 0.01 full-scale range (FSR) for the two subranges from 10 to 100 pF and from 100 pF to 1 nF and 0.08 FSR for the subrange from 2 to 10 pF. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fault Detection on Critical Instrumentation Loops of Gas Turbines With Reflectometry

    Page(s): 2938 - 2944
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the testing of instrumentation loops (ILs) in gas turbines during scheduled maintenance. To both guarantee safe operation and save costs on periodical changing of cables, an innovative measurement device that monitors the status of the IL and indicates whether a replacement is necessary, has been developed. The goal of the research described in this paper is twofold: First, the cable network is checked for faults with time-domain reflectometry by comparing the recorded reflectogram with a reference reflectogram. Second, the sensor state is investigated by calculating its impedance through one-port scattering measurements. For this, a de-embedding technique is described to remove the cabling influences. Changes in the reflectogram or the impedance point to aging or a fault and indicate the location of the defect, so that specific actions can be taken to replace the malfunctioning cable or sensor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optical Fiber Bus Protection Network to Multiplex Sensors: Amplification by Remotely Pumped EDFAs

    Page(s): 2945 - 2951
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a physical-layer study of an optical fiber network for the multiplexing of sensors that can regain service after damage to its fibers. It is a symmetrical dual-fiber bus that uses ldquodedicated-linerdquo or ldquodedicated-pathrdquo protection switching in response to a failure. Amplification is normally needed when serving more than ~ 10 sensors, even when the network's directional couplers are optimized, and we simulate the use of remotely pumped spans of erbium-doped fiber to eliminate all electrical power feeds outside the end nodes. Our description of the network's management and signaling and its actions in response to a failure emphasizes the amplifier pump control. We model a network with dedicated-line protection to serve 40 sensors, showing that good channel power equalization and signal-to-noise ratios are possible by carefully optimizing the erbium-doped fiber lengths and including gain-equalizing filters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fuzzy Motion-Adaptive Interpolation With Picture Repetition Detection for Deinterlacing

    Page(s): 2952 - 2958
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel fuzzy motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm is presented in this paper. It uses fuzzy logic to interpolate between two processing modes, i.e., a spatial (IS) and a temporal (IT) interpolator. Furthermore, the temporal interpolator employs a very simple fuzzy inference system to implement a smart temporal interpolation that locally adapts to the features of the television (TV) material, such as possible picture repetition modes in the fields or in part of the fields (hybrid material). The combination of both systems provides effective results with a low cost in terms of computational resources. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Arithmetic Circuits of Redundant SUT-RNS

    Page(s): 2959 - 2968
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The residue number system (RNS) is suitable for implementing high-speed digital processing devices because it supports parallel, modular, fault-tolerant, and carry-bounded arithmetic. The carry propagation is restricted to inside the modulus. The remaining intramoduli carry propagation limits the speed of arithmetic operation. Therefore, the carry-free property of a redundant arithmetic can be used. In this paper, we discuss a recently proposed class of high-radix redundant RNS based on the stored-unibit-transfer representation for modulo 2n + 1 that improves the power-delay-product performance of conventional redundant RNS. In addition, subtraction and multiplication circuits are designed in the proposed system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dynamic Clustering and Modeling Approaches for Fusion Plasma Signals

    Page(s): 2969 - 2978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel clustering technique that has been applied to plasma signals to show its utility. It is a general method based on a partitioning scheme that has been proven to be efficient for purposes of analysis and processing of fusion plasma waveforms. Moreover, this paper shows how the information given by the clustering can be used to produce a concise and representative model of each class of signals by applying different modeling approaches. Neuro-fuzzy identification and time-domain techniques have been used. These models allow the application of procedures to detect anomalous behaviors or interesting events within a continuous data flow that could automatically trigger the execution of some experimental procedures. Previously, an in-depth analysis and a preprocessing phase of the waveforms have been carried out. These procedures have been applied to plasma signals of the TJ-II Stellarator fusion device with encouraging results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human Gait Acquisition and Characterization

    Page(s): 2979 - 2988
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1353 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes human motion, more specifically the human gait in the sagittal plane. A video camera is used to acquire images of a walking person, fitted with a set of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The acquired trajectories of the light points are then used to specify joint trajectories in a biped robot. To analyze the stability of the human gait, a system was also developed to acquire the center of pressure (CoP). This system uses eight force sensors, four under each foot. The influence of the human torso angle on the CoP position during walking was confirmed. Some experiments were carried out on a biped robot, and the results show that the acquired human gait can be used in a biped robot, after scale conversion. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Combining MLPs and RBFNNs to Detect Signals With Unknown Parameters

    Page(s): 2989 - 2995
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The detection of Gaussian signals with an unknown correlation coefficient rhos is considered. Solutions based on neural networks (NNs) are studied, and a strategy for designing committee machines in a composite hypothesis test is proposed. A single multilayer perceptron (MLP) has been trained with rhos uniformly varying in [0, 1]. Considering the decision boundaries for rhos = 0 and rhos = 1 and how an MLP approximates them, a detection scheme composed of two MLPs has been proposed. One of them MLP1 has been trained with rhos uniformly varying in [0, 0.5], and the other one MLP2 has been trained with rhos uniformly varying in [0.5, 1]. For making a decision, the higher output is compared to a threshold for each false-alarm probability (P FA). This strategy simplifies the task of finding a compromise solution between the computational cost and the approximation error and outperforms the single-MLP detector. When MLP1 is substituted with a radial basis function NN (RBFNN), a new combination strategy of the outputs is required. We propose separately thresholding the outputs and applying them to an or logic function. The performance of this detector is slightly better than the two-MLP one, and the computational cost is significantly reduced. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Location of Optical Fibers for the Calibration of Incoherent Optical Fiber Bundles for Image Transmission

    Page(s): 2996 - 3003
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image transmission by incoherent optical fiber bundles (IOFBs) requires prior calibration to obtain the spatial in-out fiber correspondence to reconstruct the image captured by the pseudocamera. This information is recorded in a lookup table (LUT), which is later used for reordering the fiber positions and reconstructing the original image. This paper shows how to apply a fiber detection process to minimize the calibration time and improve the quality of the recovered image. Two different fiber detection methods were developed. The former uses the circular Hough transform algorithm based on the image gradient. The second algorithm combines a number of morphological transformations with distance transform. The results demonstrate that this technique provides a remarkable reduction in the processing time while improving fiber detection accuracy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Embedded Vision Modules for Tracking and Counting People

    Page(s): 3004 - 3011
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (795 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper shows the algorithm implementation for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based design for people counting using a low-level head-detection method. The hardware (HW) implementation on an FPGA allows the capture and online processing in real time on the same chip. Different annular patterns are used to process in parallel the image and detect heads of different sizes. Preprocessing and edge extraction are also made using reconfigurable HW. The developed system exploits HW processing, as the vision algorithm has been modified and tuned for HW implementation. It uses minimal area resources of a Spartan3 (1.5 Mgates), and its real-time performance is comparable with more sophisticated algorithms while utilizing very low cost circuits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Online Sliding-Window Methods for Process Model Adaptation

    Page(s): 3012 - 3020
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Online learning algorithms are needed when the process to be modeled is time varying or when it is impossible to obtain offline data that cover the whole operating region. To minimize the problems of parameter shadowing and interference, sliding-window-based algorithms are used. It is shown that, by using a sliding-window policy that enforces the novelty of the data it stores and by using a procedure to prevent unnecessary parameter updates, the performance achieved is improved over a first-in-first-out (FIFO) policy with fixed interval parameter updates. Important savings in computational effort are also obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An ASIC Front End for Planar High-Frequency Contactless Inductive Position Sensors

    Page(s): 3021 - 3030
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) front end for readout and control of planar high-frequency contactless inductive position sensors that contain transmitter and receiver coils on a fixed printed circuit board and a moving passive resonant target. Such an inductive position sensor suffers from transmitter-to-receiver signal coupling, which can result in a phase-sensitive offset; hence, an error in the position measurement occurs. For the receiver front end, we consider two analog synchronous mixer demodulators, which we call mixer-1 and mixer-2, and analyze their ability to reject phase-sensitive offsets due to transmitter signal breakthrough. The mathematical analysis is validated with measured results from the fabricated ASIC in a 0.35-mum CMOS process technology. The ASIC front end contains the transmitter driver, the two receiver mixer variants, a frequency divider/shifter, and an amplifier low-pass filter. Measurements from five ASIC samples connected to the sensor show that, with a system gain of 320, the average output offset variation with phase difference from -99 to +117deg is more than 237 mV with mixer-1 compared to less than 7 mV with mixer-2. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ultrasonic Multitransducer System for Classification and 3-D Location of Reflectors Based on PCA

    Page(s): 3031 - 3041
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a system to classify and locate basic ultrasonic reflectors (plane, corner, and edge) in 3-D environments. The classification system is based on the principal-component-analysis (PCA) technique, using the time of flight (TOF) as the classification parameter. The system proposes a sensorial structure to simultaneously obtain up to 16 TOFs at every emission/scanning process. A particular and different macrosequence has been assigned to every transducer in the sensorial system to encode their emissions. These macrosequences, obtained from complementary sets of sequences, allow simultaneous emission and reception to be carried out with all the transducers for the same scanned environment. The set of obtained TOFs make it possible to identify the type of ultrasonic reflector, as well as its position in 3-D environments. The results achieved by the classification system are presented for both simulated and real data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On Testing the Electronic Revenue Energy Meters

    Page(s): 3042 - 3049
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric energy meters have always been designed to account energy under sinusoidal conditions, and therefore, the uncertainty specification outside these conditions was of little interest. This was considered acceptable when the voltage and current distortion level was low and the old well-known induction meters were used. In fact, under these conditions, the measurement errors caused by distortion did not generally penalize the customers. The present situation is, however, quite different: Distortion is not any longer negligible, particularly in low-voltage systems, and the modern electronic energy meters can be much more sensitive to distortion than the induction meters, depending on the implemented measurement algorithm. This paper briefly discusses the calibration problems raised by the electronic energy meters and proposes a new calibration procedure, fully compliant with the recent Directive of the European Parliament on the measuring instruments, and based on a synthesizer of randomly distorted signals, capable of evaluating the measurement uncertainty of the energy meters under the distorted conditions that are likely to be met in their normal operating conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Virtual Reality Environments for Integrated Systems Health Management of Rocket Engine Tests

    Page(s): 3050 - 3057
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) consists of processes managing erroneous conditions that systems may encounter during their operational life by either designing out failures early on or defending and mitigating any possible failures. A successful implementation of ISHM consists of the following four components: data sensors, computations, data sinks, and visualization modules. In this paper, we explore the use of virtual reality (VR) platforms as a candidate for developing ISHM visualization modules. VR allows for a complete and spatially accurate 3-D model of a system to be displayed in real time. It provides a medium for improved data assimilation and analysis through its core tenants of immersion, interaction, and navigation. Furthermore, VR allows for integrating graphical, functional, and measurement data in the same platform-providing for the development of subsequent risk-analysis modules. The research objectives of this paper are focused on creating a detailed visual model of a multisensor rocket engine test facility inside a VR platform and demonstrating the capability of the VR platform in integrating graphical, measurement, and health data in an immersive, navigable, and interactive manner. A human-based performance evaluation of the VR platform is also presented. These research objectives are addressed using an example of a multisensor rocket-engine portable test stand at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Stennis Space Center's E-3 test facility. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Automated Speaker Recognition for Home Service Robots Using Genetic Algorithm and Dempster–Shafer Fusion Technique

    Page(s): 3058 - 3068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An automated speaker recognition system for home service robots is proposed in this paper. In an uncontrolled environment, a speech classifier should be adaptive to different users and robust to noisy environments. It is usually observed that specific features and classifiers are more appropriate to parts of the problem domain than others; therefore, we propose a self-optimizing approach in which multiple feature extraction and classification techniques are simultaneously considered. The system uses a genetic algorithm to simultaneously select features and classifier, and the results from multiple classifiers are then combined using the Dempster-Shafer theory. The set of feature extractors used here includes linear-prediction coefficients, linear-prediction cepstral coefficients, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and bark-frequency cepstral coefficients, and the set of classifiers includes the Gaussian mixture model, support vector machines, C4.5 decision tree, k nearest neighbors, and multilayer perceptron neural network. The WEVER-R2 home service robot is used in a typical Korean home environment to collect speech signals for evaluating the performance of the proposed system for gender and age classification. Classification results show that the performance of the proposed method consistently outperforms the individual classifiers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Towards Versatile Electronic Nose Pattern Classifier for Black Tea Quality Evaluation: An Incremental Fuzzy Approach

    Page(s): 3069 - 3078
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Commonly used classification algorithms are not capable of incremental learning. When a new pattern is presented to such a computational model, it can either classify the unknown pattern based on its legacy training or declare the pattern as an outlier if such a provision is built into the associated algorithm. In the case of the pattern being an outlier to the existing training model, it is desirable that the same could be seamlessly included in the training model with appropriate class labels so that a universal computational model may be evolved incrementally. To this end, classifiers having the incremental-learning ability can be of great benefit by automatically including the newly presented patterns in the training data set without affecting class integrity of the previously trained system. In the present treatise, an incremental-learning fuzzy model for classification of black tea using electronic nose measurement is proposed. For application in black tea grade discrimination, an attempt has been made to correlate the multisensor aroma pattern of electronic nose with sensory panel (tea tasters) evaluation. However, this problem is associated with 2-D complexities. On one hand, the aroma of tea depends on the agroclimatic condition of a particular location, the specific season of flush, and the clonal variation for the tea plant. On the other hand, the sensory evaluation is completely human dependent that often suffers from subjectivity and nonrepeatability. In our pursuit of developing a universal computational model capable of objectively assigning tea-taster-like scores to tea samples under test, it has been felt that an incremental approach could be extremely beneficial for electronic-nose-based tea quality estimation. To this end, the proposed incremental-learning fuzzy model promises to be a versatile pattern classification algorithm for black tea grade discrimination using electronic nose. The algorithm has been tested in some tea gardens of northeast I- - ndia, and encouraging results have been obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Hand-Held Indentation System for the Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissues In Vivo

    Page(s): 3079 - 3085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantitative assessment of the mechanical properties of soft tissues in vivo is required in both clinical and research fields. This paper introduces a hand-held indentation system that employed an electromagnetic spatial sensor as a displacement transducer. The system was pen-sized, portable, and easy to control. The accuracy and reliability of the system were investigated. The effect of indentation rate on the variation of the values of the measured effective Young's modulus was also studied. A series of elastomers with different Young's modulus (which ranged from 13.08 to 36.19 kPa) were assessed with both the hand-held indentation system and a Hounsfield material testing machine. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of the system were tested by five independent operators. The hand-held indentation system was applied to quantitatively assess the effective Young's modulus of human body parts in vivo. Twenty healthy female subjects aged 21.1 plusmn 1.8 years old were included for the in vivo test. The system was shown to be highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) compared with the results obtained by the mechanical testing machine and had good reliability (intraindividual variation = 5.43%, and interindividual variation = 5.99%). The average effective Young's moduli of the region of umbilicus were 11.31 and 12.65 kPa for two different sites, respectively. It is believed that this hand-held indentations system was an accurate reliable tool for rapidly assessing the mechanical properties of human body tissues in vivo. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Terrain and Model Queries Using Scalar Representations With Wavelet Compression

    Page(s): 3086 - 3093
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present efficient height/distance field data structures for line-of-sight (LOS) queries on terrains and collision queries on arbitrary 3-D models. The data structure uses a pyramid of quad-shaped regions with the original height/distance field at the highest level and an overall minimum/maximum value at the lower levels. The pyramid can compactly be stored in a wavelet-like decomposition but using max and plus operations. Additionally, we show how to get minimum/maximum values for regions in a wavelet decomposition using real algebra. For LOS calculations, we compare with a kd-tree representation containing the maximum height values. Furthermore, we show that the LOS calculation is a special case of a collision detection query. Using our wavelet-like approach, even general and arbitrary collision detection queries can efficiently be answered. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Integration of Cell-Mapping and Reinforcement-Learning Techniques for Motion Planning of Car-Like Robots

    Page(s): 3094 - 3103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this work has been to integrate the Cartesian space together with the kinematics and dynamics spaces of a car-like robot. We propose a new algorithm that obtains a minimum-time solution to the optimal motion planning of the vehicle. The new algorithm is based on the combination of cell-mapping and reinforcement-learning techniques. This algorithm can obtain the environment and vehicle parameters from received experience without needing a mathematical model. The algorithm uses a transformation of the cell-to-cell transitions to reduce the time that is spent in the knowledge of the vehicle dynamics and environment. Four state variables have been considered: 1) the velocity of the vehicle; 2) the x Cartesian coordinate; 3) the y Cartesian coordinate; and 4) the orientation of the vehicle. In addition, two different control actions can act on the vehicle: 1) the traction torque that was used for speeding up/braking the vehicle and 2) the steering angle. The results show the applicability of the proposed algorithm in environments with the presence of obstacles. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703