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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2009

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Analysis of Series-Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Line

    Page(s): 1865 - 1873
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    Employing a generalized resistive-capacitive shunted junction model for Josephson junctions (JJs), the nonlinear wave propagation in the series-connected discrete Josephson transmission line (DJTL) is investigated. A DJTL consists of a finite number of unit cells, each including a segment of superconducting transmission line with a single array stack, or generally a block including an N identical lumped JJ element. As the governing nonlinear wave propagation is a system of nonlinear partial differential equations with mixed boundary conditions, the method of the finite difference time domain is used to solve the equations. By this numerical technique, the behavior of wave propagation along the DJTL can be monitored in time and space domains. Cutoff propagation, dispersive behavior, and shock-wave formation through the DJTL is addressed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Programmable Lens-Array Antenna With Monolithically Integrated MEMS Switches

    Page(s): 1874 - 1884
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    This paper describes a reconfigurable millimeter-wave lens-array antenna based on monolithically integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches. This device is constructed as a planar array of 2-bit programmable MEMS antenna-filter-antenna (AFA) unit cells that are used to provide a 1-D programmable ldquoaperture transfer functionrdquo between the input and output wavefronts. The fully integrated device consists of 484 (22 times 22) AFA elements and 2420 switches. Switches, bias lines, antennas, and the rest of the RF structure are fabricated on two quartz wafers (epsivr = 3.8, tandelta = 0.002) that are subsequently stacked using adhesive bonding to form the tri-layer metal structure of the AFA array. The bonded structure also forms a package for the MEMS switches. This paper investigates the design and fabrication issues and presents the measured data related to yield and frequency response of this lens-array. It also characterizes the performance of this device as a steerable antenna. Measured results show that this lens-array can be used to steer the beam of a low gain horn antenna to plusmn40deg in either the E- or the H-plane. For the fabricated prototype, the yield is estimated to be 50% for the best region of the array, resulting in a relatively high insertion loss and sidelobe level. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Compensation of Phase Variations Versus Gain in Amplifiers Verified by SiGe HBT Cascode RFIC

    Page(s): 1885 - 1894
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmission phase variations versus gain in common emitter and common base amplifiers are analyzed revealing that these stages can be tuned to yield opposite phase characteristics versus gain. By cascading these two stages, e.g., on the basis of a cascode, and optimizing added feedback elements, it is possible to compensate these phase variations. A universal analysis based on bipolar transistors is derived. However, the insights can be mapped to other transistors such as field-effect transistors. The analysis is verified by implementation of a low-noise cascode amplifier in 0.25-mum silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors. At 50-Omega terminations, 1.6-V supply voltage, 1-mA current consumption, and a gain of 7 dB plusmn 0.25 dB, a noise figure of less than 3.2 dB, and a third-order output intercept point of -3 dBm are measured within a frequency range from 5.2 to 5.9 GHz. For a gain control range of 12 and 20 dB, the transmission phase variations are reduced to 3deg and 6deg, respectively, which is around a factor of 7 better than for a conventional noncompensated cascode topology. The fully integrated circuit is well suited for wireless local area network systems applying adaptive antenna combining and operating in accordance to the 802.11 a/n standards. View full abstract»

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  • A 40-GHz Low-Noise Amplifier With a Positive-Feedback Network in 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS

    Page(s): 1895 - 1902
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    A novel circuit topology for a CMOS millimeter-wave low-noise amplifier (LNA) is presented in this paper. By adopting a positive-feedback network at the common-gate transistor of the input cascode stage, the small-signal gain can be effectively boosted, facilitating circuit operations at the higher frequency bands. In addition, LC ladders are utilized as the inter-stage matching for the cascaded amplifiers such that an enhanced bandwidth can be achieved. Using a standard 0.18-mum CMOS process, the proposed LNA is implemented for demonstration. At the center frequency of 40 GHz, the fabricated circuit exhibits a gain of 15 dB and a noise figure of 7.5 dB, while the return losses are better than 10 dB within the 3-dB bandwidth of 4 GHz. Operated at a 1.8-V supply, the LNA consumes a dc power of 36 mW. View full abstract»

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  • A 22–29-GHz UWB Pulse-Radar Receiver Front-End in 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS

    Page(s): 1903 - 1914
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of a CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver (RX) front-end for ultra-wideband automotive radar sensors is presented. The chip includes a low-noise amplifier, in-phase/quadrature mixers, a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO), pulse formers, and baseband variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in a 0.18-mum CMOS process, the RX front-end chip occupies a die area of 3 mm2. On-wafer measurements show a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB, a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB, and an input return loss less than -14.5 dB in the 22-29-GHz automotive radar band. The phase noise of the constituent QVCO is -107 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset from a center frequency of 26.5 GHz. The total dc power dissipation of the RX including output buffers is 131 mW. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS Active Inductor Linearity Improvement Using Feed-Forward Current Source Technique

    Page(s): 1915 - 1924
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    MOSFET drain current second-order nonlinearity has a significant impact on the linearity of current regulated CMOS active inductors. It tends to compress MOSFET transconductance (g m) by generating excess dc current (I EX) in the channel, which is a function of incoming input signal amplitude. This generated excess dc current can change the original dc operating point of the current regulated CMOS active inductor, and thus, influence the inductance. Unfortunately, MOSFET drain current second-order nonlinearity contributes more to MOSFET g m compression than MOSFET drain current third-order nonlinearity. In this paper, a new technique known as feed-forward current source (FFCS) has been proposed to improve the linearity of the active inductor. The proposed FFCS technique makes use of the second-order nonlinear property of a MOSFET that generates I EX when an input ac signal is applied. The generated I EX is then fed-forward to the current source of the active inductor to drain out the I EX in the active inductor. This prevents the dc operating point from shifting and improves its inductance linearity. Single-ended and differential active inductors with the proposed FFCS circuit have been fabricated using Silterra's CMOS 0.18-mum technology to verify the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • A 90-W Peak Power GaN Outphasing Amplifier With Optimum Input Signal Conditioning

    Page(s): 1925 - 1935
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1161 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 90-W peak-power 2.14-GHz improved GaN outphasing amplifier with 50.5% average efficiency for wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signals is presented. Independent control of the branch amplifiers by two in-phase/quadrature modulators enables optimum outphasing and input power leveling, yielding significant improvements in gain, efficiency, and linearity. In deep-power backoff operation, the outphasing angle of the branch amplifiers is kept constant below a certain power level. This results in class-B operation for the very low output power levels, yielding less reactive loading of the output stages, and therefore, improved efficiency in power backoff operation compared to the classical outphasing amplifiers. Based on these principles, the optimum design parameters and input signal conditioning are discussed. The resulting theoretical maximum achievable average efficiency for W-CDMA signals is presented. Experimental results support the foregoing theory and show high efficiency over a large bandwidth, while meeting the linearity specifications using low-cost low-complexity memoryless pre-distortion. These properties make this amplifier concept an interesting candidate for future multiband base-station implementations. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and Experimental Results of a Class F AB-C Doherty Power Amplifier

    Page(s): 1936 - 1947
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to present a closed-form formulation suitable for a direct computer-aided design synthesis of a Doherty amplifier employing a Class F design strategy for the Main (or Carrier) device. For this purpose, starting from a simplified model for the adopted active devices, the behavioral analysis of the Class F Doherty amplifier is carried out as a function of the input signal. A particular emphasis is dedicated to put into evidence the differences existing when a simple tuned load harmonic termination is considered. The theoretical aspects are deeply discussed and an experimental validation is also provided. View full abstract»

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  • Design of 24-GHz 0.8-V 1.51-mW Coupling Current-Mode Injection-Locked Frequency Divider With Wide Locking Range

    Page(s): 1948 - 1958
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 0.8-V CMOS coupling current-mode injection-locked frequency divider (CCMILFD) with 19.5% locking range and a current-injection current-mode logic (CICML) frequency divider have been designed and fabricated using 0.13-mum 1p8m CMOS technology. In the proposed CCMILFD, the current-mode technique to minimize the loss of input signals and the coupling circuit to enlarge the phase response have been designed to increase the locking range. The locking range of the fabricated CCMILFD is 4.1 GHz with a power consumption of 1.51 mW from a power supply of 0.8 V. In the proposed CICML frequency divider, the current-injection interface is applied to the current inputs to make the circuit operated at a higher frequency with low power consumption under a low voltage supply. The operation frequency of the fabricated CICML frequency divider can divide the frequency range from CCMILFD and consume 1.89 mW from a 0.8-V voltage supply. The chip core areas of the CCMILFD and CICML frequency divider without pads are 0.23 and 0.015 mm2, respectively. The proposed circuits can be operated in a low supply voltage with the advantages of a wider locking range, a higher operation frequency, and lower power consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Low Phase-Noise Planar Oscillators Employing Elliptic-Response Bandpass Filters

    Page(s): 1959 - 1965
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a low phase-noise planar oscillator employing an elliptic bandpass filter as a frequency stabilization element within its feedback loop is presented. The oscillator phase noise is significantly reduced by taking advantage of the group-delay peaks formed at the passband edges of the elliptic filter. A filter optimization technique for low phase-noise oscillator designs is introduced and applied to a four-pole bandpass elliptic filter. An X-band oscillator using the optimized filter in the feedback loop is designed and tested. At the oscillation frequency of 8.05 GHz, the measured phase noise is -143.5 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency. The oscillator exhibits an output power of 3.5 dBm with an dc-RF efficiency of 10%. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the lowest phase noise performance for an X-band planar microwave oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Reduced-Size Marchand Rat-Race Hybrid for Millimeter-Wave Compact Balanced Mixers in 130-nm CMOS Process

    Page(s): 1966 - 1977
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    The analysis and design flow for reduced-size Marchand rat-race hybrids are presented in this paper. A simplified single-to-differential mode is used to analyze the Marchand balun, and the methodology to reduce the size of Marchand balun is developed. The 60-GHz CMOS singly balanced gate mixer and diode mixer using the reduced-size Marchand rat-race hybrid are implemented to verify the design methodology. The monolithic microwave integrated circuit mixers achieve comparable performance with a compact chip size among the reported 60-GHz CMOS mixers. View full abstract»

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  • A 5-GHz CMOS Type-II PLL With Low K_{\rm VCO} and Extended Fine-Tuning Range

    Page(s): 1978 - 1988
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (925 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 5-GHz dual-path integer-N Type-II phase-locked loop (PLL) uses an LC voltage-controlled oscillator and softly switched varactors in an overlapped digitally controlled integral path to allow a large fine-tuning range of approximately 160 MHz while realizing a low susceptibility to noise and spurs by using a low K VCO of 3.2 MHz/V. The reference spur level is less than -70 dBc with a 1-MHz reference frequency and a total loop-filter capacitance of 26 pF. The measured phase noise is -75 and -115 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz and 1-MHz offsets, respectively, using a loop bandwidth of approximately 30 kHz. This 0.25-mm2 PLL is fabricated in a 90-nm digital CMOS process and consumes 11 mW from a 1.2-V supply. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a Post Discontinuity in an Oversized Circular Waveguide

    Page(s): 1989 - 1995
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    This paper presents the analysis of scattering characteristics of a radially directed thin post in a circular waveguide using the method of moments. Electric type dyadic Green's function has been used to compute the scattered field in a circular waveguide considering variation of current only in the axial direction of the post. Simulated data on return loss and power coupling in the dominant mode and higher order modes have been compared with the data computed using Ansoft's High Frequency Structure Simulator. The data on return loss and coupling for the incident TE11 mode have been compared with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of the Propagation Properties of the Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Page(s): 1996 - 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The propagation properties of the half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) are studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Two equivalent models of the HMSIW are introduced. With the first model, equations are derived to approximate the field distribution inside and outside the HMSIW. Using the second model, an approximate closed-form expression is deduced for calculating the equivalent width of an HMSIW that takes into account the effect of the fringing fields. The obtained design formulas are validated by simulations and experiments. Furthermore, the attenuation characteristics of the HMSIW are studied using the multiline method in the frequency range of 20-60 GHz. A numerical investigation is carried out to distinguish between the contributions of the conductive, dielectric, and radiation losses. As a validation, the measured attenuation constant of a fabricated HMSIW prototype is presented and compared with that of a microstrip (MS) line and a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). The SIW is designed with the same cutoff frequency and fabricated on the same substrate as the HMSIW. The experimental results show that the HMSIW can be less lossy than the MS line and the SIW at frequencies above 40 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Implicit Element Clustering for Tetrahedral Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM)

    Page(s): 2005 - 2014
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time-domain electromagnetic simulations employing unstructured tetrahedral meshes can be sensitive to local mesh characteristics. In particular, the maximum permissible time step for stable operation can be unacceptably small. In this paper, a cell clustering technique is described for the transmission line modeling algorithm that reduces the sensitivity to local mesh characteristics and permits substantial increases in time step to be made without compromising accuracy or stability. View full abstract»

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  • A 3-D Radial Point Interpolation Method for Meshless Time-Domain Modeling

    Page(s): 2015 - 2020
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the radial point interpolation method, one of the meshless numerical techniques that has recently emerged in the area of computational electromagnetics, is extended to three dimensions for time-domain electromagnetic modeling. Its capabilities of conformal and multiscale modeling of arbitrary geometries over conventional grid-based numerical techniques are numerically validated and evaluated. A general approach to determining the numerical stability condition of the method is described. Consequently, this study presents another possible approach to automatic meshing of complex structures and an adaptive scheme for numerical solution refinements. View full abstract»

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  • A Linear-Time Complex-Valued Eigenvalue Solver for Full-Wave Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnect Structures

    Page(s): 2021 - 2029
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a linear-time complex-valued eigenvalue solver for solving large-scale on-chip interconnect problems. The fast eigenvalue solution is achieved by eigenvalue clustering, fast system reduction with negligible computational cost, and fast linear-time solution of the reduced system. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporation of Multiport Lumped Networks Into the Hybrid Time-Domain Finite-Element Analysis

    Page(s): 2030 - 2037
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (986 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A systematic and efficient algorithm is presented for incorporating multiport lumped networks in terms of admittance matrices into a hybrid field-circuit solver based on the extended time-domain finite-element method. The Laplace-domain admittance matrices are cast into the time-domain stepping equations for port voltages and currents to form a lumped-network subsystem, which is then interfaced with the finite-element and circuit subsystems through shared ports. While the port voltages of the lumped-network subsystem are determined by the finite-element and circuit subsystems, its port currents are treated as external current excitations for the finite-element and circuit subsystems. All the lumped-network port variables are then eliminated from the final expressions to form a global system for only the finite-element and circuit unknowns. The proposed algorithm further extends the capability of the existing field-circuit solver to model more complex and mixed-scale hybrid circuits, and the algorithm is validated and demonstrated through numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • RF Design, Power Handling, and Hot Switching of Waveguide Water-Based Absorptive Switches

    Page(s): 2038 - 2046
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the first complete water-based waveguide absorptive switch from 25-40 GHz integrated with commercially available micropumps. The design exploits the absorptive properties of water in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands along with innovative techniques to achieve an optimized performance in both switching states. Besides its static RF performance, the hot-switching response is also experimentally characterized. Successful hot-switching measurements are presented for power levels of up to 32 and 0.16 W for circulating and noncirculating water, respectively. This is achieved with a circulation rate of only ~20 mL/min. We also show that this power handling can readily reach 125 and 1250 W if the circulation rate is increased to 30 and 300 mL/min, respectively. In addition, the dynamic scattering matrix under hot-switching conditions is also measured and compared to the cold-switching scattering matrix. Furthermore, critical temperature effects are also studied. In particular, contrary to common wisdom, we show that increased water temperature can result in improved RF isolation with the appropriate waveguide-switching design. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Modeling of a Stopband-Enhanced EBG Structure Using Ground Surface Perturbation Lattice for Power/Ground Noise Suppression

    Page(s): 2047 - 2054
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1274 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the ground surface perturbation concept, a novel stopband-enhanced electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure has been proposed to suppress the power/ground noise on a three-layer package. This structure consists of a coplanar periodic pattern on the top layer, a ground plane on the third layer, and a ground surface perturbation lattice on the second layer with eight vias connecting to the ground plane. By designing the dimension and via numbers, the ground surface perturbation lattice can significantly enhance the stopband bandwidth. A generic 1-D circuit model is proposed for the three-layer EBG structure. The reason why the proposed structure can possess wider stopband will be explained. Several test samples are fabricated. The agreement of the stopband between the circuit model and measured results are good. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Lumped-Element Integrated N -Way Power Dividers for Voltage Standards

    Page(s): 2055 - 2063
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a monolithically integrated broadband lumped-element Wilkinson power divider centered at 20 GHz, which was designed and fabricated to uniformly distribute power to arrays of Josephson junctions (JJs) for superconducting voltage standards. This solution achieves a fourfold decrease in chip area, and a twofold increase in bandwidth (BW) when compared to the previous narrowband distributed circuit. A single Wilkinson divider demonstrates 0.4-dB maximum insertion loss (IL), a 10-dB match BW of 10-24.5 GHz, and a 10-dB isolation BW of 13-30 GHz. A 16-way four-level binary Wilkinson power divider network is characterized in a divider/attenuator/combiner back-to-back measurement configuration with a 10-dB match BW of 10-25 GHz. In the 15-22-GHz band of interest, the maximum IL for the 16-way divider network is 0.5 dB, with an average of 0.2 dB. The amplitude balance of the divider at 15, 19, and 22 GHz is measured to be plusmn1.0 dB utilizing 16 arrays of 15 600 JJs as on-chip power detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Design of Wideband Compensated and Uncompensated Marchand Baluns With Step Transformers

    Page(s): 2064 - 2071
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a design approach for wideband compensated and uncompensated Marchand baluns with stepped-impedance transformers. In order to obtain an equal-ripple bandpass response, conventional Chebyshev polynomials are modified to compensate the effect of the transfer function's dc poles. Unlike the available microwave filter design approaches, which usually require redundant elements, this approach leads to an optimum design by using the minimum number of equal length transmission line elements. Based on this design approach, both compensated and uncompensated Marchand baluns are studied. It is found that increasing difficulty arises when implementing a large bandwidth balun using the widely adopted compensated balun structure. Hence, the uncompensated balun structure becomes a better choice. To validate the proposed design approach, an uncompensated balun is designed on a standard two-sided printed circuit board. The measured results indicate that a return loss greater than 20 dB can be observed from 1 to 7.5 GHz. The phase imbalance is less than 4deg and the amplitude is less than 0.5 dB from dc to 7.2 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Physics-Based Via and Trace Models for Efficient Link Simulation on Multilayer Structures Up to 40 GHz

    Page(s): 2072 - 2083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analytical models for vias and traces are presented for simulation of multilayer interconnects at the package and printed circuit board levels. Vias are modeled using an analytical formulation for the parallel-plate impedance and capacitive elements, whereas the trace-via transitions are described by modal decomposition. It is shown that the models can be applied to efficiently simulate a wide range of structures. Different scenarios are analyzed including thru-hole and buried vias, power vias, and coupled traces routed into different layers. By virtue of the modal decomposition, the proposed method is general enough to handle structures with mixed reference planes. For the first time, these models have been validated against full-wave methods and measurements up to 40 GHz. An improvement on the computation speed of at least two orders of magnitude has been observed with respect to full-wave simulations. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

Full Aims & Scope

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Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
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jenshan@ieee.org