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Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Unified Analytic Framework Based on Minimum Scan Statistics for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1233 - 1245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to limitations on transmission power of wireless devices, areas with sparse nodes are decisive to some extreme properties of network topology. In this paper, we assume wireless ad hoc and sensor networks are represented by uniform point processes or Poisson point processes. Asymptotic analyses based on minimum scan statistics are given for some crucial network properties, including coverage of wireless sensor networks, connectivity of wireless ad hoc networks, the largest edge length of geometric structures, and local-minimum-free geographic routing protocols. We derive explicit formulas of minimum scan statistics. By taking the transmission radius as a major parameter, our results are applied to various network problems. This work offers a unified approach to solve various problems and reveals the evolution of network topology. In addition, boundary effects are thoroughly handled. View full abstract»

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  • Recording Process Documentation for Provenance

    Page(s): 1246 - 1259
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1735 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scientific and business communities are adopting large-scale distributed systems as a means to solve a wide range of resource-intensive tasks. These communities also have requirements in terms of provenance. We define the provenance of a result produced by a distributed system as the process that led to that result. This paper describes a protocol for recording documentation of a distributed system's execution. The distributed protocol guarantees that documentation with characteristics suitable for accurately determining the provenance of results is recorded. These characteristics are confirmed through a number of proofs based on an abstract state machine formalization. View full abstract»

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  • The Globus Replica Location Service: Design and Experience

    Page(s): 1260 - 1272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1882 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed computing systems employ replication to improve overall system robustness, scalability, and performance. A replica location service (RLS) offers a mechanism to maintain and provide information about physical locations of replicas. This paper defines a design framework for RLSs that supports a variety of deployment options. We describe the RLS implementation that is distributed with the Globus toolkit and is in production use in several grid deployments. Features of our modular implementation include the use of soft-state protocols to populate a distributed index and Bloom filter compression to reduce overheads for distribution of index information. Our performance evaluation demonstrates that the RLS implementation scales well for individual servers with millions of entries and up to 100 clients. We describe the characteristics of existing RLS deployments and discuss how RLS has been integrated with higher-level data management services. View full abstract»

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  • On the Performance of a Dual-Objective Optimization Model for Workflow Applications on Grid Platforms

    Page(s): 1273 - 1284
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In attempts to exploit a diverse set of resources in grids efficiently, numerous assays in resource management, particularly scheduling, have been made. The primary objective of these efforts is the minimization of application completion time; however, they tend to achieve this objective at the expense of redundant resource usage. This paper investigates the problem of scheduling workflow applications on grids and presents a novel scheduling algorithm for the solution of this problem. Our algorithm performs the scheduling by accounting for both completion time and resource usage-dual objectives. Since the performance of grid resources changes dynamically and the accurate estimation of their performance is very difficult, our algorithm incorporates rescheduling to deal with unforeseen performance fluctuations effectively. The paper provides a comparative evaluation study conducted by using an extensive set of experiments. The study demonstrates that the proposed algorithm delivers promising performance in three respects: completion time, resource utilization, and robustness to resource-performance fluctuations. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient and Scalable Hardware-Based Multicast in Fat-Tree Networks

    Page(s): 1285 - 1298
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents an efficient and scalable mechanism to overcome the limitations of collective communication in switched interconnection networks in the presence of faults. Considering that current trends in supercomputing are moving toward massively parallel computers, with many thousands of components, reliability becomes a challenge. In such scenario, fat-tree networks that provide hardware support for collective communication suffer from serious performance degradation due to the presence of, even, a single faulty node. This paper describes a new mechanism to provide high-performance collective communication in such situations. The feasibility of the proposed technique is formally demonstrated. We present the design of a new hardware-based routing algorithm for multicast, that is at the base of our proposal. The proposed mechanism is implemented and experimentally evaluated. Our experimental results show that hardware-based multicast trees provide an efficient and scalable solution for collective communication in fat-tree networks, significantly outperforming traditional solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing against Selfish Information Flows

    Page(s): 1299 - 1308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study multicast in a noncooperative environment where information flows selfishly route themselves through the cheapest paths available. The main challenge is to enforce such selfish multicast flows to stabilize at a socially optimal operating point incurring minimum total edge cost, through appropriate cost allocation and other economic measures, with replicable and encodable properties of information flows considered. We show that known cost allocation schemes are not sufficient. We provide a shadow-price-based cost allocation for networks without capacity limits and show that it enforces minimum-cost multicast. This improves previous result where a 2-approximate multicast flow is enforced. For capacitated networks, computing cost allocation by ignoring edge capacities will not yield correct results. We show that an edge tax scheme can be combined with a cost allocation to strictly enforce optimal multicast flows in this more realistic case. If taxes are not desirable, they can be returned to flows while maintaining weak enforcement of the optimal flow. We relate the taxes to VCG payment schemes and discuss an efficient primal-dual algorithm that simultaneously computes the taxes, the cost allocation, and the optimal multicast flow, with potential of fully distributed implementations. View full abstract»

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  • Prefetching with Helper Threads for Loosely Coupled Multiprocessor Systems

    Page(s): 1309 - 1324
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a helper thread prefetching scheme that is designed to work on loosely coupled processors, such as in a standard chip multiprocessor (CMP) system or an intelligent memory system. Loosely coupled processors have an advantage in that resources such as processor and L1 cache resources are not contended by the application and helper threads, hence preserving the speed of the application. However, interprocessor communication is expensive in such a system. We present techniques to alleviate this. Our approach exploits large loop-based code regions and is based on a new synchronization mechanism between the application and helper threads. This mechanism precisely controls how far ahead the execution of the helper thread can be with respect to the application thread. We found that this is important in ensuring prefetching timeliness and avoiding cache pollution. To demonstrate that prefetching in a loosely coupled system can be done effectively, we evaluate our prefetching by simulating a standard unmodified CMP system and an intelligent memory system where a simple processor in memory executes the helper thread. Evaluating our scheme with nine memory-intensive applications with the memory processor in DRAM achieves an average speedup of 1.25. Moreover, our scheme works well in combination with a conventional processor-side sequential L1 prefetcher, resulting in an average speedup of 1.31. In a standard CMP, the scheme achieves an average speedup of 1.33. Using a real CMP system with a shared L2 cache between two cores, our helper thread prefetching plus hardware L2 prefetching achieves an average speedup of 1.15 over the hardware L2 prefetching for the subset of applications with high L2 cache misses per cycle. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable Routing in Cyclic Mobile Networks

    Page(s): 1325 - 1338
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonexistence of an end-to-end path poses a challenge in adapting traditional routing algorithms to delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Previous works have covered centralized routing approaches based on deterministic mobility, ferry-based routing with deterministic or semideterministic mobility, flooding-based approaches for networks with general mobility, and probability-based routing for semideterministic mobility models. Unfortunately, none of these methods can guarantee both scalability and delivery. In this paper, we extend the investigation of scalable deterministic routing in DTNs with repetitive mobility based on our previous works. Instead of routing with global contact knowledge, we propose a routing algorithm that routes on contact information compressed by three combined methods. We address the challenge of efficient information aggregation and compression in the time-space domain while maintaining critical information for efficient routing. Then, we extend it to handle a moderate level of uncertainty in contact prediction. Analytical studies and simulation results show that the performance of our proposed routing algorithm, DTN hierarchical routing (DHR), is comparable to that of the optimal time-space Dijkstra algorithm in terms of delay and hop count. At the same time, the per-node storage overhead is substantially reduced and becomes scalable. View full abstract»

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  • Full-Information Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays

    Page(s): 1339 - 1351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1099 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most peer-to-peer lookup schemes keep a small amount of routing state per node, typically logarithmic in the number of overlay nodes. This design assumes that routing information at each member node must be kept small so that the bookkeeping required to respond to system membership changes is also small, given that aggressive membership dynamics are expected. As a consequence, lookups have high latency as each lookup requires contacting several nodes in sequence. In this paper, we question these assumptions by presenting a peer-to-peer routing algorithm with small lookup paths. Our algorithm, called ldquoOneHop,rdquo maintains full information about the system membership at each node, routing in a single hop whenever that information is up to date and in a small number of hops otherwise. We show how to disseminate information about membership changes quickly enough so that nodes maintain accurate complete membership information. We also present analytic bandwidth requirements for our scheme that demonstrate that it could be deployed in systems with hundreds of thousands of nodes and high churn. We validate our analytic model using a simulated environment and a real implementation. Our results confirm that OneHop is able to achieve high efficiency, usually reaching the correct node directly 99 percent of the time. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Partitioning Scheme for Sleep Scheduling and Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1352 - 1365
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2103 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an adaptive partitioning scheme of sensor networks for node scheduling and topology control with the aim of reducing energy consumption. Our scheme partitions sensors into groups such that a connected backbone network can be maintained by keeping only one arbitrary node from each group in active status while putting others to sleep. Unlike previous approaches that partition nodes geographically, our scheme is based on the measured connectivity between pairwise nodes and does not depend on nodes' locations. In this paper, we formulate node scheduling with topology control as a constrained optimal graph partition problem, which is NP-hard, and propose a Connectivity-based Partition Approach (CPA), which is a distributed heuristic algorithm, to approximate a good solution. We also propose a probability-based CPA algorithm to further save energy. CPA can ensure K-vertex connectivity of the backbone network, which achieves the trade-off between saving energy and preserving network quality. Moreover, simulation results show that CPA outperforms other approaches in complex environments where the ideal radio propagation model does not hold. View full abstract»

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  • Movement-Assisted Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Page(s): 1366 - 1379
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). In these applications, a set of mobile actor nodes are deployed in addition to sensors in order to collect sensors' data and perform specific tasks in response to detected events/objects. In most scenarios, actors have to respond collectively, which requires interactor coordination. Therefore, maintaining a connected interactor network is critical to the effectiveness of WSANs. However, WSANs often operate unattended in harsh environments where actors can easily fail or get damaged. An actor failure may lead to partitioning the interactor network and thus hinder the fulfillment of the application requirements. In this paper, we present DARA, a distributed actor recovery algorithm, which opts to efficiently restore the connectivity of the interactor network that has been affected by the failure of an actor. Two variants of the algorithm are developed to address 1- and 2-connectivity requirements. The idea is to identify the least set of actors that should be repositioned in order to reestablish a particular level of connectivity. DARA strives to localize the scope of the recovery process and minimize the movement overhead imposed on the involved actors. The effectiveness of DARA is validated through simulation experiments. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Stitching Orders in Patch-and-Stitch WSN Localization Algorithms

    Page(s): 1380 - 1391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A "patch-and-stitchrdquo localization algorithm divides the network into small overlapping subregions. Typically, each subregion consists of a node and all or some of its neighbors. For each subregion, the algorithm builds a local map, called a patch, which is actually an embedding of the nodes it spans in a relative coordinate system. Finally, the algorithm stitches those patches to form a single global map. In a patch-and-stitch algorithm, the stitching order makes an influence on both the performance and the complexity of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a formal framework to deal with stitching orders in patch-and-stitch localization algorithms. In our framework, the stitching order is determined by a stitching scheme and the stitching scheme consists of a stitching policy and a potential function. The potential function is to predict how well a patch will be stitched if patches are stitched according to a given partial order. The stitching policy is a mechanism that determines the stitching order based on the predictions by the potential function. We present various stitching schemes and evaluate them through simulations. In addition, we apply the patch-and-stitch strategy into the anchor-based localization and propose a clustering-based localization algorithm. A potential function is used to partition the network into clusters each of which is centered at an anchor node. For each cluster, a cluster map is constructed via the anchor-free localization algorithm. Then, those cluster maps are combined to form a single global map. We propose a stitching technique for combining those cluster maps and analyze the performance of the algorithm by simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Call for Papers for a Special Issue on Many Task Computing

    Page(s): 1392
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (43 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • TPDS Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) is published monthly. It publishes a range of papers, comments on previously published papers, and survey articles that deal with the parallel and distributed systems research areas of current importance to our readers.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David Bader
College of Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology