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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1057 - 1058
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  • Accuracy of Transfer Matrix Approaches for Solving the Effective Mass SchrÖdinger Equation

    Page(s): 1059 - 1067
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    The accuracy of different transfer matrix approaches, widely used to solve the stationary effective mass Schrodinger equation for arbitrary one-dimensional potentials, is investigated analytically and numerically. Both the case of a constant and a position-dependent effective mass are considered. Comparisons with a finite difference method are also performed. Based on analytical model potentials as well as self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson simulations of a heterostructure device, it is shown that a symmetrized transfer matrix approach yields a similar accuracy as the Airy function method at a significantly reduced numerical cost, moreover avoiding the numerical problems associated with Airy functions. View full abstract»

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  • SiO _2 Barriers for Increasing Gain Events in Solid-State Impact-Ionization Multipliers

    Page(s): 1068 - 1073
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    A solid-state impact-ionization multiplier (SIM) was designed to amplify signals from arbitrary current sources through impact ionization. A primary application is amplification of signals produced by photodiodes. Photodiodes made from any semiconductor can be wired directly to the SIM's injection node. Planar versions of the SIM suffer from nonideal impact ionization efficiency as a result of injected carriers drifting through the device's depletion region to the output electrode without passing through the highest electric field regions and undergoing ionization events. Low impact ionization efficiency can lead to an increased excess noise factor, higher temperature sensitivity, and higher voltage sensitivity (rate of gain change with respect to applied voltage). This paper describes increasing SIM ionization efficiencies by introducing an insulator between the SIM's injection and output electrodes, effectively directing the carriers into the highest electric field. This method has shown to greatly increase the impact ionization efficiency in simulation and experimental results. Ionization efficiency improvements are demonstrated primarily through decreases in voltage sensitivity. View full abstract»

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  • Supermodes in Broad Ridge (Al,In)GaN Laser Diodes

    Page(s): 1074 - 1083
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    Broad area (Al,In)GaN laser diodes (LDs) are suitable for high optical output power in the near UV to blue spectral range. But for ridge widths larger than a few micrometers, the occurrence of filamentation is well known. We present experimental evidence that the single filaments tend to be phase-locked with defined phase offset and build up a so called supermode. Depending on driving current a coherent or incoherent superposition of different supermodes can be observed, which has a significant impact on the corresponding lateral far-field pattern. By a simulated reconstruction of the lateral mode profile of the laser mode propagating in free space we retrieve the field and phase distribution of the laser mode in the waveguide. In this context the coupling mechanism is discussed and the mode behavior is compared to supermodes in GaAs laser diode arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Highly Efficient RCLED-Type Quantum-Dot-Based Single Photon Emitters

    Page(s): 1084 - 1088
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    Highly efficient single photon sources are of particular importance for quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Cavity-induced enhancement of spontaneous emission can improve photon generation efficiency in quantum-dot-based single photon sources dramatically. Using the eigenmode-technique, the authors calculate the 3-D distribution of the optical electromagnetic field inside a RCLED-type single photon source and consequently the Purcell-factor as a function of the wavelength. Under systematic variation of device design parameters such as cavity length and aperture diameter, an optimized device design was determined, providing Purcell-factors up to 5.5. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Light Emission From Planar Multilayer OLEDs, Using a Transmission-Line Model

    Page(s): 1089 - 1099
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    In this paper, we propose a fast, accurate, and easy to implement transmission-line model, which evaluates light emission from planar multilayer OLED devices. Total radiated power and radiation patterns of OLED devices are calculated adopting the classic consideration, which relates photon emission in the active layer with the power that is radiated by a randomly oriented dipole antenna. The simulation model considers the under study configurations as equivalent electric and magnetic transmission lines in Fourier space, which are excited by voltage or current sources properly calculated. The proposed model demonstrates also an inherent ability to calculate the waveguided modes and can be also easily transformed to tackle problems of material inhomogeneity and nonlinearity. The accuracy of the transmission-line model has been verified against alternative but also exact calculation methods. Finally, numerical results are provided and discussed for OLED devices, which are constructed by materials with a complex refractive index and emit light within a zone inside the active layer. View full abstract»

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  • Line-Tunable Singly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in Mid-Infrared Spectral Range Based on KTA Crystal

    Page(s): 1100 - 1105
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    Line-tunable narrow-linewidth mid-infrared radiation in 3-5-mum spectral range by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation technique based on a KTA crystal pumped by 1.064-mu m radiation from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different gratings has been demonstrated. Thresholds of oscillation energy at different cavity lengths and at different idler wavelengths with different gratings have been measured. Energy of the generated radiation at 3.6 mum as a function of pump beam energy at different cavity lengths with different gratings have been measured. Maximum energy obtained at 3.6-mum radiation with a grating having grooves density 85 l/mm at 55-mm cavity length is 4.6 mJ when the cavity was pumped by 42.6-mJ energy, which corresponds to conversion efficiency from pump beam energy to generated idler beam energy 10.8% and maximum slope efficiency achieved was 23.6%. The linewidth obtained with a grating having grooves density 600 l/mm at 3.7 mum was 0.53 cm-1. View full abstract»

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  • Suppressing Chirp and Power Penalty of Channelized ASE Injection-Locked Mode-Number Tunable Weak-Resonant-Cavity FPLD Transmitter

    Page(s): 1106 - 1113
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    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) power and injection-locked mode number dependent frequency chirp and bit error rate (BER) responses of a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) transmitter are characterized. Chirp analysis of upstream data from the 1.25 Gb/s directly modulated WRC-FPLD with two and three injection-locked modes after the 200-GHz AWG filtered ASE injection-locking is determined, which reveal similar peak-to-peak chirps (DeltavP) of -0.8 and -1 GHz with corresponding negative chirp parameters (dmiddotmiddotPhi/dt2) of -1.6 and -2 MHz/ps for two- and three-mode lasing WRC-FPLD, respectively. Such a negative chirp further enlarges to -6.4 and - 9 GHz after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF-28) transmission. The BER of below 10-9 at receiving power below -30 dBm is obtained with mode number dependent power penalty of <0.25 dB before and after 25-km SMF -28 transmission. A chirp model involved the ASE injection induced power saturation effect is derived to explain the negatively frequency chirped WRC-FPLD, which reveals a reverse trend with increasing ASE injection power due to the power-saturation induced on/off extinction ratio reduction (from 10.5 to 8.2 dB) and rising-time broadening (from 120 to 180 ps) on WRC-FPLD transmitted data shape, which effectively reduces the peak-to-peak chirp by at least 2 GHz after 25-km SMF transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Response Flattening of Efficient Broadband Wavelength Converters Based on Cascaded Sum and Difference Frequency Generation in Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Waveguides

    Page(s): 1114 - 1120
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    For the single-pass and double-pass wavelength converters based on cascaded sum and difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched lithium niobate waveguide, we present the criteria for a choice of the waveguide length and the assignment of pump powers to achieve the desired efficiency, ripple and bandwidth with a large pump wavelength difference of 75 nm. It is found that using the double-pass structure with a 95% reflectivity for the sum frequency wave, the mean efficiency is increased at least 5 dB compared to that of the single-pass one with the same length and input pump powers and the bandwidth is large enough to cover the entire conventional telecommunications C-band and long-wavelength L-band. To flatten the excessive response fluctuation of the double-pass scheme, we propose tuning one of the pumps to longer wavelengths incurring a small penalty of a slight reduction in the mean efficiency which can be compensated by increasing the input pump powers. We also show that to achieve the same amount of flatness, double-pass converters have a smaller efficiency penalty compared to the single-pass converters. View full abstract»

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  • InGaAs Quantum Dots Coupled to a Reservoir of Nonequilibrium Free Carriers

    Page(s): 1121 - 1128
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    We discuss the impact of a 2D-charged carrier reservoir for high-speed optical amplification and modulated lasing in quantum dot (QD)-based devices by testing the amplification of short trains of high power, femtosecond optical pulses in an InGaAs QD-in-a-well-based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). We adapt a laser-like rate equation model to describe heterodyne pump-and-probe experiments. After an optically induced perturbation, we identify the gain recovery process as a forced steady-state situation which can be consistently described within rate-equation based laser theory. The model is systematically applied to analyze the experimental amplification and the overall SOA dynamics as a function of injected current. We conclude that, under conditions of high optical pump power close to the device saturation regime, the ultrafast SOA dynamics is governed by the overall injection current. The carrier relaxation pathway of a direct capture from the 2D reservoir to the QD ground state is needed to explain the observed pulse train amplification. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Beam Premodulation and Guide Magnetic Fields on Slow Wave Free Electron Laser: Nonlocal Theory

    Page(s): 1129 - 1132
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    A premodulated electron beam on slow wave free electron laser (FEL) offers considerable enhancement in growth rate and efficiency when a guide magnetic field is used in the FEL device. A nonlocal theory of this process has been developed. The growth rate, efficiency and gain were evaluated based on experimentally known parameters relevant to slow wave free electron laser. It was found that the growth rate, efficiency and gain of the slow wave FEL increases with the modulation index Delta and has the largest value when the modulation index approaching unity in addition to the frequency and wave number of the premodulated beam are comparable to that of the radiation wave, i.e., omega0 ~ omega1 and k 0 ~ k 1. When the slow wave FEL has a guide magnetic field Bs, the transverse electron quiver velocity is enhanced via cyclotron resonance. This leads to a reduction in beam parallel velocity and reduction in radiation frequency omega1. The growth rate of the slow wave FEL instability decreases monotonically with the radiation frequency. Nonlocal effects reduce the growth rate of the slow wave FEL instability. The scheme seems to work well at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Planar Waveguides With Prescribed Mode-Profile Using Inverse Scattering Theory

    Page(s): 1133 - 1141
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    We demonstrate a new method based on inverse scattering theory for designing the refractive index profile of single-mode planar waveguides in order to obtain a desired TE-mode profile. The method enables a direct design of the waveguide profile without the need for iterative optimization algorithms. The design is based on a first order solution to the Gel'fand-Levitan-MarCcaronenko integral equation that gives a simple linear connection between a small change in the scattering data and the corresponding change in the kernel function. This connection reduces the design problem to a simple linear constrained minimization problem which has an explicit solution. Our design method allows adding additional constraints on the refractive index profile such as the waveguide width. The method presented in this paper can be expanded to analyze TM modes and for designing multi-mode planar waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • Transfer Matrix Approach to Four Mode Coupling in Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Page(s): 1142 - 1148
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    Shear strain effects within fiber Bragg grating sensors have been neglected in the theoretical treatment of these devices. Shear strains do however occur in everyday applications and additionally shear strains do change the spectral response of these sensors. This may lead to a nonlinear behavior or measurement errors. We develop a transfer matrix method using coupled mode theory, that is capable of modeling the encountered effects. The effects include intra grating polarization mode coupling and changes of the spectral response. We show how the transfer matrix is derived and construct a test case for checking the correctness of its results. We compute different load cases and compare the obtained solutions to the numerically integrated coupled mode equations. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of the Longitudinal Multi-Modes Dynamics of a Driven Semiconductor Amplifier to a Single Scalar Partial Differential Equation

    Page(s): 1149 - 1154
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    In the plane wave approximation, we analytically study spatio-temporal dynamics of a semiconductor amplifier driven by a coherent injected field in a Fabry-Perot configuration. We manage to reduce the dynamics to a single evolution equation for the slow variable represented by the carrier density, to analytically compute the stationary field configurations and to predict their stability. The numerical simulations, performed by implementing an efficient and accurate split-step code, perfectly agree with the analytical results. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithically Integrated 8:1 SOA Gate Switch With Large Extinction Ratio and Wide Input Power Dynamic Range

    Page(s): 1155 - 1162
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    A monolithic 8:1 SOA gate switch that integrates an 8-ch SOA gate array, an 8:1 optical coupler, and a 1-ch SOA gate was developed for use in a large scale optical packet switching system. A 250-mum-long compact field-flattened coupler (FFC) produces a very small channel-imbalance together with a compact total chip size of 3.0 times 1.0 mm. The device exhibited a large ON-state gain of >14.3 dB and a small total gain deviation of 3.0 dB. The optimized passive waveguide structure successfully suppressed the stray light, which resulted in a record-high ON-OFF extinction ratio of >70 dB. We used a thin tensile-strained multi-quantum well (MQW) active layer which can attain high-saturation output power, low noise, and polarization insensitivity for SOA gates. Due to the coexistence of a high saturation output power and a low noise figure, the device exhibited a very wide input power dynamic range of 20.5 dB for a 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the Beam Coherence-Polarization Matrix of a Random Electromagnetic Beam

    Page(s): 1163 - 1167
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    The beam coherence-polarization (BCP) matrix contains its elements in the form of mutual coherence functions. These are complex quantities governing the space-time correlations between the x and the y components of electric field at pair of points in the cross-section of the random electromagnetic beam. In this paper, we present mathematical expressions to determine the amplitude and the phase of the four elements of the BCP matrix which are a function of two spatial points in the optical field. We also determine experimentally the BCP matrix for an expanded laser beam introducing polarizers and rotators in widely separated beam paths of a modified version of the Young's interferometer. The real and imaginary parts of the BCP matrix elements might show the change in the polarization properties of a random electromagnetic beam during its propagation. These results might be useful for astronomical measurements also. View full abstract»

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  • The Spectral Analysis and Threshold Limits of Quasi-Supercontinuum Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Interband Lasers

    Page(s): 1168 - 1176
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    This paper presents a theoretical model to explain the quasi-supercontinuum interband emission from InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot lasers by accounting for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous optical gain broadening. The experimental and theoretical agreement of a room temperature (293 K) broadband laser emission confirms the presence of multiple-state lasing actions in highly inhomogeneous dot ensembles. The corresponding full-width half-maximum of the photoluminescence is 76 meV as opposed to those wideband lasing coverage at only low temperature (~60 K) from typical quantum dot lasers. A newly proposed change of homogeneous broadening with injection that occurs only in highly inhomogeneous quantum dot system is critical to account for the continuous wideband lasing but not the conventional ideas of carrier dynamics in semiconductor lasers. In addition, the analysis of threshold conditions reveals that broadband lasing only occurs when the energy spacing between quantized energy states is comparable to the inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot nanostructures. The study is important in providing a picture of this novel device and realization of broad lasing coverage for diverse applications, especially in the research field of short-pulse generation and ultra-fast phenomena in semiconductor quantum-dot laser. View full abstract»

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  • The Dynamic Characteristics and Linewidth Enhancement Factor of Quasi-Supercontinuum Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Lasers

    Page(s): 1177 - 1182
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    The theoretical analysis of optical gain and chirp characteristics of a semiconductor quantum dot (Qdot) broadband laser is presented. The model based on population rate equations, has been developed to investigate the multiple states lasing or quasi-supercontinuum lasing in InGaAs/GaAs Qdot laser. The model takes into account factors such as Qdot size fluctuation, finite carrier lifetime in each confined energy states, wetting layer induced nonconfined states and the presence of continuum states. Hence, calculation of the linewidth enhancement factor together with the variation of optical gain and index change across the spectrum of interest becomes critical to yield a basic understanding on the limitation of this new class of lasers. Such findings are important for the design of a practical single broadband laser diode for applications in low coherence interferometry sensing and optical fiber communications. Calculation results show that the linewidth enhancement factor from the ground state of broadband Qdot lasers ( alpha ~ 3) is slightly larger but in the same order of magnitude as compared to that of conventional Qdot lasers. The gain spectrum of the quasi-supercontinuum lasing system exhibits almost twice the bandwidth than conventional lasers but with comparable material differential gain ( ~ 10-16 cm2) and material differential refractive index ( ~ 10-20 cm3) near current threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Successful Application of the 8-band {mbi{k}}{\cdot} {mbi{p}} Theory to Optical Properties of Highly Strained In(Ga)As/InGaAs Quantum Wells With Strong Conduction-Valence Band Coupling

    Page(s): 1183 - 1191
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    Band-edge optical properties of highly strained In(Ga)As/InGaAs quantum wells on InP with the bandgap wavelength longer than 2 mum are analyzed by using 6- and 8-band kmiddotp theory. It is demonstrated that the 8-band model is indispensable for the analysis of highly strained In(Ga)As/InGaAs quantum wells due to the strong coupling between conduction and valence bands induced by large strain in the well. Furthermore, an energy correction originating from the interaction between the spin-orbit coupling and the strain, which has been discarded in conventional kmiddotp theory, is taken into account, and the role of the effect for highly strained quantum wells is discussed. The photoluminescence peak wavelength and absorption spectra of In(Ga)As/InGaAs quantum wells calculated by 8-band model are in excellent agreement with those obtained by experiment, showing the validity of the results presented here. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of the Core Modes of Hollow-Core Photonic-Bandgap Fibers

    Page(s): 1192 - 1200
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    Using a new full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver utilizing a hexagonal Yee's cell, we calculated the dispersion diagram of a slightly multimode (16 modes) air-core photonic-bandgap fiber (PBF) and the electric-field profiles of all of its core modes. Careful comparison shows striking similarities between these properties and those of the hybrid modes of a conventional step-index fiber, in terms of the modes' field profiles, the modes' degeneracy, the order in which the modes mode cut off in the wavelength space, and the maximum number of modes. Based on these similarities, we propose for the first time a systematic nomenclature for the modes of a PBF, namely hybrid HE and EH modes and of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes. Other small but relevant similarities and differences between the modes of these two types of fibers are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • InGaAlAs-InGaAsP Heteromaterial Monolithic Integration for Advanced Long-Wavelength Optoelectronic Devices

    Page(s): 1201 - 1209
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    High-coupling-efficiency high-reliability hetero-material integration of InGaAlAs-based and InGaAsP-based optical components on a single InP substrate was achieved. A butt-jointing process with in situ cleaning was used to integrate an InGaAlAs-based component and an InGaAsP-based component. Optical-coupling efficiency at the butt-jointed interface of a novel multiple-butt-jointed laser was quantitatively estimated to be more than 97%. An InGaAlAs laser integrated with an InGaAsP-based component and an InGaAsP laser integrated with an InGaAlAs-based component were fabricated by the butt-jointing process. The fabricated 1.3- mum InGaAlAs laser integrated with an InGaAsP distributed Bragg reflector exhibited 100degC, 10-Gbps direct modulation at a low drive current of 14-mA peak-to-peak. Furthermore, the fabricated 1.55-mum InGaAsP distributed feedback laser integrated with an InGaAlAs electroabsorption modulator exhibited the first uncooled 10-Gbps 40-km transmission (with a 1-dB power penalty) from 0 to 85degC. Aging tests on both types of lasers showed no significant degradation in their driving current for more than one thousand hours. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on very high throughput wireless over fiber technologies and applications

    Page(s): 1210
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  • Next-generation organic and hybrid solar cells

    Page(s): 1211
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University