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Haptics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April-June 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Creating Usable Pin Array Tactons for Nonvisual Information

    Page(s): 61 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spatial information can be difficult to present to a visually impaired computer user. In this paper, we examine a new kind of tactile cuing for nonvisual interaction as a potential solution, building on earlier work on vibrotactile Tactons. However, unlike vibrotactile Tactons, we use a pin array to stimulate the finger tip. Here, we describe how to design static and dynamic Tactons by defining their basic components. We then present user tests examining how easy it is to distinguish between different forms of pin array Tactons demonstrating accurate Tacton sets to represent directions. These experiments demonstrate usable patterns for static, wave, and blinking pin array Tacton sets for guiding a user in one of eight directions. A study is then described that shows the benefits of structuring Tactons to convey information through multiple parameters of the signal. By using multiple independent parameters for a Tacton, this study demonstrates that participants perceive more information through a single Tacton. Two applications using these Tactons are then presented: a maze exploration application and an electric circuit exploration application designed for use by and tested with visually impaired users. View full abstract»

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  • Detectability and Perceptual Consequences of Delayed Feedback in a Vibrotactile Texture Display

    Page(s): 73 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study estimated the maximum allowable system latency for haptic displays that produce tactile stimuli in response to the hand movements of users. In Experiment 1, two types of detection thresholds were estimated for the time delay of stimuli through psychophysical experiments involving 13 participants. One was a threshold for the users to notice the existence of a time delay. The other was a threshold for the users to experience changes in the perceived textures in comparison with stimuli with no time delay. The estimated thresholds were approximately 60 and 40 ms, respectively. In interviews, the participants reported that they experienced various types of subjective changes due to the time delay. In Experiment 2, the types of subjective sensations that might be altered by the time delay were investigated. The time delays were controlled based on the acceleration of the hand motions of the participants. The participants evaluated the differences in the perceived textures between the stimuli with a controlled time delay and ones with no delay. The results indicated that the participants associated the time-delayed stimuli with changes in mechanical parameters such as kinetic friction coefficient in addition to changes in the perceived roughness of the textures. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Calibration of Haptic Texture Synthesis Algorithms

    Page(s): 85 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Calibrating displays can be a time-consuming process. We describe a fast technique for adjusting the subjective experience of roughness produced by different haptic texture synthesis algorithms. Its efficiency is due to the exponential convergence of the ldquomodified binary search methodrdquo (mobs) applied to find points of subjective equivalence between virtual haptic textures synthesized by different algorithms. The method was applied to find the values of the coefficient of friction in a friction-based texture algorithm that yield the same perception of roughness as the normal-force variations of conventional texture synthesis algorithms. Our main result is a table giving the perceptual equivalence between parameters having different physical dimensions. A similar method could be applied to other perceptual dimensions provided that the controlling parameter be monotonically related to a subjective estimate. View full abstract»

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  • Local Surface Orientation Dominates Haptic Curvature Discrimination

    Page(s): 94 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prior studies have shown that local surface orientation is a dominant source of information for haptic curvature perception in static conditions. We show that this dominance holds for dynamic touch, just as was shown earlier for static touch. Using an apparatus specifically developed for this purpose, we tested this hypothesis by providing observers with two independently controlled sources of geometric information. The robotic-like apparatus could accurately control the position of a contact surface independently from its orientation in space, while allowing subjects to freely and actively explore virtual shapes in the lateral direction. In the first experiment, we measured discrimination thresholds for the two types of shape information and compared the discrimination of real shapes to that of virtual shapes. The results confirmed the dominance of local surface orientation. We propose a model that predicts cue dominance for different scales of exploration. In the second experiment, we investigated whether a virtual curved surface felt as curved as a real curved surface. We found that observers did not systematically judge either of the two kinds of stimuli to be more curved than the other. More importantly, we found that points of subjective curvedness were not influenced by the availability of height information. View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Feedback Induces Reduced Grasping Force in Robot-Assisted Surgery

    Page(s): 103 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has gained widespread use over the past decade, but the technique is currently operated in the absence of haptic feedback during tissue manipulation. We have developed a complete tactile feedback system, consisting of a piezoresistive force sensor, control system, and pneumatic balloon tactile display, and mounted directly onto a da Vinci surgical robotic system. To evaluate the effect of tactile feedback on robotic manipulation, a group of novices (n = 16) and experts ( n = 4) were asked to perform three blocks of peg transfer tasks with the tactile feedback system in place. Force generated at the end-effectors was measured in all three blocks, but tactile feedback was active only during the middle block. All subjects used higher force when the feedback system was inactive. When active, subjects immediately used substantially less force and still maintained appropriate grip during the task. After the system was again turned off, grip force increased significantly to prefeedback levels. These results demonstrate that robotic manipulations without tactile feedback are done with more force than needed to grasp objects. Therefore, the addition of tactile feedback allows the surgeon to grasp with less force, and may improve control of the robotic system and handling of tissues and other objects. View full abstract»

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  • To Go or Not to Go: Stimulus-Response Compatibility for Tactile and Auditory Pedestrian Collision Warnings

    Page(s): 111 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study examined the effect of the stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility of pedestrian collision warnings presented via different sensory modalities in a driving simulator. Despite the well-established fact that reaction times (RT) are faster under S-R compatible conditions, the majority of collision warning research has used S-R incompatible warnings (i.e., the warning comes from the direction of the obstacle to be avoided not the desired response direction). Thirty-two participants in a fixed-base driving simulator drove on a three-lane urban road in which pedestrians randomly walked from the sidewalk into the roadway. Collision warnings in two different modalities (tactile and auditory) were compared with a no warning condition. Participants were equally divided into one of four conditions representing all combinations of two levels of warning S-R compatibility (compatible and incompatible) and two levels of warning timing (early and late). For early warnings, incompatible warnings were most effective as shown by a significantly shorter steering RT and larger clearance distance. For late warnings, compatible warnings were most effective. For early warnings, RTs were significantly faster in the tactile condition. The relationship between collision warning effectiveness and S-R compatibility in driving is dependent on whether the driver has time to evaluate the situation before collision will occur. Our findings have important implications for the design of effective tactile and auditory collision warning systems. However, further research is needed to determine if these effects occur in more representative driving conditions (e.g., lower pedestrian incursion rate and unreliable warnings). View full abstract»

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  • Transactions on Haptics Call for Papers

    Page(s): 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Computer Society CSDA Certification [advertisement]

    Page(s): 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (90 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Computer Society Career Center

    Page(s): 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ToH Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (130 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Haptics addresses the science, technology and applications associated with information acquisition and object manipulation through touch.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lynette Jones
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
USA
Phone: 617-253-3973
Fax: 617-253-2218
Email: ljones@mit.edu
Website: http://meche.mit.edu/people/index.html?id=128

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Cagatay Basdogan
Koc University
College of Engineering
Istanbul, 34450 Turkey
Phone: 902123381721