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Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • Executive Committee

    Page(s): c2
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  • Electrostatics, the Continuous Renewal of an Old Science

    Page(s): 585 - 586
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    Most of the 24 papers in this special issue are derived from, and much extended contributions presented at the 6th Conference of the French Electrostatic Society (S.F.E.). View full abstract»

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  • Ancient Science, Current Problems: Insight into the Vitality of Electrostatics Research Today

    Page(s): 587 - 595
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    Electrostatics, though one of the oldest sciences, is also nowadays a dynamical and very wide research area. Static charge, well known for its destructive power when accumulating in storms and causing lightning, is now used in many systems as a mastered force to produce acoustic waves, to control aerodynamics, to filter pollution. Its control still remains a very important challenge in many systems, from spacecrafts, high voltage cables, to petro chemistry, and agriculture. We intend here only to highlight some aspects of this very rich and multiform science, without forgetting the great pioneers, Gilbert and Faraday. View full abstract»

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  • Local Fields in Dielectric Nanospheres from a Microscopic and Macroscopic Point of View

    Page(s): 596 - 600
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    We simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory. From Maxwell's equations we find uniform local fields inside a sphere exposed to an electric field Ea which was homogeneous before the sphere was brought in. The present paper raises the question about the validity of the macroscopic assumption. The dielectric spheres consist of neutral atoms on cubic lattice sites which show induced electronic polarization. For reasons of symmetry, the local field caused by the dipoles in the center of the sphere should be different from those at off-center locations resulting in an inhomogeneous polarization. This question about the validity is addressed by the microscopic method of local fields. With regard to dielectric nanospheres or other geometrical shapes which are used for nanodielectric composites the application of the microscopic local field method can calculate the actual local fields and polarizations whereas a macroscopic mean field calculation can yield misleading results. View full abstract»

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  • Flow Distribution Measurement in Wire-nonparallel Plate Type Electrohydrodynamic Gas Pump by a Particle Image Velocimetry

    Page(s): 601 - 607
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    2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in a wire-nonparallel plates type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump. The effect of electrode configuration and polarity of the active electrode on the flow pattern inside the pump was studied. One can deduce from the obtained flow patterns that the flow generated inside the EHD pump is three dimensional. The vortices formed inside the EHD gas pump have negative effect on pumping capabilities of the pump since the vortices may block and suppress the generated flow. The PIV results will be compared with a numerical modelling of the flow, based on k-E model. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of the 2-D Gas Flow Modified by the Action of Charged Fine Particles in a Single-Wire ESP

    Page(s): 608 - 614
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    A numerical model for simulating precipitation of submicrometer particles in a singlewire electrostatic precipitator is discussed in this paper. It includes all important phenomena affecting the process: electric field, space charge density, gas flow, including the secondary electrohydrodynamic flow caused by the corona discharge and charged particles, and particle transport. A simplified corona model assumes just one ionic species and neglects the ionization zone. The fully coupled model for the secondary EHD flow, considering the ion convection, has been implemented. The dust particles are charged by ionic bombardment and diffusion. The gas flow pattern is significantly modified by the secondary EHD flow, which depends on the particle concentration. As for fine particles the drift velocity is small and particles practically follow the gas streamlines, the particle concentration has a very strong effect on the precipitation efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Discharge Electrode Parameters on the Flow Velocity Profile of the Wire-rod Type Electrohydrodynamic Gas Pump Exit

    Page(s): 615 - 621
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    Experimental investigation has been conducted to study the effects of corona wire diameter, pipe length, and corona polarity on outlet flow velocity distribution profile of a wire-rod type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump. Upon applying negative or positive dc high voltage between a wire electrode (outer diameter (o.d.) 60 mum, 200 mum, or 300 mum) and a rod electrode (o.d. 3 mm) in atmospheric air, corona discharge occurs and EHD gas flow is generated in the direction from the wire electrode to the rod electrode through a cylindrical pipe (inner diameter (i.d.) 20 mm). For both polarities, the discharge current and average flow velocity increase monotonically on increasing the applied voltage before the onset of spark discharge. Using wire electrodes with a smaller diameter, stable corona discharge between corona onset and spark onset is generated in a wider voltage range, and the discharge current becomes larger, resulting in a higher flow velocity. The maximum average flow velocity of 2.0 m/s, corresponding to a flow rate of 38 1/min, was achieved with a wire of diameter 60 mum by applying a voltage of -16 kV. View full abstract»

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  • An EHD Gas Pump Utilizing a Wet Porous Point Electrode

    Page(s): 622 - 628
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    A point-to-mesh type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump, utilizing a wet porous point electrode, has been proposed, and the effect of the wet porous point electrode on the gas flow velocity and flow generation yield of the EHD gas pump was investigated. The wet porous point is used as a corona discharge electrode, and the mesh is used as an ion collecting electrode. It was observed that the EHD gas pump with the wet porous point electrode can generate a higher gas flow velocity and flow generation yield than the same design EHD gas pump with a non-porous metal point electrode. As a result with the wet porous electrode, a peak gas flow velocity of VW = 2.54, 2.74, and 1.93 m/s has been obtained for positive, negative, and ac corona discharges. This is 1.95, 1.31, and 1.30 times higher than the velocity VW = 1.30, 2.09, and 1.49 m/s measured with the same design EHD gas pump and a non-porous metal point electrode. At 0.1 W of input corona power for dc and ac powers, the flow generation yields of Y = 13.88, 12.80, and 11.70 m/s/W were obtained with the wet porous point electrode for the positive, negative, and ac corona discharges, which are 1.23, 1.24, and 1.15 times higher as compared with those of the metal point electrode with Y = 11.32, 10.29, and 10.20 m/s/W, respectively. These enhancements may be due to the elevated input corona powers and the water particles generated from the wet porous point electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Modeling of Insulating Particles Trajectories in Roll-type Corona-Electrostatic Separators

    Page(s): 629 - 634
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    The trajectories of the insulating particles in roll-type corona-electrostatic separators depend on the configuration of the electrode system, the applied high voltage, the roll speed, the size of the particles and the relative humidity of the ambient air. The aim of this work was to point out how numerical modeling can be of use in the study of the effects of these factors. Particle charging is modeled using the Pauthenier's equation for spheres in uniform electric field. The equation of particle discharging was obtained after an experimental study of the surface potential decay of a granular layer of insulating material in contact with an electrode. The trajectories are computed based on the balance equation of the electrical and mechanical forces that act on such charged particles. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic Regeneration of Refrigerant

    Page(s): 635 - 640
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    The ubiquity of air conditioning and cooling systems, the ban on refrigerant release to the environment, and the high energy required by the refrigerant decomposition process give good opportunity for a novel technology to deliver a "like new" recycled refrigerant. In this paper we present several electrostatic processes at the heart of this technology: tribocharging the recovered mix of oil and refrigerant; the oil is removed by an electrostatic filter; a Faraday ring sensor monitors filter efficiency. A portable system prototype incorporating these technologies was built.. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Water-borne Paint Contamination in Electrostatic Rotary Atomizers

    Page(s): 641 - 648
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    The electrostatic rotary atomizer has the highest paint efficiency in all kind of atomizers. The usage of an electrostatic rotary atomizer, therefore, has contributed to reduce the waste of paint and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Concurrently, water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint have been introduced to reduce the amount of VOCs emissions. With the water-borne painting, the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The contamination has been an important problem to be solved in factories. In this report, the causes of water-borne paint contamination was considered and the experimental results of the contamination proof system were presented. The atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets which otherwise contaminate the atomizer. From the experimental results, following electrical properties are found to be important for the repelling film such as low capacitance and high insulation property to keep high surface potential. These features were also checked by the space charge measurements inside the repelling film. In addition, safety against incendiary sparking was investigated. The ground electrode of sphere, needle or blush-shape was approached to contact to the charged film. Energy of the discharge was calculated from the measured discharge current and the surface potential of the film. The discharge energy of all measured electrodes was below the minimum ignition energy of 0.24 mJ used in the painting industries. At the meantime, the results indicate that shape of the electrode is an important parameter to affect the discharge energy. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of Reflectance and Thermal Emissivity of a Black Surface Created by Electrostatic Flocking with Carbon-Fiber Piles

    Page(s): 649 - 654
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    A black surface was created using electrostatic flocking with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) carbon flock fibers. Reflectance of diffused reflection for ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared rays was measured using the created flocked surfaces. The resultant surface exhibits extremely low reflectance values. Furthermore, the authors measured thermal emissivity of carbon-fiber flocked surfaces. A sample used for emissivity measurements was fabricated by pasting two pieces of flocked surface samples together, into which a heater and a thermocouple had been embedded. Using a space chamber of 1,050 mm diameter and 1,206 mm depth, emissivity measurements were carried out using calorimetry. The authors obtained 0.98 as the highest thermal emissivity of the flocked surface, demonstrating that the surface emissivity is almost equivalent to the value of a black body. Results of both measurements were discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Pressure Mapping Using a Double Layer Dielectric System

    Page(s): 655 - 660
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    Results of investigation of a double layer dielectric system applied for pressure distribution determination is discussed in the paper. The system consists of elastic and rigid solid dielectric layers. The trybo-charge is generated on the contact between the rough surface of the elastic and dielectric layers when the system is subjected to an external stress. It was shown that the local effective surface charge density on the rigid dielectric layer depends on the local pressure value. The generated charge produces a proportional voltage across the solid dielectric layer after removing the elastic one (foam). This way, the pressure may be converted into a voltage signal, which is 'memorised" by a solid dielectric layer. Finally, the "pressure map" converted into 'an electric potential map" can be visualised by potential distribution determination. The potential distributions obtained in the system for different cases of non-uniform pressure distributions and different elastic layers are presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Triboelectrostatic Phenomena in Suction-type Dilute-phase Pneumatic Transport Systems

    Page(s): 661 - 667
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    Pulverulent and granular materials processed in any suction-type dilute-phase pneumatic transport system tribocharge the pipes they move through. The aim of this study is to refine the understanding of the triboelectrostatic phenomena involved. A laboratory installation was employed for the investigation of the charging and discharging of various zones of an insulating pipe during and after the suction of a well-defined quantity of fine, dust-like, particles. The amount and the sign of the charge that was measured using several custom-designed electrostatic induction probes depended on the nature of the processed powders and varied from one zone of the pipe to another. Surface potential decay measurements confirmed that the insulating pipe retains high levels of charge for several hours after the cease of the suction. These observations point out the need of thorough laboratory modelling of any new pneumatic transport system, in order to avoid the electrostatic hazards related to electric charge build-up in various parts of the installation during operation. View full abstract»

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  • Generation and Dissipation of Negative Heterocharges in XLPE and EPR

    Page(s): 668 - 675
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    Charge generation in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) under dc stress are influenced strongly by inclusions. The inclusions influencing charge generation are cross-linking byproducts, antioxidants, and moisture. These inclusions particularly influence the generation of negative heterocharges observed near positive electrodes, which produce high electric stress regions in XLPE cable insulation under dc voltage. Because a high electric field might cause dielectric breakdown of high-voltage equipment, it is important to minimize negative heterocharge accumulation. Consequently, the authors performed experiments to clarify the negative heterocharge generation mechanism in XLPE and EPR. The authors first studied the influence of cross-linking byproduct and moisture on negative heterocharge generation to clarify the mechanism. The authors next performed experiments to elucidate the effect of antioxidants on heterocharge generation, which revealed that the negative heterocharge is generated in XLPE insulation containing sulfur-containing phenolic antioxidant, or sulfur-type antioxidant. This heterocharge is presumed to be created by the combined effect of the antioxidant and acetophenone. Furthermore, the authors studied the dissipation of negative heterocharges in XLPE and EPR, clarifying that the dissipation of negative heterocharges in EPR is much faster than that in XLPE. This paper presents results of these studies. View full abstract»

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  • 3D High-resolution Mapping of Polarization Profiles in Thin Poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) Films Using Two Thermal Techniques

    Page(s): 676 - 681
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    In this paper, two non-destructive thermal methods are used in order to determine, with a high degree of accuracy, three-dimensional polarization distributions in thin films (12 mum) of poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE). The techniques are the frequency-domain Focused Laser Intensity Modulation Method (FLIMM) and time-domain Thermal-Pulse Tomography (TPT). Samples were first metalized with grid-shaped electrode and poled. 3D polarization mapping yielded profiles which reproduce the electrode-grid shape. The polarization is not uniform across the sample thickness. Significant polarization values are found only at depths beyond 0.5 mum from the sample surface. Both methods provide similar results, TPT method being faster, whereas the FLIMM technique has a better lateral resolution. View full abstract»

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  • Material Charging in Space Environment: Experimental Test Simulation and Induced Conductive Mechanisms

    Page(s): 682 - 688
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    Dielectric materials used in space on satellite structure may have to cope with strong levels of charging under electron irradiation in space environment. This could lead to potential hazardous discharges and electric arcs and consequent anomalies on the satellite, such as electromagnetic disturbances or, in worst case, the destruction of some on-board systems. These materials need to be tested on-ground to assess their electric behaviour and predict any risk of failure in space environment. The SIRENE facility allows the simulation of geostationary orbit electron environment and the evaluation of charging capabilities of material samples. We demonstrate, in this paper, that polyimide and polytetrafluoroethylene samples, commonly used in space, are submitted to potentially high radiation induced conductivity or resistivity and electrical ageing under radiation dose in this environment. These physical mechanisms can either reduce the charging level, as observed for polyimide, or dramatically enhance the electric surface potential and the charging kinetics, as seen on polytetrafluoroethylene, leading to high risk of discharge. View full abstract»

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  • Behavior of Dielectrics in a Charging Space Environment and Related Anomalies in Flight

    Page(s): 689 - 695
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    The aim of this paper is to give a brief description of spacecraft structure and their environments. After a brief presentation of the composition of the various space environments that mainly depends on the altitude from earth, a description of the materials used to make and cover spacecraft will be made. Then different dielectric charging modes will be presented for ground testing and for in-space configurations. Electrostatic discharge phenomena will then be presented, illustrated with some spacecraft failures related to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). View full abstract»

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  • Charging Characteristics of EPDM and Silicone Rubbers Deduced from Surface Potential Measurements

    Page(s): 696 - 703
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    Surface potential dynamics on corona charged surfaces of thick samples of EPDM and silicone rubbers have been studied and analyzed by examining the so called tdV/dt characteristics. This methodology allows for directly obtaining information about charge trap distributions in materials from measurements of potential decay without a-priori knowledge about trap parameters. More importantly, the combination of the above mentioned methodology in conjunction with measurements of other material parameters may provide information desired when analyzing the surface charge behavior on composite insulators for HVDC applications. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Electrostatic Adhesion and Detachment of a Nonuniformly Charged Particle on a Conducting Plane

    Page(s): 704 - 709
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    This paper presents the analysis of electrostatic adhesion and detachment of a charged, dielectric particle resting on a conducting plane. We have studied the effects of particle dielectric constant and the nonuniform charge distribution on the force acting on the particle. Charge on the particle surface is assumed to be smoothly varied and (a) concentrated at the bottom pole or (b) concentrated at the top and bottom poles. The analysis utilizes the method of multipole images to obtain accurate values of the electric field, and determines the electrostatic force from the stress on particle surface. Compared with the force on a uniformly charged particle having the same total charge amount, the analytical results show that the force is significantly enhanced by both kinds of nonuniform charge distribution treated in this work, and is particularly strong when charge is highly concentrated at the bottom pole. It is found that electric field in a limited range must be applied in order to detach the particle from the conducting plane. The electric field necessary for detachment depends strongly on the dielectric constant and the distribution of charge on the particle. The detachment becomes difficult for a particle with charged distributed at the bottom pole, and may be hardly possible if the dielectric constant is too high. View full abstract»

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  • Arc Extinguishing Method of SPD Type 1

    Page(s): 711 - 717
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    Lightning strikes create surge currents which generate overvoltages in the power distribution and data transmission networks. The spark gap surge protective device (SPD) Type 1 diverts high surge current harmlessly to the ground and limits overvoltage to acceptable values. The present paper aims to present the investigations on the spark gap technology and demonstrates the arc extinguishing method on the surge protective devicepsilas performances. Firstly, the association of the spark-gap with an extinguisher device will be presented. In a second stage, experimental and numerical results of the current density, the pressure, and the temperature of the arc during its propagation will be shown. Both the calculations and measurements have been done for a 10/350 mus pulse and various peaks current. View full abstract»

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  • A Modified Version of the Rolling Sphere Method

    Page(s): 718 - 725
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    The calculation of the striking distance can estimate the probability of lightning strike on a structure and thereby evaluate the effectiveness of a lightning protection system (LPS). The dimensioning and the positioning of air-termination on structures is often performed with the Rolling Sphere Method (RSM). RSM originated from the electric power transmission industry and is based on the well-known Electrogeometric Model (EGM). The EGM relates striking distance to the prospective peak stroke current. To apply this technique, an imaginary sphere is rolled over the structure. All surface contact points are deemed to require protection, whilst the unaffected volumes are deemed to be protected. The main drawback of this method is that it disregards the upward leadersiquest development and assumes the same probability for attachment to the ground, to a structure, and to a LPS. The proposed model is based on physical phenomena leading to the formation and the development of positive upward leader in the field produced by the negative downward leader charge distribution and by some other competing upward leaders. Its purpose is to develop a 3-D numerical model in order to improve the interception efficiency of the Lightning Protection System. View full abstract»

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  • Charging of Polymeric Surfaces by Positive Impulse Corona

    Page(s): 726 - 733
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    This paper focuses on analysis of charging of polymeric surfaces by means of impulse corona discharges in air. Internal (space charge densities and electric fields) as well as external (circuit current) characteristics of corona in a point-plane electrode configuration are investigated by means of computer simulations. Two types of onset positive corona modes, namely positive glow corona and burst pulse corona are identified. The developed and verified computer model is further used to study corona charging of a 2 mm thick polymeric material sample. Both the mechanism of charge deposition and distribution of deposited charges on the surface are dependent on the mode of the corona discharge used. In the case of glow corona, charge generation is limited to the anode region and the generated charges move towards the sample surface under applied electric field. Thereafter the deposited charge cloud expands radially along a portion of the surface with fairly constant concentration. In the case of burst pulse corona, series of positive charge clouds start from the anode and move towards the sample surface in a wave-like manner. Each burst contributes to the deposited charge, which spreads over the surface less extensively than that observed during glow corona charging. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Dielectric Barrier Discharges under Unipolar and Bipolar Pulsed Excitation

    Page(s): 734 - 741
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    In this work we experimentally examine the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by two distinct pulsed high voltage (HV) generators. Firstly, the operation under a HV generator delivering positive high voltage pulses with short (tenths of ns) rise and fall times in a low (up to 100 Hz) repetition frequency is illustrated. Then the DBD obtain with the use of a bipolar generator with a larger frequency range (several tenths of kHz) having rise and fall times in the microsecond scale is depicted. In the unipolar excitation regime two discharges per HV pulse occur: a first one during the rising part (or the plateau) of the applied high voltage and a second one during the falling part of the HV signal. On the contrary, the bipolar regime here studied presents a single discharge per HV pulse. Electrical as well as optical measurements give insight in the discharge characteristics in both excitation cases. Several electrical characteristics have been more particularly analyzed such as the quantity of transferred charge, the peak and the average plasma power and the power factor. These preliminary results show that the unipolar case could prove efficient to produce a reactive plasma but higher frequencies (i.e. several tenths of kHz) are needed than the ones used in the present work ones (only up to 100 Hz). View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation contains topics concerned with dielectric phenomena and measurements with development and characterization of gaseous, vacuum, liquid and solid electrical insulating materials and systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Reuben Hackam