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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (42 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Predictive Guidance of a Projectile for Hit-to-Kill Interception

    Page(s): 745 - 755
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a predictive guidance algorithm is developed for a spin-stabilized hit-to-kill guided projectile. The projectile is used as an interceptor against rockets, mortar, and artillery. Guidance is based on a new rapid trajectory prediction algorithm for projectiles fired at high quadrant elevations. The interceptor uses lateral pulse jets located near the mass center for control. High spin rates require additional guidance compensation for gyroscopic effects when compared to a fin-stabilized projectile. The probability of kill (PK) is evaluated based on typical gun pointing errors, roll angle uncertainty, and target acquisition errors. It is shown that guided interceptors can achieve a 90% PK by using as few as 5 projectiles in the presence of roll, gun pointing, and target errors. It is also shown that, despite sensitivity to errors in gun pointing and target errors, the predictive guidance system is able to achieve an acceptable PK. For a spin-stabilized interceptor, estimated-roll orientation errors may become large. Simulations are performed for errors in the estimated roll, and it is demonstrated that roll does not need to be precisely known for a successful interception. View full abstract»

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  • Incremental Step Reference Governor for Load Conditioning of Hybrid Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Page(s): 756 - 767
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine (SOFC/GT) system exploits the complementary features of the two power plants, where the GT recuperates the energy in the SOFC exhaust stream and thereby boosting the overall system efficiency. Through model based transient analysis, however, it is shown that the intricate coupling dynamics make the transient load following very challenging. Power shutdown has been observed when the load is changed abruptly in the generator. In this work, a novel closed-loop reference governor controller is proposed to mitigate the shutdown phenomenon. The reference governor utilizes the region of attraction of a reduced order SOFC/GT model to determine if an incremental step change is allowable, i.e., it does not cause a shutdown. It is shown that with a moderate computational cost, the speed of the hybrid power system response can be improved significantly compared to the fastest conventional load filter. Several design parameters, such as the sampling rate and incremental step-size, are also explored to understand the trade-offs between computational complexity and performance improvement. View full abstract»

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  • Adjusting Output-Limiter for Stable Haptic Rendering in Virtual Environments

    Page(s): 768 - 779
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a control method using an adjusting output-limiter for stable haptic rendering in virtual environments. In a simulation of force-reflecting interaction with deformable objects in the virtual environment, a quick computation of the accurate impedance of deformable objects is rare. This is particularly true when physics-based models, such as tensor-mass models or mass-spring models, are used. The problem is aggravated if the simulation involves changes in the geometry and/or impedance of the deformation model, such as cutting or suturing. The proposed control method guarantees stable haptic interaction with deformable objects of unknown and/or varying impedance. The method is based on the time-domain passivity theorem and the two-port network model. The controller adjusts the maximum permissible force to guarantee the passivity of the haptic system at every sampling instant. The controller notes only the magnitude of the reflective force, and does not depend on properties of the employed force model. This allows the proposed control method applicable to haptic systems involving deformable objects with unknown, nonlinear, and/or time-varying impedance. Designs of the controllers are presented for impedance-type and admittance-type haptic systems. The method is also extended for multiple degrees-of-freedom. View full abstract»

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  • A Qualitative Event-Based Approach to Continuous Systems Diagnosis

    Page(s): 780 - 793
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault diagnosis is crucial for ensuring the safe operation of complex engineering systems. Although discrete-event diagnosis methods are used extensively, they do not easily address parametric fault isolation in systems with complex continuous dynamics. This paper presents a novel event-based approach for diagnosis of abrupt parametric faults in continuous systems, based on a qualitative abstraction of measurement deviations from the nominal behavior. From a continuous model of the system, we systematically derive dynamic fault signatures expressed as event-based fault models, which are used, in turn, for designing an event-based diagnoser of the system and determining system diagnosability. The proposed approach is applied to a subset of the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed, which is representative of a spacecraft's electrical power system. We present experimental results from the actual testbed, as well as detailed simulation experiments that examine the performance of our diagnosis algorithms under different fault magnitudes and noise levels. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Objective Robust H_{\infty } Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous

    Page(s): 794 - 802
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the relative motion dynamic model illustrated by C-W equations, the problem of robust Hinfin control for a class of spacecraft rendezvous systems is investigated, which contains parametric uncertainties, external disturbances and input constraints. An Hinfin state-feedback controller is designed via a Lyapunov approach, which guarantees the closed-loop system to meet the multi-objective design requirements. The existence conditions for admissible controllers are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the controller design is cast into a convex optimization problem subject to LMI constraints. An illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control design method. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of an Electrically Driven Nonholonomic Mobile Robot via Backstepping and Fuzzy Approach

    Page(s): 803 - 815
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the tracking control of an electrically driven nonholonomic mobile robot with model uncertainties in the robot kinematics, the robot dynamics, and the wheel actuator dynamics. A robust adaptive controller is proposed with the utilization of adaptive control, backstepping and fuzzy logic techniques. The proposed control scheme employs the adaptive control approach to design an auxiliary wheel velocity controller to make the tracking error as small as possible in consideration of uncertainties in the kinematics of the robot, and makes use of the fuzzy logic systems to learn the behaviors of the unknown dynamics of the robot and the wheel actuators. The approximation errors and external disturbances can be efficiently counteracted by employing smooth robust compensators. A major advantage of the proposed method is that previous knowledge of the robot kinematics and the dynamics of the robot and wheel actuators is no longer necessary. This is because the controller learns both the robot kinematics and the robot and wheel actuator dynamics online. Most importantly, all signals in the closed-loop system can be guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded. For the dynamic uncertainties of robot and actuator, the assumption of ldquolinearity in the unknown parametersrdquo and tedious analysis of determining the ldquoregression matricesrdquo in the standard adaptive robust controllers are no longer necessary. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a simulation example. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Control Design for a Supercavitating Vehicle

    Page(s): 816 - 832
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Supercavitating vehicles can achieve very high speed but also pose technical challenges in system stability, maneuvering, and control. Compared to a fully-wetted vehicle for which substantial lift is generated due to vortex shedding off the hull, a supercavitating vehicle is enveloped by gas surface (cavity) and thus the lift is provided by control surface deflections of the cavitator and fins, as well as planing force between the vehicle and the cavity. The nonlinearity in modeling of the cavitator, fins, and especially in modeling of the planing force makes the control design more difficult. In this paper, we investigate several nonlinear control design approaches such as sliding-mode control and quasi linear-parameter-varying control for the dive-plane dynamics of a supercavitating vehicle model. The stability and robustness of the final designs are analyzed. Since only a partial set of state variables are measurable, a high-gain observer is also designed to estimate state variables that are not directly available for feedback. Considering the physical limits of deflection angles of control surfaces of the cavitator and fins, we design a saturation compensator and activate it when needed. Then simulation results are presented for the (partial) output feedback controllers, which are combination of state-feedback nonlinear controllers and the high-gain observer. View full abstract»

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  • Decreasing the Apparent Inertia of an Impedance Haptic Device by Using Force Feedforward

    Page(s): 833 - 838
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When using a haptic device in unconstrained movement, the user should experience only minor inertia. For certain tasks, the workspace of the device should be similar or even larger than that of the human arm. This condition tends to lead to large devices that often present high rather than low inertia. This brief describes a method to decrease the inertia felt by users of impedance haptic devices. It has been successfully implemented in the LHIfAM haptic device. The effect that this strategy has on stability and virtual contact is also illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Integer Programming Formulations of the Real-Time Optimal Scheduling and Flight Path Selection of UAVs

    Page(s): 839 - 843
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to research on various aspects of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) applications. UAVs are currently used for various military and civilian missions in the air, sea, space, and on the ground. In two recent papers, Shima (2007) and Kim (2007) considered closely similar m-UAV problems. In Shima (2007), the problem is considered with each target being served by only one UAV to minimize the total travel distance across all UAVs (called load balancing), however, in Kim (2007), the problem is considered with maximum number of targets that each UAV can serve with the objective of minimizing load balancing. Kim presented mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations of the load balancing problem both for when the UAVs return to their original depot and when they do not. Shima presented a combinatorial optimization formulation of their model with a branch-and-bound solution procedure. The MILP formulation of the load balancing problem is also adaptable to Shima 's problem. However, there are major inefficiencies with the MILP formulation presented in Kim 's model. In fact, The MILP formulations presented in Kim are highly complicated with huge number of variables and constraints making them impractical for applications. The purpose of the present note is to provide explicit MILP formulations that dramatically reduce the number of variables and the number of constraints for variety of UAV tour assignment problems including the two models mentioned above and via simulation we show significance of these new formulations. View full abstract»

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  • Control of a 5DOF Magnetically Levitated Positioning Stage

    Page(s): 844 - 852
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-precision, magnetically levitated, five degree-of-freedom (5DOF) positioning stage is presented. Four independently controlled iron-cored permanent magnet linear synchronous motors are used to translate the stage and rotate it about the two horizontal axes. Six optical encoders with 10 mum resolution, mounted on linear guides, are used to measure displacements and rotations. A detailed mathematical model is developed and nonlinear tracking controllers are designed for the 5DOF system using feedback linearization, output regulation, and antiwindup compensation for step and sinusoidal references. View full abstract»

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  • Partial-Energy-Shaping Control for Orbital Stabilization of High-Frequency Oscillations of the Furuta Pendulum

    Page(s): 853 - 858
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of creating oscillations of the Furuta pendulum around the open-loop unstable equilibrium. We start with a control transformation shaping the energy of the passive link. Then, a dissipativity-based controller is designed to create oscillations, neglecting the possibility of unbounded motion of the directly actuated link. After that, an auxiliary linear feedback action is added to the control law stabilizing a desired level of the reshaped energy. Parameters of the controller are tuned to approximately keep the originally created oscillations but ensuring bounded motion of both links. The analysis is valid only for oscillations of sufficiently high frequency and is based on higher order averaging technique. The performance of the designed controller is verified using numerical simulations as well as experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Packet-Based Control Framework for Networked Control Systems

    Page(s): 859 - 865
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A packet-based control framework is proposed for networked control systems (NCSs). This framework takes advantage of the characteristic of the packet-based transmission in a networked control environment, which enables a sequence of control signals to be sent over the network simultaneously, thus making it possible to actively compensate for the communication constraints in NCSs. Under this control framework and a deriving delay-dependent feedback gain scheme, a novel model for NCSs is proposed which can deal with network-induced delay, data packet dropout and data packet disorder in NCSs simultaneously and a receding horizon controller is also designed to implement the packet-based control approach. This approach is then verified by a numerical example and furthermore an Internet-based test rig which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimal Control Method Based on the Energy Flow Equation

    Page(s): 866 - 875
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a new optimal control method based on the energy equation of the controlled system is presented. The method proposed here defines a criteria function as the combination of the energy flow equation and the control-performance function, unlike the way the classical optimal control theory using it to define the performance measures. In this approach, the ideal characteristics of a physical system to be controlled are obtained by extremizing the criteria function. The optimal control law is attained by taking the inverse of the ideal characteristics function. The control law and the equations of motion constitute a closed loop to achieve the control process by using a ldquoself-solving characteristicrdquo of a closed-loop system. The method has been illustrated in the examples of an automobile with tires having complex dissipation and an underactuated underwater vehicle with a criteria function given in a complex form. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Tracking Control of 3-D Overhead Cranes Against the Initial Swing Angle and the Variation of Payload Weight

    Page(s): 876 - 883
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, we propose a nonlinear tracking control method of 3-D overhead crane systems which works well even in the presence of the initial swing angle and the variation of payload weight. Besides the practical importance of the overhead cranes, this study is also theoretically interesting because four variables (trolley and girder positions, two swing angles) should be controlled using two control inputs (trolley and girder forces). To control such an underactuated system as cranes, a simple proportional-derivative (PD) controller has been normally used. Unlike the conventional regulation control, the newly proposed nonlinear tracking control law further improves the performance and robustness, which is based on the feedback linearizing control by using the swing angular rate as well as the swing angle. The proposed nonlinear tracking control law eliminates the nonlinear characteristics of the system and achieves the satisfactory position control and swing suppression, even when the initial swing angle and the variation of payload weight exist. We present the stability analysis and simulation results to demonstrate the practical application of our scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Singularity Avoidance of Control Moment Gyros by Predicted Singularity Robustness: Ground Experiment

    Page(s): 884 - 891
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A steering law design for single gimbal control moment gyros (CMGs) for spacecraft attitude control is addressed. The novel approach for the new steering law has a close relevance to the well-known singularity robustness method combined with the null motion approach. The proposed predicted singularity robustness (PSR) approach ultimately leads to an optimized solution of gimbal rates with performance improvement to avoid singularity by robust gradient null vectors. To apply it to practical systems, a singularity index, so-called inner-product index, is also introduced. The null vector induced from the suggested index provides a more reliable and robust way of escaping singular states than that of the well-known condition number index. Performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using a ground experimental hardware simulator equipped with four single gimbal CMGs floating on top of an air bearing. View full abstract»

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  • Global Stability of a Saturated Nonlinear PID Controller for Robot Manipulators

    Page(s): 892 - 899
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a simple and global stable nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (N-PID) controller incorporated with a new saturated function design. The new class of saturated function is derived from quasi-natural potential function to shape the position and velocity errors. The coordinate of the saturated function is either in joint space or in Cartesian space, and the function is adjustable by changing the function parameters. The new controller formulation differs from traditional SP-ID control in that a nonlinear velocity (D-) control term is added. The global asymptotic stability of the controlled system is analyzed. Experiments performed on a two-link robot manipulator demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed nonlinear PID controller. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of Uncertain Hamiltonian Multi-Input Multi-Output Systems: With Application to Spacecraft Control

    Page(s): 900 - 906
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel adaptive tracking control law for nonlinear Hamiltonian multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems with uncertain parameters in the actuator modeling as well as the inertia and/or the Coriolis and centrifugal terms is developed. The physical properties of the Hamiltonian systems are effectively used in the control design and the stability analysis. The number of the parameter estimates is significantly lowered as compared to the conventional adaptive control methods which are based on the state-space form. The developed control scheme is applied for attitude control of a spacecraft with both the inertia and the actuator uncertainties, and numerical examples show that the controller successfully deals with the unknown inertia/actuator parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Optimization Analysis of a Single-Flagellum Micro-Structure Through the Method of Regularized Stokeslets

    Page(s): 907 - 916
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bacteria such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides use a single flagellum for propulsion and change of orientation. These types of simple organisms have inspired microrobotic designs with potential applications in medicine, which motivates this work. In this paper, an elastic model for a single-flagellum micro-structure is presented and followed by an analysis of the system based on optimization. The model is based on the method of Regularized Stokeslets which allows for a discretization of the system into particles connected by spring forces. The optimization analysis leads to the design of an optimal elasticity distribution that maximizes the mean forward speed of the structure. These elasticity coefficients are obtained through the use of adjoint-based optimization. The results are illustrated through simulations showing improvement on the swimming pattern of the micro-structure. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Minimal and Tolerant Sensor Networks for Observability of Vehicle Active Suspension

    Page(s): 917 - 925
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the importance of sensors in allowing observability and in increasing redundancy and reliability, instrumentation is a crucial phase during plant design. In this brief, it is shown how to design a minimal and a tolerant sensor networks for the observability of vehicle active suspension. The system consists of a full vehicle model and actuator dynamics. Due to its complexity, the system is decomposed into five interconnected subsystems. This decomposition helps in treating each subsystem separately and allows the use of reduced order observers rather than one observer for the whole system. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Ternary Signals for MIMO Identification in the Presence of Noise and Nonlinear Distortion

    Page(s): 926 - 933
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach to designing sets of ternary periodic signals with different periods for multi-input multi-output system identification is described. The signals are pseudo-random signals with uniform nonzero harmonics, generated from Galois field GF(q), where q is a prime or a power of a prime. The signals are designed to be uncorrelated, so that effects of different inputs can be easily decoupled. However, correlated harmonics can be included if necessary, for applications in the identification of ill-conditioned processes. A design table is given for q les 31. An example is presented for the design of five uncorrelated signals with a common period N = 168 . Three of these signals are applied to identify the transfer function matrix as well as the singular values of a simulated distillation column. Results obtained are compared with those achieved using two alternative methods. View full abstract»

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  • Global Trajectory Tracking Through Static Feedback for Robot Manipulators With Bounded Inputs

    Page(s): 934 - 944
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, two globally stabilizing bounded control schemes for the tracking control of robot manipulators with saturating inputs are proposed. They may be seen as extensions of the so-called PD+ algorithm to the bounded input case. With respect to previous works on the topic, the proposed approaches give a global solution to the problem through static feedback. Moreover, they are not defined using a specific sigmoidal function, but any one on a set of saturation functions. Consequently, each of the proposed schemes actually constitutes a family of globally stabilizing bounded controllers. Furthermore, the bound of such saturation functions is explicitly considered in their definition. Hence, the control gains are not tied to satisfy any saturation-avoidance inequality and may consequently take any positive value, which may be considered beneficial for performance-adjustment/improvement purposes. Further, a class of desired trajectories that may be globally tracked avoiding input saturation is completely characterized. For both proposed control laws, global uniform asymptotic stabilization of the closed-loop system solutions towards the prespecified desired trajectory is proved through a strict Lyapunov function. The efficiency of the proposed schemes is corroborated through experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Recursive Identification of Sandwich Systems With Dead Zone and Application

    Page(s): 945 - 951
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a recursive identification approach for a class of nonlinear systems called sandwich systems with the dead zone is proposed. In order to handle the effect of the dead zone, several switch functions are introduced into the model based on the so-called key term separation principle. Hence, the sandwich systems with the dead zone can be transformed into a special model where all the model parameters are separated. Then, a modified recursive general identification algorithm (MRGIA) is applied to the parameter-estimations of the obtained model. Moreover, the convergence of the algorithm for such systems will be discussed. Finally, a simulation example is presented, and the experimental results on an X-Y moving positioning stage are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics for Freeway Traffic by Using Information From a Mobile Cellular Network

    Page(s): 952 - 959
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The high coverage of the territory by cellular networks and the widespread diffusion of mobile terminals aboard vehicles allow one to collect information on the traffic behavior. The problem of selecting a dynamic model to describe the freeway traffic by using the information available from a wireless cellular network is addressed by assuming the distribution of mobile terminals aboard vehicles to be uniform along the carriageway. Two different nonlinear parametrized models of freeway traffic are investigated: the first is an extension to a well-established macroscopic model, while the second is based on a black-box approach and consists in using a neural network to approximate the traffic dynamics. The parameters of such models are identified off line by a least-squares technique. Traffic measurements obtained from a cellular network are employed to identify and validate the proposed models, as shown by means of simulations. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Control Systems Society publishes high-quality papers on technological advances in the design, realization, and operation of control systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Thomas Parisini
Professor
Dept. of Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Engineering
University of Trieste
Via Valerio 10
Trieste  34127  34127  Italy
eic-ieeetcst@units.it
Phone:+39 334 6936615
Fax:+39 040 5583460