By Topic

Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 9 • Date May 1990

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 677
  • The effect of interstital Frank partial dislocations on the gradual degradation of 1.3‐μm double‐channel planar buried heterostructure laser diodes

    Page(s): 3919 - 3926
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB)  

    The structure of defects occurring in degraded 1.3‐μm double‐channel planar buried heterostructure type laser diodes was studied in detail by conventional diffraction contrast, weak‐beam dark‐field microscopy and high‐resolution lattice imaging in a transmission electron microscope. The electrical activity of the defects was analyzed by means of the electron‐beam‐induced current. Device degradation is associated with the presence of interstitial Frank partial dislocation loops with a Burgers vector of (a/3) {111} at the interfaces between the InGaAsP active layer exposed after the channel etching and the first p+‐InP layer of the liquid‐phase‐epitaxy‐grown current‐blocking layers. No other types of defects were observed in the course of the present study. The implications of the latter finding are far‐reaching and lead to a new degradation model for the microstrctural changes associated with the gradual degradation of long‐wavelength lasers. A new degradation model is proposed, and laser diode design considerations for degradation‐free operation are given. These consdierations are twofold: the device structure should (a) not favor Frank partial dislocation loop nucleation and (b) suppress the dissociation of the Frank partial dislocations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spot‐size dependence in thermal nonlinear microcavities

    Page(s): 3927 - 3931
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (311 KB)  

    We present a theoretical model of a physically pixellated nonlinear interference filter illuminated by a Gaussian laser beam. The plane‐wave model figure of merit of a previous paper is redefined as a function of spot size, pixel dimensions, and the thermal conductivities of the pixel and substrate. We present detailed calculations of switching powers, and actual values are obtained for the cases of glass and polyimide pixels on a sapphire substrate. The theory predicts that switching powers of the order of less than 1 mW can be achieved for the polyimide‐sapphire combination and 10 mW for the glass‐sapphire combination. An upper limit of the order of 107 gate Hz/cm2 in an array of pixels is projected. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Theoretical evaluation of a short‐pulse electron‐beam‐excited XeF(B→X) laser using a low‐pressure, room‐temperature Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture

    Page(s): 3932 - 3940
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB)  

    A simulation code for an electron‐beam‐excited XeF(B→X) laser using Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixtures is described. The validity of the code was checked by comparing the computed results to those obtained in a previously reported experiment with a 65‐ns, 1.14‐MW/cm3 excitation pulse. Good agreement is demonstrated for sidelight fluorescence, laser waveforms, output power, and energy. Furthermore, the simulation code analysis suggests that the XeF laser can be operated effectively with low‐pressure (≪1 atm) Ar/Xe/F2 mixtures at room temperature. A maximum intrinsic efficiency of ∼3% is obtained at a total pressure of 0.5 atm. Such a low‐pressure Ar/Xe/F2 laser gas mixture would permit operation of a scaled‐up XeF laser system since the intrinsic efficiency is as high as that with conventional high‐pressure (∼3 atm) Ne/Xe/NF3 mixtures. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Gain measurement of a CuBr laser by means of modified amplified spontaneous emission

    Page(s): 3941 - 3942
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (194 KB)  

    A modified amplified spontaneous emission technique has been introduced to measure the radial distributions of the gain and the saturation energy density of the output of a double‐discharge pulsed CuBr laser. An asymmetric distribution of the gain was obtained. With the laser tube temperature at 420 °C, the peak value of the gain and the saturation energy density are 70 db/m and 85 μJ/cm3, respectively. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fabrication and performance characteristics of buried-facet optical amplifiers

    Page(s): 3943 - 3947
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB)  

    The fabrication, performance characteristics, and design rules of buried-facet optical amplifiers are described. Chip gain of 25 dB, gain ripple of ≪1 dB, and gain difference of ≤1 dB for TE- and TM-polarized light are observed. The gain ripple and polarization dependence of gain correlate well with the ripple and polarization dependence of the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. The performance of buried-facet amplifiers is comparable to that of cleaved-facet amplifiers with very good antireflection (R≪10-4) coatings. The buried-facet design reduces the requirement on antireflection coatings and makes the fabrication process more reproducible. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of high‐power chemical oxygen‐iodine laser for industrial application

    Page(s): 3948 - 3953
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)  

    A scaling up of kW‐class chemical oxygen‐iodine laser (COIL) is achieved. The key issues for the system design of COIL for industrial application is discussed. The scaled up COIL system of 1‐kW output power is now under trial operations. In these operations, a maximum output power of 1100 W, and a continuous operation time of more than 2 h with a power of over 500 W is recorded. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multilevel model analysis of energy extraction from a KrF laser medium by short pulses

    Page(s): 3954 - 3963
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1797 KB)  

    Amplification of short pulse KrF lasers is theoretically studied by using both coherent and incoherent interaction models, which consist of five vibrational levels in the upper laser state and a single repulsive lower laser state. The multilevel models predict a significant decrease in the saturation energies for short applied laser pulses. When the laser pulse width is extremely short (≤1 ps), the higher vibrational levels in the upper KrF laser state are repumped from the lower laser state instead of being extracted by the laser pulse. Since the small‐signal gain also decreases as the applied pulse width decreases, due to mismatch between the laser pulse and the KrF gain spectrum, the energy extraction efficiencies for subpicosecond laser pulses deteriorate significantly. For longer pulse widths (≥10 ps), population repumping from the KrF(C) state increases the effective saturation energy of the KrF(B) state. A steady‐state population of ≊28% relative to the B‐state population is estimated for the C state from recent experimental results of KrF gain recovery. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characterization of waveguides formed by proton‐exchange in MgO‐doped and Nd:MgO‐doped LiNbO3: A comparison with congruent material

    Page(s): 3964 - 3967
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB)  

    Proton‐exchanged waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 doped with 4.5% MgO and 0.1–0.2 % Nd:4.5% MgO have been characterized by prism‐coupling and infrared‐absorption spectroscopy. Single and multimode doped waveguides have temporally stable effective mode indices, and the refractive‐index profiles are identical to those observed for proton exchange in congruent LiNbO3. Effective diffusion coefficients for proton exchange in doped x and z‐cut substrates have been estimated for waveguide‐fabrication temperatures in the range 182–235 °C. While diffusion coefficients for MgO:LiNbO3 and Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 appear to be identical, waveguides formed in the doped substrates have substantially smaller diffusion coefficients compared to waveguides formed in congruent LiNbO3, the magnitudes being down by as much as 50% for x‐cut waveguides and 37% for z‐cut waveguides. These results should prove of value when using the proton‐exchange technique to design waveguide lasers in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A study of proton exchange in congruent single‐crystal LiNbO3 by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Page(s): 3968 - 3970
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine Li+ concentrations in benzoic acid after proton exchange with x‐ and z‐cut LiNbO3 as a function of exchange time and temperature. The atomic absorption results, in agreement with our previous infrared spectroscopic and optical waveguide measurements, indicate that there is no evidence for saturation of the melt by Li+ at typical melt volumes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spontaneous emission in the uniform magnetic‐field free‐electron laser described by the ordinary and scalarized photons

    Page(s): 3971 - 3982
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB)  

    As is the case with the usual free‐electron laser with a helical magnetic field, the uniform magnetic‐field free‐electron laser has both the fundamental and the higher harmonic‐frequency (spontaneous and stimulated) emission, where, however, emission with higher harmonic frequencies occurs only off axis. (The z component of the initial electron velocity defines the axis direction, which is also the direction of the uniform magnetic field B.) Here, within the multiphoton formalism, using both the ordinary and scalarized photons, we study only the spontaneous emission, into the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. It is proven that the use of the scalarized photons, whose advantage is that they simplify many calculations, is generally equivalent to the use of the ordinary photons. Specifically we find that the radiated energy, either total or partial (for a particular harmonic), scales linearly with L, the interaction length, and quadratically with B. The numerical analysis of the angular distribution of the spontaneously emitted energy indicates that, in addition to dominant on‐axis fundamental frequency spontaneous emission, we can have rather significant higher harmonic‐frequency spontaneous emission occurring just slightly off axis. So it appears that, at least in principle, not only on axis but also slightly off axis (higher harmonic) spontaneous emission could be used to stimulate emission from electrons further along for sufficiently wide electron beams. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Heat conduction from a heated particle placed in a two‐phase medium with a dispersed phase size comparable to the particle size

    Page(s): 3983 - 3989
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB)  

    The steady rate of heat conduction Q from a heated sphere maintained at a constant temperature different from that of a surrounding two‐phase medium, which consists of an array of spherical particles of thermal conductivity αk and a matrix of conductivity k, is determined by a method of multipole expansion to O(ϕ4), where ϕ is the volume fraction of the particles in the array, and by a lubrication analysis for highly conducting and closely packed arrays. The results of the two analyses are combined to obtain estimates of Q that are expected to be accurate over the complete range of α and ϕ. These results are compared with the predictions of an effective‐medium theory, and it is shown that the predictions of this theory are quite accurate over a rather wide range of α, 0≪α≪103, for the case of a simple cubic array, even at its maximum allowable volume fraction, but differ by as much as 60% for the case of a face‐centered cubic array. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Flow and temperature fields in a weld pool formed by a moving laser

    Page(s): 3990 - 3998
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB)  

    In this paper a two‐dimensional model of fluid and heat flow in weld pools is considered and a solution methodology is presented that is based on a perturbation expansion with the Prandtl number as a small parameter. This allowed us to determine the temperature field efficiently and by using it to determine the location of the phase front to map the molten region into a semicircular region in which the Boussinesq form of the Navier–Stokes equations were solved. Doing so allows the domain to be represented with a much smoother phase boundary than is usual in phase change problems. The flow in the weld pool made with a moving laser shows vigorous convection on the solidification side of the weld pool and crowding of the isotherms on the melting side. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Particulate generation in silane/ammonia rf discharges

    Page(s): 3999 - 4011
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (2017 KB)  

    The rate of particle generation in a SiH4/NH3 rf discharge has been studied as a function of the discharge operating parameter space, electrode geometry, and power supply coupling mode. Measurements of the bulk quantity of particles produced in the discharge reveal that the mode of coupling (capacitive or dc) as well as the electrode temperature significantly affects particle generation rates. Laser light scattering measurements made as a function of the plasma power density indicate that particle generation abruptly ceases at a threshold value sufficient to induce spark breakdown at the cathode. Based on these observations, it is shown that particle growth in plasmas can be modeled entirely as a heterogeneous process. The initiation of particle growth is shown to be consistent with an electron surface desorption model involving vibrational excitation of surface clusters. Propagation of growth in the gas phase is shown to be consistent with an eliminative ion‐molecular condensation reaction, and the pressure dependence of this mechanism is exploited to estimate a value for the rate constants for SiH4 and NH3 condensation in SiN:H particle growth. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement of Hg 6p 3P0,1,2 state densities in the low‐pressure positive‐column Ar‐Hg discharge using 8s 3S1–6p 3P0,1,2 lines

    Page(s): 4012 - 4014
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (274 KB)  

    The measurement method of Hg 6p 3P0,1,2 state densities using the 8s 3S1–6p 3P0,1,2 lines of less absorption has been developed, and the Hg 6p 3P state densities on the tube axis in the low‐pressure positive‐column Ar‐Hg discharge of 12 mm inner diameter used for the mercury lamp have been measured. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Influence of the dissociation process of oxygen on the electron swarm parameters in oxygen

    Page(s): 4015 - 4023
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB)  

    Previous theoretical studies assumed that the energy loss of a colliding electron has a discrete value for dissociative excitation of molecular oxygen. In the calculation of the rate coefficients for oxygen atom yields using the Boltzmann equation, the previous reports have used discrete energy loss values of 6.1 eV for A3Σ+u and 8.4 eV for B3Σ-u. In this paper, we take account of the fact that the excitation to B3Σ-u has a continuum energy loss spectrum and describe the effects on calculated swarm parameters that are important in the simulation of ozonizer discharges. It can be seen that the use of a continuum electron energy‐loss spectrum as opposed to a discrete electron energy loss associated with excitation to the B3Σ-u state makes no significant difference in the calculated values of electron swarm parameters in oxygen. We also calculate the ozone yield as a function of E/N obtained from the analysis of the energy balance equation. In this case, the partial cross section for dissociation via B3Σ-u assuming a continuum electron energy‐loss spectrum can have significant effects on the atomic oxygen yields at different E/N. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Pulsed‐laser crystallization of amorphous silicon layers buried in a crystalline matrix

    Page(s): 4024 - 4035
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (2619 KB)  

    Ion implantation, employing Si, Ar, and Cu ions in the energy range from 275 to 600 keV, was used to form amorphous silicon layers buried in a crystalline matrix. Different layer geometries were produced, with 150–620‐nm‐thick amorphous layers, separated from the surface by 120–350‐nm‐thick crystalline layers. Crystallization of the amorphous layers was induced by 32‐ns pulsed ruby laser irradiation. Real‐time reflectivity and conductivity measurements indicate that internal melting can be initiated at the amorphous‐crystalline interface, immediately followed by explosive crystallization of the buried layer. Channeling and cross‐section transmission electron microscopy reveal that in both Si(100) and Si(111) samples explosive crystallization proceeds epitaxially with twin formation, the twin density being higher in Si(111) than in Si(100). The measured crystal growth velocities range from 15 to 16 m/s, close to the fundamental limit for crystalline ordering at a Si liquid‐crystalline interface. Computer modeling of heat flow and phase transformations supports the experimental data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Amorphization and solid‐phase epitaxial growth in tin‐ion‐implanted gallium arsenide

    Page(s): 4036 - 4041
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    The amorphization and recrystallization of tin‐ion‐implanted gallium arsenide were studied by cross‐sectional transmission electron microscopy. Amorphization occurred in the sample implanted at a dose of 1014 ions/cm2. The interface between the amorphous region and the crystalline matrix is not flat. The amorphous region recrystallizes epitaxially with microtwin formation at 673 K. The amorphous‐crystalline interface in the sample implanted at a dose of 1016 ions/cm2 is flat. In the deep region of this sample a solid‐phase epitaxial growth without microtwin formation is observed after annealing at 673 K. These structural changes were compared with the nuclear energy loss (damage energy) distribution simulated by the trim code. It is concluded that the amorphization of the sample implanted at a dose of 1014 ions/cm2 is induced by the accumulation of damage energy; on the other hand, the amorphization of the sample implanted at a dose of 1016 ions/cm2 cannot be explained only by this process. The contribution of stress at the amorphous‐crystalline interface is suggested. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Highly uniform ion implants into GaAs by wafer rotation

    Page(s): 4042 - 4044
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    The influence of wafer rotation on implanted dose uniformity was investigated using thermal‐wave measurement to realize highly uniform ion implants into a (001) wafer. It was found that conically rotating ion implantation is an effective way to scramble the scanning ion beam during implantation by using an electrostatic‐scan implantation system with a specially designed wafer station. Furthermore, two‐fold ion implantation was employed to correct the dose inhomogeneity caused by the variation of the tilt angle across a wafer. Based on these considerations, a high dose uniformity of less than 1% across a wafer was achieved. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Force measurement using an ac atomic force microscope

    Page(s): 4045 - 4052
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB)  

    Complete amplitude‐displacement‐frequency spectra for a lever of an atomic force microscope have been measured and used to determine surface forces in air. Two ac techniques were used to measure the shift in resonant frequency of the Ni lever, as a function of separation from a mica surface. A strong, short‐range force was observed for freshly prepared surfaces, implying a van der Waals interaction. A weak, long‐range force was observed after exposure of the surfaces for some hours, suggestive of a capillary interaction. The long‐range force appeared to contain a nonconservative element which increased on approach to the surface. The results have implications for surface‐force determinations by single tip displacement scans, and for imaging with force microscopes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • As+ and Ga+ implantation and the formation of buried GaAs layers in silicon

    Page(s): 4053 - 4059
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1339 KB)  

    A buried layer of GaAs was formed in single‐crystal silicon by dual implantation of extremely high doses of As+ plus Ga+ at 200 keV, followed by furnace annealing. The layer consists of polycrystalline grains with random orientation. Rapid thermal annealing, in the presence of oxygen, does not result in the formation of GaAs. Instead, Ga and As migrate to the surface to form an oxidized layer, which is separated from the underlying silicon by a thin layer of SiO2. Analysis of the samples with single implants of Ga+ or As+ indicates the oxides formed to be Ga2O3 and As2O2. Samples implanted with As+ alone have essentially dislocation loops after annealing, while those implanted with only Ga+ have mostly microtwins and precipitates. Up to 88% Ga and 62% As from the single implants and 31% As and Ga from the dual implants are lost during annealing. This is probably due to the migration of the implanted species to the surface and the subsequent formation of volatile oxides. However, such outward migration does not result in redistribution or broadening of the implanted species. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Conformationally incommensurate form of poly(vinylidene fluoride) induced by electric field

    Page(s): 4060 - 4063
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB)  

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) form II is transformed to polar II under a high electric field. Servet and Rault [J. Phys. (Paris) 40, 1145 (1979)] found few weak so‐called superlattice spots on the fiber diagram of polar II. In the present study these spots are clarified to arise from a new form, which is considered to be the intermediate structure between polar II (TGTG¯)n and form I (T)n, a conformationally incommensurate structure. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interactions of deuterium with ion‐irradiated SiO2 on Si

    Page(s): 4064 - 4071
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1521 KB)  

    The interactions of deuterium with ion‐irradiated SiO2 on Si were investigated during annealing in D2 gas and vacuum over the temperature range 373–1273 K. The uptake and release of D by the oxide layer were monitored using the ion‐induced nuclear reaction D(3He,p)4He. Results were analyzed in terms of a new mathematical model which describes the diffusion of atomic D and molecular D2 in conjunction with trapping at irradiation defects via SiD and OD bonding. The combined body of experimental data on release is quantitatively described by the model using fitted binding enthalpies of 2.8 eV for the Si‐D interaction and 3.2 eV for the O‐D coupling. The model predicts a relationship between the activation barriers for trapping and detrapping which is in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data on uptake. The same relationship is obeyed by independently reported results on the hydrogen passivation and reactivation of Si‐dangling‐bond defects at the SiO2‐Si interface. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Qualitative analysis of degradation processes of attenuating plane waves by underdetermined system theory

    Page(s): 4072 - 4082
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB)  

    A qualitative analysis of the mechanical response caused by smooth attenuating wave fronts and by continuous attenuating wave fronts degrading in rate‐dependent media is performed by an underdetermined system of equations, that is, by equations of conservation of mass and momentum only. Degradation is defined as the decrease of the number of partial waves in a smooth wave front or of independent waves in a continuous wave front. For the smooth wave front the inceptive wave front with which the degradation commences is a wave that is composed of four partial waves found previously and named a contraction wave, mesocontraction waves I and II, and a rear rarefaction wave. The analysis reveals one possible degradation process that is caused by another rarefaction wave which first follows the rear wave and then outruns the rear wave, mesocontraction waves II and I in sequence. The continuous wave degrades from the inceptive continuous wave front which is composed of four independent waves found previously and named a contraction wave, degenerate contraction waves I and II, and a rear rarefaction wave. The analysis indicates that degradation from the inceptive wave front to the contraction wave is possible to progress in six different patterns. In short, the degradation can occur through six different processes. Each process gives rise to four different sets of strain, particle velocity, and stress profiles, and accordingly four different types of stress‐strain paths and four different types of stress‐particle velocity paths. The stress‐strain paths induced during some of the processes are similar to the paths in sandstone computed by Seaman using the Lagrangian analysis. The stress‐particle velocity paths induced during some of the processes are also similar to the paths in LASL graphite computed by Seaman. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High lubrication performance of tribologically oriented fluoropolymer molecules analyzed by polarized infrared microspectroscopy

    Page(s): 4083 - 4089
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (1357 KB)  

    The molecular structural changes induced in sputtered fluoropolymer film by tribological effects is pursued using polarized micro‐Fourier‐transform‐infrared (micro‐FTIR) spectroscopy. Hydrogenation of the carbon radicals produced by CF or CC bond cleavage is detected in the mildly rubbed region, together with CC bond formation. Polarization measurements reveal that a rigid CC‐bond‐rich framework is oriented along the sliding direction in a hardly rubbed region. This rigid carbon framework involves CF bonds with low polarizability. This structure greatly contributes to stable lubrication with a low friction coefficient, after the fluctuating lubrication characteristics that occur in the early rubbing stage have stabilized. These molecular structures are decomposed into C 3/4 C and CCC bonds through further elimination of CF moieties by abrasive hard rubbing by all means. Finally, they extremely decompose into amorphous carbon and metal carbide under severe conditions involving the reactive metals which appear after the film molecules are worn out. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Determination of spall strength from surface motion studies

    Page(s): 4090 - 4092
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB)  

    An expression in the literature has been used to determine the spall strength of materials from measurements of the surface velocity on reflection of a nonsteady shock wave. It uses initial density, the sound speed, and the difference between the initial surface jump‐off velocity and the minimum in the velocity seen when the spall shock reaches the surface. Workers using the expression have found it necessary to choose the sound speed carefully in order to get reasonable results. It is shown that this is due to the inadequacy of the acoustic approximation used to represent the release isentrope. Approximation of the release isentrope by the Hugoniot makes it unnecessary to use special velocities and gives better agreement with experiment. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory