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Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of

Issue 1 • Date June 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking - front cover

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1803 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Editorial Board]

    Page(s): i
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): ii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Inaugural Issue Editors' Introduction

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An Optimal Investment Strategy for Tunable, Pluggable, and Tunable Pluggable Optical Transceivers in Static DWDM Networks

    Page(s): 3 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems enable transmission capacity to be significantly enhanced and facilitate the integrated management of diverse protocols. The number of backup transponders in a static dense WDM (DWDM) system can be effectively reduced by using tunable lasers, 10-gigabit small form factor pluggable (XFP) transceivers, and XFP transceivers with a tunability function. In this paper, two failure recovery strategies are described for static DWDM networks that use fixed wavelength assignment, and an optimal investment strategy is derived for selecting optical transceivers to be used for backup. The strategy is based on the compatibility between the field and backup transponders. The failure recovery strategy and optical transceiver type to be used for backup should be selected on the basis of not only the initial investment costs but also the operation costs and the networkpsilas switching system. View full abstract»

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  • Cost Minimization Planning for Greenfield Passive Optical Networks

    Page(s): 17 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We plan greenfield PON networks to minimize their total deployment costs. We propose an efficient heuristic called the Recursive Association and Relocation Algorithm (RARA) to solve the optimization problem. Our algorithm can significantly reduce PON network deployment costs compared to an intuitive random-cut sectoring approach. To further tune down the costs, we also exploit the opportunity of cable conduit sharing by proposing an extension to RARA. Our case studies show that there are saturating trends for the PON deployment costs with the increase of the three system parameters, including maximal optical split ratio, maximal transmission distance, and maximal differential distance. Also, to reduce computation time for large PON deployment scenarios, we propose a disintegration planning method to divide a large planning scenario into several small ones. The method is found to be effective to provide close performance, but require much less computation, compared to the situation without disintegration. View full abstract»

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  • Game-Theoretic Optimization of a Fiber-to-the-Home Municipality Network Rollout

    Page(s): 30 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rolling out fiber to the home (FTTH) is very cost intensive, and typical figures mention around 1500euro ($2000) to add one house to the network. The viability of a FTTH project largely depends on the take rate and as such on the competition with other operators. In this paper we investigate a case in which a municipality rolls out FTTH in competition with another network operator upgrading its infrastructure. We construct an economic model for both operators, including the effects of competition, on which we apply game theory to find the optimal strategies. We complete the results using sensitivity analysis. The final results show how a municipality FTTH rollout drives the existing operator into a more aggressive competition and how FTTH favors industrial sites and densely populated areas. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Layer Local Area Network Emulation in a Multifunctional Repeater-Based Optical Access Network

    Page(s): 43 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple and bandwidth-efficient scheme for providing local area networking among customers in a multifunctional repeater-based optical access network is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The local traffic from a customer premises is carried on a radio frequency carrier along with the upstream traffic, and this traffic is electrically separated and then combined with downstream traffic at the remote repeater for delivery to the customers. View full abstract»

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  • Beyond 100 Gb∕s Optical Transmission Based on Polarization Multiplexed Coded-OFDM With Coherent Detection

    Page(s): 50 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a coded-modulation scheme suitable for beyond 100 Gb#s transmission and 100 Gb#s Ethernet. It is based on polarization multiplexed coded-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). By using 32-QAM-based polarization multiplexed coded-OFDM, we are able to achieve the aggregate rate of 100 Gb#s, while the OFDM signal bandwidth is only 10 GHz, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10 bits#s#Hz. The spectral efficiency of the proposed scheme is twice higher than that of the polarization diversity OFDM scheme. We show that the proposed multicarrier scheme is insensitive to polarization mode dispersion (PMD), while the PMD represents a major source of performance degradation in single carrier systems, in addition to fiber nonlinearities. We also describe how to determine the symbols' log-likelihood ratios in the presence of laser phase noise. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of a Peer-to-Peer-Based Architecture for Emerging Consumer Grid Applications

    Page(s): 57 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, the application of grid computing has become more common in the scientific and business communities and is likely to be open to the consumer market in the future. The achievement of this scheme, referred to as consumer grids, requires not only an efficient network paradigm for job transmission, but also a scalable and robust architecture, since there is a large number of dynamic resources and users (perhaps millions) and a high frequency of job requests in the consumer market. It has already been verified that the optical burst switching (OBS) network is a promising candidate for consumer grids. However, all the current architectures proposed for grids over OBS networks are client-server (C/S) based, carrying the disadvantages of poor scalability, poor fault tolerance, and low efficiency with increasing numbers of grid users and jobs. In order to address this issue, a novel peer-to-peer (P2P)-based architecture for optical grids is investigated, and this architecture is experimentally demonstrated on a labeled OBS (LOBS) network testbed. Results from theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration show that the proposed P2P-based architecture is feasible, scalable, and efficient for grid applications. Moreover, it outperforms C/S-based architectures for emerging large-scale consumer-oriented grid applications. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Granular Optical Cross-Connect: Design, Analysis, and Demonstration

    Page(s): 69 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fundamental issue in all-optical switching is to offer efficient and cost-effective transport services for a wide range of bandwidth granularities. This paper presents multi-granular optical cross-connect (MG-OXC) architectures that combine slow (ms regime) and fast (ns regime) switch elements, in order to support optical circuit switching (OCS), optical burst switching (OBS), and even optical packet switching (OPS). The MG-OXC architectures are designed to provide a cost-effective approach, while offering the flexibility and reconfigurability to deal with dynamic requirements of different applications. All proposed MG-OXC designs are analyzed and compared in terms of dimensionality, flexibility/reconfigurability, and scalability. Furthermore, node level simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of MG-OXCs under different traffic regimes. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed architectures is demonstrated on an application-aware, multi-bit-rate (10 and 40 Gbps), end-to-end OBS testbed. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Amplifiers Placement in WDM Mesh Networks for Optical Multicasting Service Support

    Page(s): 85 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of placing optical amplifiers (OAs) in wavelength-routing mesh networks has been studied in the literature in two contexts: network provisioning and connections provisioning. In this paper, we introduce optimal and heuristic solutions for the network provisioning problem. The solution is based on constructing a multicast forest for each multicast connection with the goal of minimizing the total number of OAs needed in the network, hence reducing its cost. The optimal solution is formulated as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). On the other hand, the heuristic solution is obtained by dividing the problem into subproblems and solving them separately while taking the interdependency between these subproblems into consideration. The results obtained from both solutions are compared and they are found to be a good match. View full abstract»

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  • TCP Performance Over Optical Burst-Switched Networks With Different Access Technologies

    Page(s): 103 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (750 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interworking between different access networks and an optical burst switched network is considered here. The end-to-end performance of the TCP (transmission control protocol) is evaluated by jointly accounting for access network protocols and the burst assembly procedure at ingress edge nodes, both with wired and wireless access solutions, based on electrical and advanced optical technologies. The influence of the assembly timeout in different access contexts is presented, and numerical investigations are performed by means of ns-2 simulations. Results show that end-to-end throughput is mostly influenced by the delay introduced by access protocols, which arise in the analyzed different scenarios, and by assembly timeout. These results provide meaningful insights about interconnected systems to the task of overall network design and, in particular, to the setup of the interworking unit parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Accumulated-Downtime-Oriented Restoration Strategy With Service Differentiation in Survivable WDM Mesh Networks

    Page(s): 113 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Telecommunications service providers (SP) should place survivability expectations by guaranteeing maximal allowed system downtime for service-level agreement (SLA)-differentiated services. Furthermore, SPs should continuously focus on utilizing network resources effectively, by considering the bounded network capacity and the growth of future data traffic. In order to improve different service availabilities and achieve high resource efficiency, we present a novel restoration scheme by jointly considering accumulated downtime and SLA requirements of faulty connections. While most past related works have focused on providing statistical guarantees on availability when a connection is provisioned, our current approach recognizes that, after a connection has been in existence, it could be ldquoaheadrdquo (or ldquobehindrdquo) its performance guarantee based on what network outages it might have experienced, so the resources allocated to it may be revised judiciously. When a link failure occurs, two sets of faulty connections are examined: (a) connections whose primary or restoration path is disrupted by the failure and (b) connections that are in the ldquodownrdquo state due to some previous failures (which have not been repaired yet). An affected connection is switched to its pre-computed or an alternate restoration path if necessary, when its accumulated downtime plus the link repair time will exceed its SLA requirement. The scheme provides differentiated restoration to existing connections upon a link failure in order to satisfy the connectionspsila availability requirements. We also propose an upgraded version of the scheme that incorporates both excess capacity and resource preemption into the scheme. Given the network capacities and the current network state including routing information for all existing connections, a faulty connection is restored to its restoration path as long as there is enough excess capacity along the path. Otherwise, when protection switch- ing of a high-SLA connection fails due to limited bandwidth on some link(s), it preempts restoration capacity on each link from a low-SLA connection if both disrupted connections share the same restoration capacity and the availability requirement of the low-SLA connection is not violated. Finally, we report simulation results for a large carrier-scale network to show computational performance of our proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the algorithm achieves a high availability satisfaction rate and good resource utilization, as well as greatly reduces protection-switching overhead. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring of Linearly Accumulated Optical Impairments in All-Optical Networks

    Page(s): 125 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical performance monitoring covers a very wide range of measurements intended to help ensure network performance and is essential for service providers. We address the problem of solving the linearly accumulated end-to-end impairments of a special set of paths of interest in a reconfigurable all-optical network. This set of paths of interest may include all the paths between any two communicating nodes. The main focus is on the minimization of the number of monitoring devices that are required. A set of channels is injected into the network and monitored. By using the correlation in the channel quality between injected channels, a framework of algebraic performance monitoring is proposed to derive the channel quality of the paths of interest from the linear combination of the monitoring results of the injected channel. The upper bounds on the minimum number of monitoring devices required are derived and constructively achieved for a general network. For a special network in which all nodes are capable of initiating and dropping the monitoring channels, the fundamental limit on the minimum number of monitoring devices is also achieved. The proposed monitoring scheme for this kind of network can also locate at least one fault, even if multiple faults occur. We reduce the cost of monitoring by utilizing the information from the monitoring results and minimizing the number of monitoring devices. View full abstract»

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  • Planar-Subgraph and Eulerian-Based Techniques for Determining Protection Ring Covers in Mesh Optical Networks

    Page(s): 142 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ring architectures have been widely used by telecommunications carriers for the deployment of networks based on synchronous optical network (SONET) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). These architectures have several attractive properties that make them desirable for a large number of applications. Even though arbitrary mesh network architectures provide additional degrees of freedom and are more flexible than rings, in a number of applications there are advantages to decomposing the mesh topologies into a set of rings that cover the network. One of the primary uses of ring covers is to provide survivability against link and node failures. This paper investigates novel approaches for establishing ring covers in optical networks with mesh topologies, while minimizing the length of the ring covers. View full abstract»

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  • Cost-Efficient Fiber Connection Topology Design for Metropolitan Area WDM Networks

    Page(s): 158 - 175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide some analytical insights into physical architectures that can serve as benchmarks for designing a cost-efficient WDM metropolitan area network (MAN). For uniform all-to-all traffic and regular topologies with nodal symmetry, we identify a class of regular graphs-Generalized Moore Graphs-that have several attractive properties by formulating a first-order cost model and characterizing the tradeoff between fiber and switching resources. Our results show that, in conjunction with minimum hop routing, Moore Graphs achieve the minimum cost and simultaneously use the least number of wavelengths. We also take steps to broaden the scope of our work by addressing irregular network topologies, which represent most existing networks. Our results show that Generalized Moore Graphs can be used to provide useful estimates of the cost of irregular networks and can serve as good reference architectures for the designs of practical networks. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-Minimized Design for IP Over WDM Networks

    Page(s): 176 - 186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (947 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the Internet expands in reach and capacity, the energy consumption of network equipment increases. To date, the cost of transmission and switching equipment has been considered to be the major barrier to growth of the Internet. But energy consumption rather than cost of the component equipment may eventually become a barrier to continued growth. Research efforts on ldquogreening the Internetrdquo have been initiated in recent years, aiming to develop energy-efficient network architectures and operational strategies so as to reduce the energy consumption of the Internet. The direct benefits of such efforts are to reduce the operational costs in the network and cut the greenhouse footprint of the network. Second, from an engineering point of view, energy efficiency will assist in reducing the thermal issues associated with heat dissipation in large data centers and switching nodes. In the present research, we concentrate on minimizing the energy consumption of an IP over WDM network. We develop efficient approaches ranging from mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models to heuristics. These approaches are based on traditional virtual-topology and traffic grooming designs. The novelty of the framework involves the definition of an energy-oriented model for the IP over WDM network, the incorporation of the physical layer issues such as energy consumption of each component and the layout of optical amplifiers in the design, etc. Extensive optimization and simulation studies indicate that the proposed energy-minimized design can significantly reduce energy consumption of the IP over WDM network, ranging from 25% to 45%. Moreover, the proposed designs can also help equalize the power consumption at each network node. This is useful for real network deployment, in which each node location may be constrained by a limited electricity power supply. Finally, it is also interesting and useful to find that an energy-efficient network design is also a cost-efficient design - because of the fact that IP router ports play a dominating role in both energy consumption and network cost in the IP over WDM network. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling WDM Wavelength Switching Systems for Use in GMPLS and Automated Path Computation

    Page(s): 187 - 195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network control planes have made an implicit assumption that the switching devices in a network are symmetric. In wavelength-switched optical networks even the most basic switching element, the reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer, is highly asymmetric. This paper presents a model of optical switching subsystems for use in generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS), route selection, and wavelength assignment. The model covers a large class of switching subsystems without internal wavelength converters. The model is applied to a number of common optical technologies, and a compact encoding for use in the optical control plane is furnished along with a method for deriving a simplified graph representation. View full abstract»

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  • Topological Wavelength Usage Estimation in Transparent Wide Area Networks

    Page(s): 196 - 203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A power law relationship is established between wavelength usage and algebraic connectivity of backbone wavelength division multiplexing networks. From this observation, a concise prediction formula linking wavelength consumption to network topologies is derived and evaluated for real-world wide area networks. It is shown that the algebraic-connectivity-based wavelength usage estimation is more precise than evaluations relying on node degree variance, number of spanning trees, and average internodal distance. View full abstract»

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  • Information for contributors

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking covers advances in the state-of-the-art of optical communications and networks.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief
Patrick Iannone
  Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs
Ori Gerstel
   Cisco Systems, Inc.