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Electronics Letters

Issue 12 • Date June 4 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
  • Electronics Letters - [editorial]

    Page(s): 575
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Silicon photonics: the optical spice rack

    Page(s): 576 - 578
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (146 KB)  

    Silicon is evolving as a versatile photonics platform with multiple functionalities that can be seamlessly integrated. The toolbox is rich, starting from the ability to guide and switch multiple wavelength sources at gigahertz bandwidths, to optomechanical MEMS and opto-fluidics devices. Some of the challenges in the field of silicon photonics are discussed; among them are the decrease of losses in silicon waveguides and the integration of silicon photonics with current CMOS microelectronics. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic integration: Si or InP substrates?

    Page(s): 578 - 581
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    A brief review of recent progress in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is presented. By examining Moore's Law and the roadmap of conventional electronic ICs, valuable lessons in host material selection for PICs are discussed. Finding a primary host material for integration is necessary and vital to the success of the PIC industry. Initial success has been achieved in both InP-based and silicon-based commercial PICs; however, we believe that cost and performance may select silicon as the primary host material, with the urgency to deploy optical interconnects on Si electronic ICs as one of the main reasons. A recently introduced hybrid silicon evanescent platform and devices and silicon/germanium APDs are reviewed as examples to understand the viability of silicon PICs and lead to an understanding of a possible roadmap to next generation large-scale PICs. View full abstract»

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  • Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab

    Page(s): 581 - 582
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    Fabless access to wafer-scale silicon photonics technology is moving silicon photonics closer to becoming a mainstream technology and opens up new exciting areas for research at the same time. It is only by using wafer-scale technology that this emerging field will be able to realise its promise: to become a disruptive technology. At the basis of the rationale for silicon photonics is a complex of photonic functions integrated on a single chip, coupled to a stable, high-yield volume fabrication technology base. ePIXfab is a service platform offering R oriented access to state-of-the-art 200 mm wafer-scale CMOS technology optimised for silicon photonics purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon photonics: a bright future?

    Page(s): 582 - 584
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    Silicon photonics has expanded considerably in the last decade and a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. Some of the recent results from the field are reviewed before the main areas requiring further research before they can be achieved are discussed. An overview is given of the major Si photonics research presently being pursued in the UK. Finally, a number of potential new applications are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Future prospects of silicon photonics in next generation communication and computing systems

    Page(s): 584 - 588
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    The recent progress is reviewed and future prospects of silicon photonics in next generation communication and computing systems are probed. Leveraging the many-billion-dollar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) industry, silicon photonics has promising prospects for realising very large-scale electronic and photonic integrated circuits with thousands of optical components and millions of transistors in the future to support very demanding integrated systems needs of next generation computing and communications. There are also a number of significant challenges in fulfilling such prospects. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon photonics in China

    Page(s): 588 - 591
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (98 KB)  

    Silicon photonics, particularly its compatibility with existing silicon microelectronic technology, has been increasingly studied in recent years. China sees the potential impact on the sustainability of its economic development and is increasing the investment in this new research area. But, the lack of research and manufacture accumulation in silicon microelectronic technology will weigh down the pace of silicon photonics research in China in the years to come. View full abstract»

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  • Low-pass biquadratic filters with high suppression rate

    Page(s): 591 - 593
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    Low-pass biquadratic filters providing a high attenuation rate in the stopband are presented. This feature achieves better high frequency parameters, even with conventional (e.g. low consumption) active elements. Analysis and improvements of the Sallen-Key filter, as well as a biquadratic filter based on the second generation current conveyor CCII are also presented. The optimisation relies on the parasitic transfer zeros elimination. View full abstract»

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  • CPW-fed ultra-wideband antenna with compact size

    Page(s): 593 - 594
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)  

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with compact size is presented. The entire size of the antenna is as small as 30times13times1.6timesmm. The measured and simulated impedance bandwidth defined by voltage-standing wave ratios <2 is from 3.1 to more than 10.6 GHz. The proposed antenna exhibits a nearly omni-directional radiation pattern with very compact size, which is suitable for various portable UWB systems. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-frequency folded dipole antenna with PBG structure

    Page(s): 584 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB)  

    For wideband RFID systems, a dual-frequency printed folded dipole antenna is designed with a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure carved in the antenna's arms. Simulated results show that this antenna has good return loss characteristic and hemisphere direction radiation characteristic, at two working centre frequencies of 0.90 and 2.24'GHz. Compared to other improved structures, the new PBG structure has special advantages in simplifying the antenna structure. Considering engineering processes, the influences of antenna arm width, dielectric loss, the PBG structure bore size and substrate on the performance of an antenna are particularly studied. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of low frequency coverage inside car for passive access system entry

    Page(s): 596 - 597
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    The development and validation of the simulation approach for estimation of low frequency magnetic field coverage inside cars is addressed. Using electromagnetic simulation software based on the method of moments and specially developed simulation models the magnetic field has been computed inside a car. On-car measurement results confirm the simulated values of the magnetic field. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling line-of-sight coupled MIMO systems with generalised scattering matrices and spherical wave translations

    Page(s): 598 - 599
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    A model to rigorously characterise line-of-sight MIMO systems is introduced. It is based on the generalised scattering matrix of each antenna, considered as isolated, and the rotation and translation coefficients of spherical modes. The resulting channel matrix rigorously includes the exact spherical vector nature of electromagnetic propagation (which may exert a significant influence over short-range links), mutual coupling effects and real antenna reflection, transmission, reception and scattering features. Numerical results are presented for MIMO systems made up of ideal dipoles. View full abstract»

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  • Proper interpretation of source excitations for resolving ostensible excessive power gains of metamaterial resonances

    Page(s): 599 - 601
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    The aim of this communication is to resolve the anomalous phenomenon of extremely large radiated powers of antennas embedded within metamaterial layers apparently achievable under resonances. The essence of the discussion rests on the law of power conservation and causality conditions. A slotted spherical dipole coated with two layers of homogeneous materials is chosen to illustrate the concepts, and the classical approach for solving boundary-value problems via separation of variables is used to treat the structure. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of mutual coupling between closely-packed antenna elements using defected ground structure

    Page(s): 601 - 602
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    A simple ground plane structure that can reduce mutual coupling between closely-packed antenna elements is proposed. The structure consists of a dumb-bell-like pattern etched in a single ground plane. It is found that isolation of more than -40-dB can be achieved between two parallel individual planar inverted F antennas sharing a common ground plane. Influence of the designed defected ground plane structure on the radiation pattern is also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Absorption in human body at 900 MHz for oblique incidence of plane wave

    Page(s): 602 - 604
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)  

    ICNIRP(1998) and IEEE C95.1-2005 limits for human exposure to radio-frequency fields are derived based on the condition of maximal coupling of the field to the body. In this study, at 900 MHz, the whole body average specific absorption rate (SARWB) for an adult's and a child's body is computed under these conditions and is shown to be also relatively uniform when explored over a range of oblique angles of incidence and polarisation of a constant amplitude plane wave. The SARWB in the body remains below the public limit of 80 mW/kg when the oblique field is maintained at the limit value of 41.1 V/m. View full abstract»

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  • SPECT image classification using random forests

    Page(s): 604 - 605
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB)  

    A novel computer aided diagnosis system for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is presented. The system consists of voxel-based normalised mean square error feature extraction, a t-test with feature correlation weighting for feature selection and random forest image classification. The proposed method yields an up to 96% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for early AD diagnosis. View full abstract»

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  • System-level yield optimisation using hierarchical-based design flow

    Page(s): 605 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB)  

    A new approach in hierarchical optimisation is presented, capable of optimising both the performance and yield of a system-level analogue circuit design. A behavioural model that combines the performance and variation from a Pareto-front is developed which can be used to optimise the system-level structure. The results have been verified with transistor-level simulations of a PLL and suggest that accurate performance and yield prediction can be achieved with the proposed design methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Universal cellular automaton cell using quantum cellular automata

    Page(s): 607 - 609
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB)  

    In recent years cellular automata (CAs) have been used widely to model and simulate physical systems and also to solve scientific problems. CAs have also been successfully used as a VLSI architecture and have proved to be very efficient at least in terms of silicon-area utilisation and clock-speed maximisation. Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is one of the promising emerging technologies for nanoscale circuit implementation. QCA technology provides very high scale integration, very high switching frequency and very low power circuit characteristics. In the work reported here, a universal cellular automaton cell has been designed using QCA circuitry. The implementation of CAs using QCA nanoelectronic circuits not only drives the already developed systems based on CAs to the nanoelectronics era but improves their performance significantly. View full abstract»

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  • Excess loop delay compensation for continuous-time ΔΣ modulators using interpolation

    Page(s): 609 - 610
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    A new excess loop delay compensation technique for continuous-time DeltaSigma-modulators by using signal interpolation is presented. This technique uses an auxiliary differentiator in the feedforward path to construct a signal interpolation at the input of the quantiser to enable an early decision that compensates for excess loop delay. A simple tuning for the interpolation coefficient makes this technique suitable for lowpass, as well as bandpass, modulators. The proposed technique enables the compensation of any amount of delay and does not impose modification on loop filter transfer function or circuitry. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed and low-power feRAM utilising merged BL/PL array architecture with twin-bitline-driven scheme

    Page(s): 610 - 612
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (279 KB)  

    A novel design method for nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) using a merged bitline (BL)/plateline (PL) array architecture with a twin bitline-driven scheme is proposed. This method is effective in improving the FeRAM performance and reduces the power consumption. A 128 Kbit FeRAM prototype applying the proposed circuitry is implemented. The chip size, access time and memory array power dissipation are reduced to about 87, 44 and 15.8%, respectively, in comparison with those of conventional FeRAM. View full abstract»

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  • Noise-shaped integrating quantisers in ΔΣ modulators

    Page(s): 612 - 613
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    A new integrating analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed. With a small modification to the discharging phase of the traditional single/dual slope converter, error correction may be achieved. If the corrected ADC is embedded in a delta-sigma (DeltaSigma) converter, first-order quantisation noise shaping is achieved. This enhances the noise shaping of the delta-sigma modulator. Simulation results are provided to verify the effectiveness of this structure. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time application to multiprocessor-system-on-chip mapping strategy for system-level design tool

    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (69 KB)  

    A new static mapping technique is presented that can be integrated in a system-level design tool for modelling and simulating real-time applications onto an embedded multiprocessor system. The results of preliminary experiments indicate that the proposed two-phase mapping approach can achieve a good trade-off between the efficiency in resource usage and processor load balancing, as well as the minimisation of the inter-processor communication cost. View full abstract»

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  • LMS calibration of sampling timing for time-interleaved A/D converters

    Page(s): 615 - 617
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB)  

    Novel sampling-timing calibration for time-interleaved A/D converters is proposed and verified by simulation. An FIR-filter structure exploiting the sampling theorem provides a simple but accurate time derivative of the converted signal and hence enables reliable estimation and compensation of sampling-time deviation of each unit ADC assisted by a reference converter and an LMS algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic tunability of ferroelectric liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibre

    Page(s): 617 - 618
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    The electronic tunability of ferroelectric liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fibres is demonstrated for the first time. The tunability is obtained in the wavelength range of 1500-1600-nm, with a free spectral range of-20-nm. The electronic tunability is achieved by applying an electric field onto the infiltrated photonic crystal fibre which facilitates the photonic bandgap tuning owing to the microsecond-order switching speeds of ferroelectric liquid crystals. The polarised transmission spectrum shows the behaviour of a tunable notch filter with a change in applied voltage. The results obtained could pave the way for the fabrication of fast tunable all-in-fibre devices in the telecom wavelength range. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based quarter-pixel motion estimation with low computational complexity

    Page(s): 618 - 620
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)  

    Proposed is an interpolation-free quarter-pixel motion estimation method based on a mathematical model for video encoding. In this method, only three shift operators and four compare operators are required in each horizontal and vertical direction to find a quarter-pixel resolution motion vector. Experimental results show that the proposed method reaches almost the same performance as an interpolation-based full-search for quarter-pixel motion estimation with much less computational complexity. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Electronics Letters is internationally renowned for its rapid communication of new developments and emerging topics across the broad and interdisciplinary field of modern electronics and electrical engineering.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief

Professor Chris Toumazou
Director of the Biomedical Institute
Imperial College, London, UK

Professor Ian White
Head of Photonics Research
University of Cambridge, UK