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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1822
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 1823 - 1825
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  • Model Predictive Control—A Simple and Powerful Method to Control Power Converters

    Page(s): 1826 - 1838
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a detailed description of finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) applied to power converters. Several key aspects related to this methodology are, in depth, presented and compared with traditional power converter control techniques, such as linear controllers with pulsewidth-modulation-based methods. The basic concepts, operating principles, control diagrams, and results are used to provide a comparison between the different control strategies. The analysis is performed on a traditional three-phase voltage source inverter, used as a simple and comprehensive reference frame. However, additional topologies and power systems are addressed to highlight differences, potentialities, and challenges of FCS-MPC. Among the conclusions are the feasibility and great potential of FCS-MPC due to present-day signal-processing capabilities, particularly for power systems with a reduced number of switching states and more complex operating principles, such as matrix converters. In addition, the possibility to address different or additional control objectives easily in a single cost function enables a simple, flexible, and improved performance controller for power-conversion systems. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Control of an Asymmetric Flying Capacitor Converter

    Page(s): 1839 - 1846
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel converters and, in particular, flying capacitor (FC) converters are an attractive alternative for medium-voltage applications. FC converters do not need complex transformers to obtain the DC-link voltage and also present good robustness properties, when operating under internal fault conditions. Unfortunately, with standard modulation strategies, to increase the number of output voltage levels of FC converters, it is necessary to increase the number of cells and, hence, the number of capacitors and switches. In this paper, we develop a finite-state model predictive control strategy for FC converters. Our method controls output currents and voltages and also the FC voltage ratios. This allows one to increase the number of output voltage levels, even at high power factor load conditions and without having to increase the number of capacitors and switches. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is capable of achieving good performance, despite possible parameter mismatch. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Control of an Indirect Matrix Converter

    Page(s): 1847 - 1853
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the implementation of a predictive control scheme for an indirect matrix converter. The control scheme selects the switching state that minimizes the reactive power and the error in the output currents according to their reference values. This is accomplished by using a prediction horizon of one sample time and a very intuitive control law. Experimental results with a 6.8-kVA indirect matrix converter prototype are provided in order to validate the proposed control scheme. The converter uses standard digital signal processor operating at a sampling frequency of 20 mus. It is shown that the idea of controlling this converter topology with a predictive approach can be implemented simply and input currents with unity power factor and a total harmonic distortion lower than 5% can be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Digital-Controlled Converter With Peak Current-Mode Control and Leading-Edge Modulation

    Page(s): 1854 - 1863
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main theme of this paper is to present the digital controller design of a power converter with predictive peak current-mode (PCM) control and leading-edge modulation. The advantages of the control and modulation technique include the reduction of the sampling frequency of the A/D converter, no need of slope compensation, and the provision of a fast dynamic current response. The discrete-time model of the converter is presented as the fundamental to digital controller design and followed by the digital controller design. Moreover, the effect of predictive PCM control with leading edge modulation on limit cycle is analyzed. It is known that the limit cycle can be effectively suppressed as the converter has a predictive PCM control and leading edge modulation. Experimental results will be included to support fully the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit Model Predictive Control of DC–DC Switched-Mode Power Supplies With Extended Kalman Filtering

    Page(s): 1864 - 1874
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a sensorless explicit model predictive control scheme for the dc-dc boost converter. No direct inductor current measurement is needed as the coil current is derived either via a static approximation or, for improved accuracy, through an extended Kalman filter. The estimate is used in the chosen optimal control problem formulation which yields the optimal input by intrinsically accounting for duty cycle and current constraints. The optimization problem is explicitly presolved offline so that the online effort is reduced to a simple search in the resulting lookup table. No online optimization is required, greatly facilitating physical implementation and allowing for experimental validation on an integrated dc-dc converter through a fixed-point DSP. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Control of an Inverter With Output LC Filter for UPS Applications

    Page(s): 1875 - 1883
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of an inverter with an output LC filter allows for generation of output sinusoidal voltages with low harmonic distortion, suitable for uninterruptible power supply systems. However, the controller design becomes more difficult. This paper presents a new and simple control scheme using predictive control for a two-level converter. The controller uses the model of the system to predict, on each sampling interval, the behavior of the output voltage for each possible switching state. Then, a cost function is used as a criterion for selecting the switching state that will be applied during the next sampling interval. In addition, an observer is used for load-current estimation, enhancing the behavior of the proposed controller without increasing the number of current sensors. Experimental results under linear and nonlinear load conditions, with a 5.5-kW prototype, are presented, verifying the feasibility and good performance of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Direct Control Applied to AC Drives and Active Power Filter

    Page(s): 1884 - 1893
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents different applications of a method called direct control. The previously developed approach has been redefined into a generalized form. The method relies on the prediction of either current or flux in discrete-time intervals and, consequently, selects the inverter voltage vector that produces the fastest possible transient. Depending on the task, two possible variants have been developed, offering a compromise between ripple in the controlled variable and switching frequency. A special effort has been made to overcome problems due to various delays (processing time, acquisition, gate driver delay, etc.) in the prediction routine, thus achieving maximum performance. The approach has been upgraded for application in AC drives, which allows additional torque control. The functional versatility of the approach has been demonstrated on different applications of power electronics (active power filter, induction machine, surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machine). All applications have been tested on different laboratory models and have confirmed the validity of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Direct Torque Control—Part I: Concept, Algorithm, and Analysis

    Page(s): 1894 - 1905
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on direct torque control (DTC) for three-phase AC electric drives. A novel model predictive control scheme is proposed that keeps the motor torque, the stator flux, and (if present) the inverter's neutral point potential within given hysteresis bounds while minimizing the switching frequency of the inverter. Based on an internal model of the drive, the controller predicts several future switch transitions, extrapolates the output trajectories, and chooses the sequence of inverter switch positions (voltage vectors) that minimizes the switching frequency. The advantages of the proposed controller are twofold. First, as underlined by the experimental results in the second part of this paper, it yields a superior performance with respect to the industrial state of the art. Specifically, the switching frequency is reduced by up to 50% while the torque and flux are kept more accurately within their bounds. Moreover, the fast dynamic torque response is inherited from standard DTC. Second, the scheme is applicable to a large class of (three-phase) AC electric machines driven by inverters. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Direct Torque Control—Part II: Implementation and Experimental Evaluation

    Page(s): 1906 - 1915
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the implementation of the model predictive direct torque control (MPDTC) algorithm for the control of three-phase induction motor drives comprising a three-level DC-link inverter. The MPDTC scheme is designed to keep the motor torque and stator flux and the inverter's neutral point potential within given hysteresis bounds while reducing the average switching frequency of the inverter, in comparison with the standard direct torque control (DTC) method. The algorithm is embedded in the control software environment of ABB's ACS6000 medium-voltage drive, and experimental results are provided which verify the advantageous features of MPDTC in terms of average inverter switching frequency reduction. More specifically, compared to standard DTC, the proposed MPDTC scheme achieves an average (over the whole operating range) reduction of the inverter switching frequency of 16.5%, but for specific operating conditions the reduction is as much as 37.4%. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Torque Control of Induction Machines Based on State-Space Models

    Page(s): 1916 - 1924
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a predictive control algorithm that uses a state-space model. Based on classical control theory, an exact discrete-time model of an induction machine with time-varying components is developed improving the accuracy of state prediction. A torque and stator flux magnitude control algorithm evaluates a cost function for each switching state available in a two-level inverter. The voltage vector with the lowest torque and stator flux magnitude errors is selected to be applied in the next sampling interval. A high degree of flexibility is obtained with the proposed control technique due to the online optimization algorithm, where system nonlinearities and restrictions can be included. Experimental results for a 4-kW induction machine are presented to validate the proposed state-space model and control algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of Model Predictive Control for Electrical Motor Drives

    Page(s): 1925 - 1936
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm applied to electrical drives. The main contribution is a comprehensive and detailed description of the controller design process that points out the most critical aspects and also gives some practical hints for implementation. As an example, the MPC is developed for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive. Speed and current controllers are combined together, including all of the state variables of the system, instead of keeping the conventional cascade structure. In this way, the controller enforces both the current and the voltage limits. Both simulation and experimental results point out the validity of the design procedure and the potentials of the MPC in the electrical drive field. View full abstract»

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  • A Proof of Concept Study of Predictive Current Control for VSI-Driven Asymmetrical Dual Three-Phase AC Machines

    Page(s): 1937 - 1954
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiphase (more than three phases) drives possess interesting advantages over conventional three-phase drives. Over the last years, various topics related to the extension of the classical control schemes to these specifics drives have been covered in depth in literature, such as vector control of a six-phase induction machine with two sets of three-phase stator windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees (also called asymmetrical dual three-phase ac machine). In this paper, a model-based predictive control (MBPC) for the current regulation of asymmetrical dual three-phase AC machines is analyzed. MBPC overcomes the difficulties of multiphase current control, avoiding complex controllers and modulation techniques, but at the expense of an increased computational cost. Simulation results are provided to examine the potential of the control method. The influence of the number of voltage vectors considered to evaluate the predictive model is studied, and different cost functions are analyzed. The computation time needed for the implementation of the control method is discussed to prove its real-time feasibility. Finally, experimental results are given to illustrate the capability of the control method. View full abstract»

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  • A Repetitive Model Predictive Control Approach for Precision Tracking of a Linear Motion System

    Page(s): 1955 - 1962
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new model predictive control (MPC) approach suitable for high precision linear motion drive operating with repetitive tracking tasks is presented. For the proposed predictive controller, the feedforward controller of the conventional MPC has been modified to provide zero-phase learning property. This is achieved by augmenting the reference trajectory with a phase-compensated term that is updated with the historical tracking error. The proposed approach attempts to combine the merits of both the conventional MPC and repetitive control schemes. Experimental results have demonstrated that the system effectively reduces the tracking error from the periodic disturbance caused by the friction. Its performance under varying reference conditions and different loadings shows that the system is robust. View full abstract»

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  • Constrained Model Predictive Control of the Drive System With Mechanical Elasticity

    Page(s): 1963 - 1973
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the application of model predictive control (MPC) for high-performance speed control and torsional vibration suppression in the drive system with flexible coupling is demonstrated. The control methodology presented in this paper relies on incorporating the drive's safety and physical limitations directly into the control problem formulation so that future constraint violations are anticipated and prevented. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the standard MPC controller is replaced by its explicit form. The resulting explicit controller achieves the same level of performance as the conventional MPC, but requires only a fraction of the real-time computational machinery, thus leading to fast and reliable implementation. The simulation results are confirmed by laboratory experiments. View full abstract»

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  • One-Step Modulation Predictive Current Control Method for the Asymmetrical Dual Three-Phase Induction Machine

    Page(s): 1974 - 1983
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiphase (more than three phases) drives exhibit interesting advantages over conventional three-phase drives. Over the last years, topics related to the extension of control schemes to these specific drives have been covered in depth in the literature. Direct torque control and predictive current control are normally used in conventional AC drives when fast electrical dynamic performance is required. In this paper, a one-step modulation predictive current control technique is proposed for asymmetrical dual three-phase AC drives. Based on the use of a predictive model including the motor and the inverter, the control algorithm determines the switching state which minimizes errors between predicted and reference state variables. The period of application of the selected switching state is then obtained, resulting in a submodulation method. The proposed predictive current control algorithm uses a prediction horizon of one sampling period; however, two switching states are applied during the sampling period. The switching states are the selected optimum active vector and a null voltage combination. Simulation and experimental results are provided to examine the features of the control method. Performances, advantages, and limitations are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy-Logic-Based Switching State Selection for Direct Power Control of Three-Phase PWM Rectifier

    Page(s): 1984 - 1992
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel and simple direct power control (DPC) scheme of a three-phase pulsewidth-modulated rectifier without the use of a predefined switching table. The converter switching state selection is based on fuzzy logic rules, using the instantaneous active and reactive power tracking errors as fuzzy logic variables. The basic idea of fuzzy rules synthesis is based on the knowledge of the instantaneous variation of active and reactive power. According to the input fuzzy variables and in a specific moment, the best switching state of the converter is chosen to restrict the instantaneous active and reactive power tracking errors simultaneously, for maintaining the DC-bus voltage close to the reference value and guarantying the unity-power-factor operation. The main advantages of the proposed DPC scheme, compared to the classical one, are that it is not necessary to use hysteresis comparators, and smooth control of active and reactive power is obtained during all sectors. Finally, the developed DPC was tested both in simulations and experimentally, and illustrative results are presented here. Results have proven excellent performance, and verify the validity of the proposed DPC scheme which is much better than the classical DPC. View full abstract»

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  • A Robust Predictive Current Control for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    Page(s): 1993 - 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new predictive control algorithm for grid-connected current-controlled inverters. The control combines a two-sample deadbeat control law with a Luenberger observer to estimate the future value of the grid currents. The resulting control offers robustness against the computational delay inherent in the digital implementation and considerably enhances the gain and phase margins of the previous predictive controls while maintaining the high-speed response typical of the deadbeat controllers. View full abstract»

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  • Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Employing Three-Phase Transformers and Single DC Input

    Page(s): 2005 - 2014
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an isolated cascaded multilevel inverter employing low-frequency three-phase transformers and a single DC input power source. The proposed circuit configuration can reduce a number of transformers compared with traditional three-phase multilevel inverters using single-phase transformers. It controls switching phase angles to obtain an optimal switching pattern identified with the fundamental frequency of the output voltage. Owing to this control strategy, harmonic components of the output voltage and switching losses can be diminished considerably. To verify the performance of the proposed approach, we implemented computer-aided simulations and experiments using a prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory: A Reference in the Nonlinear Loads Compensation

    Page(s): 2015 - 2022
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The instantaneous reactive power theory was published 25 years ago, in an IEEE Transactions. Since then, it has been the most used in nonlinear load compensation with active power filters. Its application allows constant source power to be obtained after compensation in a simple way. Moreover, some researches have showed up some limitations of the theory, i.e., it goes optimally with source voltage balanced and sinusoidal, but not so good with source voltage unbalanced and/or nonsinusoidal, since the source current obtained is not balanced and sinusoidal. This paper presents a new compensation strategy in phase coordinates, equivalent to the original theory's one. Its simplicity, due to the nonnecessity of coordinate mathematical transformation, makes easier the modifications necessary to obtain alternative compensation objectives. In this way, this paper presents those modifications and derives compensation strategies that obtain alternative compensation objectives: unity power factor or balanced and sinusoidal source current. Finally, compensation strategies are applied to a practical power system, and the results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a New Permanent-Magnet BLDC Generator Using 12-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier

    Page(s): 2023 - 2029
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    Six-phase double-star armature windings of a synchronous generator are essentially equivalent to 12-phase symmetrical windings displaced in turn by 30deg. This paper proposes and implements a new permanent-magnet brushless dc (BLDC) generator using 12-phase half-wave rectifier. Characteristic of output voltage is analyzed according to the star graph of slot potential, and the design constraints of armature windings are provided. Simulation models of 12-phase synchronous generator with half-wave rectifier and double-star synchronous generator with bridge rectifier are established separately. Field-circuit-coupled analysis is accomplished, and conducted modes of rectified diodes and output characteristic are obtained. It is shown that the current stress of diodes in 12-phase rectification system is less than half of that in double-star rectification system, and the output voltage fluctuation between the two different rectification systems is similar. Experimental results on prototype machine, which agree well with the simulation analysis, also verify the feature of the proposed BLDC generator system. View full abstract»

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  • Position Estimation of a Matrix-Converter-Fed AC PM Machine From Zero to High Speed Using PWM Excitation

    Page(s): 2030 - 2038
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a sensorless position estimation method for a permanent-magnet (PM) motor fed from a three-phase matrix converter using only its space-vector pulsewidth-modulation (SVPWM) sequence. The scheme employs measurements of dii/dt of the motor line currents to construct orthogonal ldquoresolverlikerdquo position signals. In principle, the SVPWM waveforms provide sufficient excitation to extract the position signal from the motor current. However, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the di/dt signals, a small modification to the SVPWM is required. Sensorless control of the PM synchronous motor at zero and high speeds is demonstrated experimentally. The use of alternative input voltage vectors is also investigated to reduce the current ripple. View full abstract»

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  • Antiwindup Strategy for PI-Type Speed Controller

    Page(s): 2039 - 2046
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new antiwindup strategy for PI speed controller to suppress the undesired side effect known as integrator windup when large set-point changes are made. When the speed control mode is changed from P control to PI control, an appropriate initial value for the integrator is assigned. This value then restricts the overshoot. In addition, the proposed method guarantees the designed performance independent of the operating conditions, i.e., different set-point changes and load torques, and can be easily implemented with existing PI controllers. In SIMULINK/MATLAB-based comparative simulations and experiments for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed controller, the proposed method shows a superior control performance compared with the existing well-known antiwindup methods, such as conditional integration and tracking back calculation. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411