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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

Volume 63: 1944

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 70
  • Index

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1539 - 1553
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  • Officers and Committees for 1944-45

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1532 - 1538
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  • Report of the Board of Directors

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1518 - 1531
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  • Recent Developments in Light Sources

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1505 - 1517
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    Recent advances in the field of illumination before the war and the probable postwar developments and applications furnish the subject of this article. Arc, tungsten-filament incandescent infrared, mercury-vapor, sodium-vapor, and fluorescent lamps are discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • An Eight-Year Investigation of Lightning Currents and Preventive Lightning Protection on a Transmission System

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1350 - 1504
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  • Aircraft-Engine-Accessory Vibration

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1334 - 1349
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    1. The overhang-moment limit, or still better a limit on the moment of inertia of the accessory about a line through the center of the accessory mounting surface, would be helpful by limiting one of the two factors which control the natural frequency of the accessory-rear-cover combination. However, the natural frequency is the factor of prime importance, and, if control of the natural frequency is to be maintained, it should be applied directly. This control is not practical with the equipment now in use, because accessories have grown so large that sufficient stiffness cannot be built into their supporting structures to keep their natural frequencies out of the range of the engine¿ propeller natural frequencies. 2. A survey of accessory-vibration data obtained on recent and current aircraft power-plant installations indicates that chance is the most important factor in determining the suitability of an accessory installation. Practically all accessory installations have natural frequencies in the frequency range where engine-propeller resonances exist. If an engine-accessory natural frequency coincides with an engine-propeller resonance in which large amplitudes of vibration occur, failures will result in the accessory and/or the accessory mounting studs. To obtain remedy for these unfortunate installations, either some revision of the installations is required, which results in its being nonstandard, or some other accessory or accessories must be used. 3. Accessory development is facilitated greatly by the use of an accessory-vibration-testing machine. An aircraft-engine rear cover should be mounted on the machine for attachment of the accessories. View full abstract»

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  • A 120-Volt D-C Aircraft Electric System

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1327 - 1334
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The practicability of using 120-volt d-c power in large airplanes has been a subject of discussion for some time. This paper describes the 120-volt d-c system and the equipment used on the Navy flying boat Mars, the service requirements, and the problems incidental to development and design of the components of the system. Calculated weights for several arrangements of generating equipment including the installed system are tabulated for comparison and the weight of the installed 120-volt d-c system is compared with the weight of the 28.6-volt d-c system. A summary report on flight tests and service operations provides the basis for conclusions relative to the practicability of 120-volt direct current for large aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Design of an Ignition System for an 18-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1321 - 1327
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  • A-C Supplies for Services in Large Aircraft-a British View

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1314 - 1320
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    The paper deals with the increasing use of electricity as a source of power for operation of services in large transport aircraft. It outlines the advantages which are obtained from the use of medium-frequency a-c electricity and stresses the saving in weight which is obtainable from raising the present voltage (30 volts direct current) to around 200. Some suggestions are made in regard to form and layout for postwar installations in the case of both land airplanes and flying boats of the larger sizes. View full abstract»

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  • Electrically Heated Clothing

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1304 - 1313
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  • Vacuum-tube radio-frequency generator-characteristics and application to induction-heating problems

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1290 - 1303
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Induction heating by radio frequency is taking its place rapidly in many industrial processes. The high-power vacuum tube, in the past used only in radio applications, is now generating radio-frequency energy for industrial use. To apply this energy properly to industrial-heating problems, it becomes necessary that engineers active in all phases of industry understand the characteristics and limitations of the vacuum-tube radio-frequency generator. The fundamentals of the vacuum-tube self-excited oscillator and design considerations which determine the characteristics of the radio-frequency generator are reviewed and illustrated. In general, the characteristics show a high-impedance constant-current variable-voltage generator which requires manipulation of load circuits to load the generator properly. Methods are illustrated for accomplishing proper loading, and numerical examples are given illustrating the formulas and procedures necessary to any induction-heating problems. View full abstract»

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  • Aircraft-Electric-Accessory-Vibration Investigations

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1283 - 1290
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Flight and laboratory tests are in progress to determine changes in design of aircraft generators which will improve their resistance to vibration-fatigue failure. Vibrations near mountings of generator voltage regulators and reverse-current relays are being measured to provide data for design and testingof these accessories. The paper presents flight vibration data and discusses sources of vibration in aircraft, accessory-vibration characteristics, vibration test apparatus, and investigations of failures of generator mountings and flexible drive asemblies. On the basis of the flight and laboratory tests and other avilable information, recommendations are made for the design of generators which will give most satisfactory mechanical performance. The primary requirements of a generator from the standpoint of avoiding vibration failures are a stiff mounting flange and a flexible drive assembly having a satisfactory damping device. View full abstract»

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  • Cable Used for Transmitting Electric Energy in Airplanes

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1270 - 1282
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A method is proposed for determining the current capacity and the temperature of operation of cables in airplanes. The cable selected should in combination with the power plant result in the smallest weight for each electrical unit converted into useful work. A general equation is given for selecting the optimum current which is expressed in terms of the weight of the cable, power plant, and fuel; the length and resistance of the circuit, and the operating voltage of the system. The method of selection indicates that the current capacity of a cable operated for short periods with-out requiring additional power-plant or fuel capacity is limited by the temperature the insulation will withstand. For open wiring requiring power-plant capacity bare copper conductors should operate from 50 to 65 degrees centigrade above ambient temperature, and insulated copper conductors 10 to 25 degrees centigrade lower. The temperature of the conductors in conduit will depend upon the installation. Measurements made upon two samples of cable in 0.5-inch conduit indicated that the conductors should operate at 45 to 80 degrees centigrade above ambient temperature. All bus bars and conduit should be enameled or painted to reduce their operating temperatures. Measurements upon an aluminum-alloy tube indicated a drop of 35 degrees centigrade in 100 degrees. The greatest reduction in weight of the electric system will be accomplished by increasing the voltage. Further reductions may be accomplished by using aluminum conductors. View full abstract»

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  • Airplane Engine and Propeller Test-Cell Lighting

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1264 - 1270
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  • An Analysis to Determine the Optimum Bussing Arrangements and Transmission Capabilities at Grand Coulee

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1259 - 1264
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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  • Problems in Applying Protectors to Electric Aircrart Motors

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1250 - 1258
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • New 138-Kv Cable Lines in Los Angeles

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1240 - 1249
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The first 138-kv underground transmission cables to be installed west of Chicago and the largest now in use at this voltage (except for short station runs) were placed in service during 1943 by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. While generally similar to 138-kv lines previously installed in the East this installation involves a number of novel design features which make it of more than usual interest. The paper describes these features and some of the studies of carrying capacity, cable movements, sheath voltages, oil supply and alarm, and sheath corrosion, which led to their development, and includes a summary of significant data and characteristics of the installation. View full abstract»

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  • Design Considerations for D-C Aircraft Generators

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1234 - 1240
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Engine-mounted aircraft generators must fit within an envelope 6¿ inches in diameter by 14 inches long. Electric-power requirements on military airplanes are increasing so rapidly that the most urgent assignment confronting designers of aircraft generators is that of achieving the ultimate output possible from this envelope. In 1939 the maximum rating was 1,500 watts; in 1940 the maximum rating jumped to 3,000 watts; in 1942 to 6,000 watts. A rating of 9,000 is coming into use, and a rating of 12,000 watts is likely to be possible in 1944. A rating of 15,000 watts has been mentioned. New materials, new military demands, new design ingenuity, new manufacturing techniques, and new operating experiences have all had a part in introducing more advances in this field during the past four years than were made during the approximate 20 years of generator history prior to 1938. Methods by which these advances have been accomplished are described, and possibilities for future progress are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Alternating Versus Direct Current for Aircraft-Radio Power Supply

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1227 - 1233
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Recent designs of aircraft-radio equipment have provided for operation from existing aircraft electric systems, and little attention has been given to providing the electric system that is best suited for radio equipment use. This has been a natural and proper approach, because of the relatively small load requirements of aircraft radio. Accordingly, comparatively little attention has been given to the effects of the type of power supply on the characteristics of aircraft radio equipment. It is the authors' belief that a review of the subject is desirable at this time to assist aircraft designers in making a proper choice of aircraft designs, as well as possidle modifications to the electric systems on aircraft now in use. This paper considers the effects of the various types of aircraft electric systems on the characteristics of the radio equipment, from the standpoints of weight, efficiency, reliability, simplicity, flexibility, and emergency operation. The various types of a-c and d-c power supplies are discussed, and consideration is given to the effects of frequency and number of phases on a-c power supplies. View full abstract»

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  • Plastics in Aircraft Electricity

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1220 - 1226
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  • Impedance of 400-Cycle Three-Phase Power Circuits on Large Aircrart and Its Application to Fault-Current Calculations

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1213 - 1220
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • New Test Chambers for Aircraft Electric Apparatus With Particular Reference to Carbon Brushes

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1205 - 1212
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    When electric machines were taken to high altitudes of 25,000 to 40,000 feet on modern military aircraft, the brushes wore rapidly, insulation sometimes failed, lubrication was uncertain, windings over-heated, and other vexing problems appeared. New materials and methods were needed for this new environment. To accelerate the development of aircraft apparatus, air-conditioned chambers are provided to duplicate the cold, clean, dry, rarefied air of the stratosphere. Facilities being used to test a range of equipment from totally enclosed one-watt computer motors to pressure-ventilated 40-kva alternators1 are described. Reasons are given for the selection of specific equipment. From simulated-high-altitude tests under controlled conditions, designers are more quickly completing new apparatus, are better predicting its performance, and are reducing the amount of flight testing required to develop new aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission-Line Electric Loadings

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1198 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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  • Impulse strength of insulated-power-cable circuits

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1190 - 1197
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    Pursuant to a request of the cable working group, AIEE committee on power transmission and distribution, a co-ordinated study has been made on the impulse strength of insulated power cables having various types of insulation and their accessories. The data included not only all published information, but also much privately contributed information. On the basis of these data and some supplementary tests recently made, tabulations of safe withstand impulse voltages have been prepared. The information is also discussed with regard to its significance for practical applications from the standpoint of switching surges as well as from the standpoint of lightning impulses. Recommendations are given for standardizing impulse-test procedures. View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Low-voltage Welding Power Distribution

    Publication Year: 1944 , Page(s): 1180 - 1190
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper is an effort to state clearly and to present a solution for the problems encountered in the design of one of the vital constituents of a-c restance-welder power supply¿the low-voltage feeder. The scope of the paper is much wider, however, since the determination of design loads from the probability standpoint for the purpose of determining maximum allowable impedance and expected temperature rise is a problem encountered in the design of all equipment common to a number of resistance-welding installations. The topics considered in the paper are: 1. Definition of voltage regulation as it applies to resistance-welding equipment. 2. Establishment of a criterion of good voltage regulation as defined. 3. Application of the theory of probability to the determination of maximum tolerable impedance and minimum copper section consistent with safe operating temperature. 4. Calculation of reactance of the closely spaced rectangular bar bus-type feeder, which the authors believe is best suited for the job, and its nearest competitor for low reactance, the concentric tubular feeder. 5. Calculation of maximum current capacity in terms of allowable temperature rise in the afore-mentioned type of bus feeders. 6. Determination of force between conductors in flat bar bus under short-circuit conditions, 7. The complete design of a feeder starting with typical data. View full abstract»

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