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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1936

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Preface

    Page(s): nil3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Errata

    Page(s): nil4
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    Presents revisions to various equations and formulas from selected articles. View full abstract»

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  • List of Contributors

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • In This Issue

    Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Looking Forward

    Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ``What Is Electricity?''

    Page(s): 4 - 11
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    This address,1 tracing the interesting history and significance of the many concepts of electricity as they have evolved from an indefinite beginning through the extremely rapid developments of the current century toward a speculative future, is republished here at the request of the Institute's committee on education. View full abstract»

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  • Modernization of Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 12 - 18
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    The results of a survey by the A.I.E.E. lightning and insulator subcommittee* of the methods used to reduce the effect of lightning on existing transmission lines for medium and high voltages are given in this paper, which summarizes data obtained by means of a questionnaire sent to various operating companies. View full abstract»

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  • Permanent Magnet Materials

    Page(s): 19 - 23
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    Permanent magnet materials recently have been developed with characteristics radically different from those of previous materials, the carbon, cobalt, and chromium steels. In this paper, the essential properties of these new materials are discussed and are compared with the corresponding properties of the older materials. Development of these new materials has broadened the range of properties from which the designer may choose, and has made available high specific magnetic performance in the low price field. View full abstract»

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  • The Compensated Thermocouple Ammeter

    Page(s): 23 - 33
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    Temperature distribution and heat flow in electrical conductors have been subjected to a mathematical analysis, which brings out a number of interesting thermal characteristics of conductors. The material presented in this paper is divided into 2 principal parts, the first being a general solution of the problem of determining temperature and heat distribution in conductors, and the second containing the development of the theory of the electrothermic ammeter of the thermocouple type, together with its compensation features. Practical applications of the theory are presented. View full abstract»

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  • High Power Audio Transformers

    Page(s): 34 - 36
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    A brief outline of the essential characteristics of high power audio transformers for class B amplification (tubes connected in push-pull fashion with their grid voltages of such value that the anode current is zero when there is no signal) is given here together with a brief description of the units used in the third and fourth stages of radiobroadcast station WLW. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Equipment for Waterworks Systems

    Page(s): 36 - 40
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    The application of supervisory control equipment and electric pump drive to municipal waterworks systems results not only in greatly improved operation, but also in a reduction in operating costs. Existing waterworks systems may be modernized and many improvements secured by the application of various types of electrical equipment. As an illustration of the benefits which may be obtained, a description is given of the modernization of the waterworks system of the city of Pittsburg, where electric operation of pumps, together with supervisory control, remote metering, and remote indication, are now used. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Metering and Automatic Load Control

    Page(s): 40 - 47
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    Power dispatching on an interconnected electric power system has been simplified and greatly improved by the adoption of a remote metering and automatic load control scheme recently developed. Remote metering at the power dispatching center provides continuous indication of the load on a distant 110-kv interconnection. The equipment also provides automatic control of the load on a hydroelectric generating plant located 160 miles from the metering point. The scheme, operating over company owned telephone lines, is based upon maintaining a constant beat frequency in the receiving apparatus, the transmission frequency being varied. Maintenance cost of the equipment is found to be negligible. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Transformer Lightning Protection Practices

    Page(s): 47 - 53
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    With the object of determining the effectiveness of the newer methods of protecting distribution transformers from lightning, a survey of operating data obtained during 1934 by 38 electric power companies has been made by the transmission and distribution committee of the Edison Electric Institute. The results of this survey are presented herewith. In general, interconnection of the lightning arrester ground with the secondary neutral has been found superior to other methods of protection. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning Protection for Transformers

    Page(s): 53 - 56
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    As part of the modernization symposium scheduled for the 1936 winter convention, the A.I.E.E. transformer and lightning arrester subcommittees* have prepared this joint report, which summarizes briefly methods now available for protecting transformers against both traveling waves and direct strokes. View full abstract»

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  • Modernization of Relay Systems

    Page(s): 56 - 62
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    Relay systems used for the protection of power transmission networks are now available which are greatly superior to those in use some 5 years ago. The principal change has been the development of the high speed relay, the operating time of which may be as low as one cycle or less on a 60 cycle system. Modernization of existing relay systems frequently may be accomplished by the addition of the new relays to the present relay scheme, thereby avoiding the cost of an entirely new relay system. High speed relays, especially when used with high speed circuit breakers, result in reduction of damage at stations and on lines, and give improved system stability and operation; reduction of outages on equipment of industrial customers has been an important advantage. This paper on modernization of relay systems is presented under the sponsorship of the relay subcommittee of the A.I.E.E. committee on protective devices. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning Investigations on a Distribution System

    Page(s): 63 - 70
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    Analyses of field measurements of lightning disturbances and of operating experience on a metropolitan electric power distribution system have yielded valuable information on protective methods. Performance records of transformers, fuses, lightning arresters, meters, and customers equipment with the interconnection method of protection (arrester ground and secondary neutral interconnected) are analyzed. Experience with protective methods for underground cables and for stud type of distribution transformers is cited, and an a-c method of testing arresters is described. View full abstract»

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  • Supervisory Control and Remote Metering

    Page(s): 70 - 75
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    Supervisory control and remote metering installations on the electrified section of the Pennsylvania Railroad are outlined herein. A brief history of the growth of electrification on this railroad, and of the supervisory control and remote metering installations which accompanied the electrification is given, together with the locations at which the different types of equipment are used. These remote metering and control systems have been of considerable assistance in load dispatching and substation operation. View full abstract»

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  • Modernization of Power Distribution systems

    Page(s): 75 - 84
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    Engineering and practice in electric power distribution systems have kept pace with modern developments in other lines. Many improvements in system design and in details of equipment and construction have been produced in recent years which make for economy, better service, greater safety, and better appearance. The most important of these are discussed with indications of future trends. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning Arrester Economics

    Page(s): 84 - 93
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    Early applications of lightning arresters were hindered not only by high cost, but also by the general lack of knowledge of both the characteristics of lightning and the protective characteristics of the arresters themselves. Present knowledge of these factors, however, achieved as a result of extensive field and laboratory research, has made possible the production of arresters having greatly improved characteristics and at much lower costs, which has led to their extensive use for protecting transformers and other equipment. This paper presents a brief review of the history of lightning arresters, and discusses factors affecting their economic application to electric power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Sliding contacts- electrical characteristics

    Page(s): 94 - 100
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    Experiments with oxidized and oxide-Free materials indicate that the electrical characteristics of the ordinary sliding contact, such as that between a carbon or graphite brush and a copper slip ring, are dependent upon the oxide film on the surface of the ring. Results of these experiments are presented in this paper, together with an explanation of the breakdown of this oxide film by the increase of current through the contact, based upon these results. Tests to determine the effects of liquid films on the contact voltage drop, and the variation of thermal voltage in a sliding contact also are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Control for Mercury Arc Rectifiers

    Page(s): 100 - 109
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    Automatic control for steel-tank mercury-arc rectifiers may be considered under 2 main divisions, one being control for switching equipment, and the other being control of the unit auxiliaries such as tank heaters, anode heaters, vacuum control and protective equipment, arc ignition and excitation, cooling tank, and circulating pump. A review of present day practice in automatic control for mercury arc rectifiers is presented herewith. View full abstract»

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  • Locomotive to Caboose Radio Communication

    Page(s): 109 - 113
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    Although the characteristics of ultra-high frequency radio communication between fixed points have been established Fairly well, the utilization of these frequencies in communication between front and rear of moving railway trains presented problems of which little was known. This paper reports the results of extensive tests made to determine the practical value of these frequencies for such service, and describes commercial equipment susequently developed. View full abstract»

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