By Topic

Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 1 • Date Jan 2004

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 69
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (119 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Bragg diffraction of guided optical waves by magnetostatic backward volume waves in a double-layered magnetic film structure

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (105 KB)  

    The noncollinear interactions between the guided optical wave (GOW) and magnetostatic backward volume wave (MSBVW) in a double-layered magnetic film structure are investigated theoretically. The explicit expressions for the rf magnetization of the MSBVW and the mode conversion efficiency (MCE) of GOW were presented in terms of various geometrical parameters and the rf input power in the case that the insertion loss of the MSBVW is taken into consideration. The effects of the thicknesses of two magnetic layers and a separation layer on the MCE of GOW and magneto-optic (MO) coupling bandwidth are calculated in detail. The MCE of the GOW and the MO bandwidth can be increased significantly in a double-layered magnetic film structure by properly choosing the thicknesses of two magnetic layers and a separation layer. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optically pumped laser characteristics of blue Znx′Cdy′Mg1-x′-y′Se/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe single quantum well lasers grown on InP

    Page(s): 7 - 10
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (70 KB)  

    We report the operation of a photopumped blue ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe separate confinement heterostructure single quantum well laser grown lattice matched to InP with a relatively thick quaternary quantum well (∼50 Å). Laser emission at 492 nm in the blue was observed. The lasing linewidth is about 5 nm. Based on the temperature dependency of the threshold pumping intensity, the characteristic temperature (T0) was determined. We also studied a photopumped laser with a similar structure, where the only difference was the quaternary ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe quantum well composition, having laser emission in the green. Comparison of the threshold pumping intensity and T0 for the blue and green lasers shows a lower threshold pumping intensity and higher T0 for the green laser. We explain these results on the basis of the difference in carrier confinement between these two structures. An Arrhenius treatment of the temperature dependency of the blue laser threshold pumping intensity gives an activation energy Ea very close to the band gap energy difference between the cladding layer and the quantum well in the conduction band. This points to a carrier loss process through thermalization into the cladding layer. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interaction of pulsed metal vapor plasma with insulator wall

    Page(s): 11 - 15
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB)  

    An experimental method is proposed to investigate the radiation emitted from the boundary layer, which is formed near the insulator wall. This experimental method consists of a fast-pulsed exploding aluminum wire set initially on the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) flat wall. Various phases of brightness and darkness between the narrow bright aluminum vapor plasma and the surface of the LDPE have been observed. It was observed that a formed dark layer moves away from the LDPE surface according to the released input energy. The shape of the formed layer was affected by both the interaction with the insulator wall and the electrodes. The radial reflected visible light by the insulator wall consists of two different expansion velocities showing a cooling of the vapor plasma source and an enhancement in the radiation emitted from the formed layer. Two phases have been observed in the temporal behavior of the intensity of the aluminum and the carbon atoms lines showing an enhancement during the collisionless interaction regime. The photoablation process of the LDPE wall occurred during the plateau observed in the intensity shape of the carbon atom line which match with both the observed peak value in the emitted UV radiation and the framing picture taken at 200 ns. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of highly ionized xenon and their comparison with model calculations

    Page(s): 16 - 23
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (127 KB)  

    Xenon spectra involving emission from ion species of Xe7+ to Xe12+ were analyzed for a plasma focus discharge developed for extreme ultraviolet lithography. Low and higher resolution spectra were recorded in the 8–21 nm wavelength region for different operating conditions and different He–Xe gas mixtures. The spectra have been compared with Hartree–Fock calculations. The modeling included the distribution of the various xenon ion levels at a given electron equilibrium temperature and plasma opacity effects. Spectral analysis showed that the 4d–5p transition arrays are fairly well separated in wavelength for the ions Xe8+ to Xe11+. Good agreement between experiment and calculations was obtained for line positions and intensities, in particular, for the wavelength region at around 13.5 nm. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Excessive Balmer line broadening in microwave-induced discharges

    Page(s): 24 - 29
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB)  

    Results of a hydrogen Balmer line-shape study on microwave-induced plasma discharges operated with pure hydrogen and with argon–hydrogen or helium–hydrogen mixtures are reported. Plasma is generated in a rectangular or coaxial microwave cavity in two separate experiments. In both cases, the emission profiles of the Balmer lines did not show excessive broadening as reported by Mills etal [J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7008 (2002)]. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Effect of barrier rib height variation on the luminous characteristics of ac plasma display panel

    Page(s): 30 - 34
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    We studied the mechanism of high luminous efficiency discharge with high Xe partial pressure in ac plasma display panel using three-dimensional numerical simulation. Because the electron heating efficiency improves more than the excitation efficiency by electrons under high Xe partial pressure gas condition, it is possible to achieve high efficiency discharge with the increase in the sustain voltage. We studied the effect of barrier rib height variation using ray-optics code in conjunction with the three-dimensional plasma simulation to analyze the effects of cell geometry for varying pressure conditions. The optimal barrier rib height decreased as the Xe partial pressure increased which resulted due to the formation of local, strong sheath under high Xe partial pressure condition. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Localized and ultrahigh-rate etching of silicon wafers using atmospheric-pressure microplasma jets

    Page(s): 35 - 39
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB)  

    A miniaturized very-high-frequency- driven inductively coupled plasma jet source has been developed for the production of high-temperature and high-density plasmas in a small space, and its application to the localized and ultrahigh-rate etching of silicon wafers has been studied. The developed plasma source consists of a 1-mm-diam discharge tube with a fine nozzle of 0.1 mm in diameter at one end and a three-turn solenoidal antenna wound around it. The electron density of atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jets blowing out from the nozzle was estimated to be 1014–1015cm-3 by means of optical emission spectroscopy. By the addition of halogen gases into the downstream region of argon plasma jets, high-speed etching of fine holes of several hundreds μm in diameter has been investigated. The highest etch rates of 4000 μm/min and 14 μm/min have been achieved for silicon wafers and fused silica glass wafers, respectively. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Solution synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of high Er3+ content LaF3 for broadband 1.5 μm amplification

    Page(s): 40 - 47
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (131 KB)  

    Erbium-doped LaF3 transparent gels have been synthesized by the solution synthesis of metal inorganic precursors. The solid solubility of Er3+ can reach 60 mol %, which is almost double the solubility limit of Er3+ in LaF3 synthesized by the Bridgman technique. A quantitative analysis of the absorption and emission spectral data shows that the quantum efficiency of the 1.55 μm emission band is comparable to that of melt grown single crystal. However, the emission spectral width of the 1.55 μm band is found to be 40% greater than that of the melt grown single crystal, which extends the spectral bandwidth to 11 THz. The high solid solubility of Er3+ supports 36 cm-1 single pass optical gain, which is three times higher than that in zirconium barium lanthanum aluminum sodium glass. The high Er3+ concentration and spectral bandwidth enable LaF3:Er amplifiers to be made by a low-temperature solution-based technique. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Determination of lattice parameter and of N lattice location in InxGa1-xNyAs1-y/GaAs and GaNyAs1-y/GaAs epilayers

    Page(s): 48 - 56
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (131 KB)  

    We have used an experimental strategy that, combining nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry both in random and channeling geometry, allowed an accurate quantification of the total amount of N in InxGa1-xNyAs1-y/GaAs and GaNyAs1-y/GaAs epitaxial systems (0.038≪x≪0.044, 0.015≪y≪0.045), and a precise localization of nitrogen atoms into the lattice. All N atoms were found on substitutional positions. This information was then exploited to correlate the relaxed lattice parameter of the epilayers obtained by high-resolution x-ray diffraction to the N concentration, by taking into account the elasticity theory, allowing a verification of the validity of Vegard’s rule in the whole range of investigated N concentrations for both alloys. The effect of N incorporation on the lattice parameter has been found to be the same both for ternary and quaternary alloys. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Vacancy-related defect distributions in 11B-, 14N-, and 27Al-implanted 4H–SiC: Role of channeling

    Page(s): 57 - 63
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB)  

    The defect distributions in 11B-, 14N-, and 27Al-implanted epitaxial 4H–SiC are studied using monoenergetic positron beams. At least three types of defects are needed to account for the Doppler broadening annihilation spectra and two of the defects are tentatively identified as VSi, and VSiVC. By comparing the defect profiles extracted from the annihilation spectra to the chemical profiles determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and to the primary defect profiles obtained from binary collision approximation simulations, it is concluded that the defects found at depths considerably deeper than the projected range of the implanted ions mainly originate from deeply channeled ions. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characterization of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wires by means of longitudinal photoconductivity

    Page(s): 64 - 68
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB)  

    We have carried out an original study of longitudinal photoconductivity (PC) of undoped GaAs/AlGaAs V-grooved quantum wires (QWRs) by measuring the PC along the wire direction. The PC spectrum reveals several peak structures superimposed on a smooth background, the latter being related to the GaAs substrate. Some of these structures are connected with the QWRs. This is confirmed by the observed dependence of the PC spectrum on the exciting light polarization and by comparing this spectrum with photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra measured on a similar sample. A theoretical identification of the peak structures is given by calculating the optical transition energies of the studied QWRs in frames of the envelope function approximation. An original approach, based on the infrared preillumination of the sample, is proposed to reduce the contribution of the GaAs substrate to the PC, in this way favoring the QWR spectral structures. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Deep-level transient spectroscopy study on double implanted n+–p and p+–n 4H-SiC diodes

    Page(s): 69 - 75
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB)  

    Planar n+–p and p+–n junction diodes, fabricated in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers using a double-implantation technology (a deep-range acceptor followed by a shallow-range donor implantation and vice versa), are characterized using capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) to detect deep levels, which may influence device electrical performance. Either Al or B was used as the acceptor, while N or P was used as the donor, with all implants performed at 700 °C and annealed at 1600–1650 °C with an AlN protection cap. Different traps were observed for the various dopants, which are believed to be related to different impurity-defect complexes. A trap at ∼EV+0.51 eV was observed in nitrogen-implanted samples, while an acceptor trap at ∼EV+0.28 eV and a donor trap at ∼EC-0.42 eV were observed in Al-implanted samples. A prominent boron-related D-center trap at ∼EV+0.63 eV is seen in the DLTS spectra of B-implanted diodes. In diodes with implanted phosphorus, three traps at ∼EV+0.6 eV, EV+0.7 eV, and EV+0.92 eV, are seen, which are not observed for implantations of other species. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Influence of ambient on hydrogen release from p-type gallium nitride

    Page(s): 76 - 83
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (111 KB)  

    Mechanisms of H release from Mg-doped, p-type GaN were investigated in vacuum, in N2 and O2 gases, and in electron–cyclotron-resonance N2 plasmas. Replacing grown-in protium with deuterium (D) and employing sensitive nuclear-reaction analysis allowed the retained concentration to be followed quantitatively over two decades during isothermal heating, illuminating the kinetics of controlling processes. Oxidation attending the O2 exposures was monitored through nuclear-reaction analysis of 18O. N2 gas at atmospheric pressure increases the rate of D release appreciably relative to vacuum. The acceleration produced by O2 gas is much greater, but is diminished in later stages of the release by oxidation. The N2 plasma employed in these studies had no resolvable effect. We argue that surface desorption is rate controlling in the D release, and that it occurs by D–D recombination and the formation of N–D and O–D species. Our results are quantitatively consistent with a theoretical model wherein the bulk solution is in equilibrium with surface states from which desorption occurs by processes that are both first and second order in surface coverage. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Structural and dielectric properties of thin ZrO2 films on silicon grown by atomic layer deposition from cyclopentadienyl precursor

    Page(s): 84 - 91
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    ZrO2 thin films with thicknesses below 20 nm were deposited by the atomic layer deposition process on Si(100) substrates at 350 °C. An organometallic precursor, Cp2Zr(CH3)2 (Cp=cyclopentadienyl, C5H5) was used as the zirconium source and water or ozone as oxygen source. The influence of oxygen source and substrate pretreatment on the dielectric properties of ZrO2 films was investigated. Structural characterization with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was performed to films grown onto HF-etched or native oxide covered silicon. Strong inhibition of ZrO2 film growth was observed with the water process on HF-etched Si. Ozone process on HF-etched Si resulted in interfacial SiO2 formation between the dense and uniform film and the substrate while water process produced interfacial layer with intermixing of SiO2 and ZrO2. The effective permittivity of ZrO2 in Al/ZrO2/Si/Al capacitor structures was dependent on the ZrO2 layer thickness and oxygen source used. The interfacial layer formation increased the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET). CET of 2.0 nm was achieved with 5.9 nm ZrO2 film deposited with the H2O process on HF-stripped Si. The oz- one-processed films showed good dielectric properties such as low hysteresis and nearly ideal flatband voltage. The leakage current density was lower and breakdown field higher for the ozone-processed ZrO2 films. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Coherent growth and mechanical properties of AlN/VN multilayers

    Page(s): 92 - 96
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB)  

    The growth condition of metastable cubic AlN (c-AlN) in AlN/VN multilayers and the effect of c-AlN on the mechanical properties of multilayers were investigated. A series of AlN/VN multilayers with different modulation periods were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayers were characterized with low-angle x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The results show that AlN exists as a metastable cubic phase in multilayers at small modulation periods due to the “template effect” and forms a superlattice with VN through coherent epitaxial growth. Correspondingly, multilayers show the superhardness effect with the enhancement of hardness and elastic modulus. With the increase of modulation periods, c-AlN transforms to the stable hexagonal structure (h-AlN) and multilayers demonstrate a “brick-wall” structure with nanometer grains. The hardness and elastic modulus of multilayers with large modulation periods are close to the value calculated from the rule of mixtures. The discussion indicates that the prerequisite for the formation of c-AlN is the low coherent interface energy. It is the difference of volume energy between c-AlN and h-AlN that primarily determines the critical thickness of c-AlN. The change of properties with the formation of c-AlN and the alternative strain field resulted from coherent growth of c-AlN and VN are likely reasons for the superhardness effect of AlN/VN multilayers. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Carrier thermalization, cooling and diffusion in InSb through a nonlinear pump-probe technique

    Page(s): 97 - 101
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (301 KB)  

    We investigated the ultrafast carrier dynamics in InSb using a nonlinear pump-probe technique. The measurement involves two pump pulses chopped at different frequencies and the detection of the probe modulation at their sum frequency. We show that the nonlinear signature and dynamics of the transmission-bleaching signal enables the differentiation of carrier thermalization from cooling dynamics. We follow the evolution of the injected carrier distribution from a nonthermal to a thermal one and calculate its absolute temperature and energy decay rates as a function of time from a single transmission pump-probe measurement. The carrier scattering rate in the thermalization stage increases by (3 ps)-1 with doubling the injected carrier density. For an initial injected excess energy of 650 K, carrier thermalization is complete after 1.7 ps with a thermal distribution of 370 K. We also demonstrate the ability to follow carrier diffusion through the decay of the carrier grating decay in a transmission measurement. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • CdTe/Zn1-xMgxTe self-assembled quantum dots: Towards room temperature emission

    Page(s): 102 - 108
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB)  

    We report the dependence of the growth and the optical properties of self-assembled CdTe/Zn1-xMgxTe quantum dots on the barrier Mg content x (0≤x≤0.3). Due to the decrease of the lattice mismatch between CdTe and Zn1-xMgxTe with increasing x, we use a technique for inducing dot formation, based on efficient reduction of the surface energy by deposition of amorphous Te, which is then desorbed. Mg incorporation in the barriers leads to a better heavy-hole confinement along the growth axis, which is manifested in photoluminescence (PL) studies by both an extension of the radiative regime temperature range (up to 150 K for 30% Mg) and a strong increase of the activation energy for the nonradiative recombination. However, the in-plane confinement is less enhanced, which allows observation of interdot carrier transfer with increasing temperature, as evidenced directly by the analysis of PL intensities for different single dots. Our temperature-dependent data (time-resolved and microphotoluminescence) suggest that this transfer consists of a thermally activated process via the two-dimensional wetting-layer states rather than a direct tunneling (hopping) process. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct imaging of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering for improved one-dimensional ordering of (In,Ga)As quantum dot arrays

    Page(s): 109 - 114
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB)  

    Single (In,Ga)As quantum dot (QD) arrays are formed on GaAs (100) substrates by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of an (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum wire (QWR) superlattice (SL) template in molecular beam epitaxy. The crucial steps in QWR template evolution, i.e., elongated QD formation at elevated temperature, thin GaAs capping, annealing, and stacking, are directly imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM reveals a very smooth connection of the QDs into QWRs upon annealing. In addition, AFM shows the presence of height and width fluctuations of the QWRs with a significant number of bends and branches. These are attributed to excess strain accumulation during formation of the QWR template. By reducing the amount of (In,Ga)As and increasing the GaAs separation layer thickness in each SL period, a dramatic improvement of the uniformity of the QWR template is achieved. On the improved QWR template, well-defined one-dimensional single (In,Ga)As QD arrays are formed which are straight over more than 1 μm and extended to over 10 μm length with a small number of branches. After capping, the QD arrays exhibit clear photoluminescence emission up to room temperature without increase of the peak width. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of a nonorthogonal pattern of misfit dislocation arrays in SiGe epitaxy on high-index Si substrates

    Page(s): 115 - 122
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    We have investigated the formation of misfit dislocations resulting from the growth of partially strained Si0.7Ge0.3 epitaxial films on Si substrates with surface normals rotated off of the [001] axis toward [110] by 0°, 13°, and 25°. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the dislocations form in a modified cross-hatch pattern for samples grown on the off-axis substrates. This modified cross hatch consists of three arrays along which the dislocations align. This is in contrast to the two orthogonal arrays found on the on-axis (001) substrates. These dislocations correspond well with the intersection of the (111) slip planes with the respective surfaces. We present a simple analysis of the amount of relaxation due to probable Burger’s vectors for these dislocations, which reveals the most likely directions for these vectors and shows that the density of dislocations only accounts for a fraction of the total film relaxation as measured by Raman peak shifts. These studies form the basis for the use of high index surfaces as components in modern devices, and provide pathways to possible templates for use in the growth of nanostructures. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrical and optical characterizations of self-assembled quantum dots formed by the atomic layer epitaxy technique

    Page(s): 123 - 127
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (70 KB)  

    We investigated the electrical and optical properties of InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots grown using the atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) technique. Dots–in–a–well structures were grown by alternately supplying InAs and GaAs sources on an InGaAs layer and covering with another InGaAs layer. Three samples produced with different numbers of cycles of alternate InAs/GaAs supply were characterized by capacitance-voltage and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. For the ten cycle dots–in–a–well structure, a strong zero-dimensional electron confinement was observed even at room temperature. On the other hand, for the five-cycle structure, the PL results indicate that the InGaAs quantum well structure coexists unstably with premature quantum dots. By comparing the results for samples with different numbers of cycles, we suggest that an ALE dots–in–a–well structure can be formed by the aggregation of In and Ga atoms incorporated into the InGaAs quantum well layer when the number of cycles exceeds the critical number of seven cycles. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Low temperature heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of Ti3SiC2

    Page(s): 128 - 133
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (122 KB)  

    In this paper, we report on the heat capacity and magnetic susceptibilities of bulk Ti3SiC2 samples in the 3–250-K temperature range. At 13.6 K, a nonmagnetic sharp anomaly of unknown origin, which disappeared when the sample was heated and quenched in water from 1400 °C, is observed. Curve fitting the cp data up to 100 K clearly shows that only four atoms—most likely one Si and three Ti atoms—of the six in a formula unit contribute to cp at the lowest temperatures. This reduces the Debye temperature θD calculated from over 700 K to ≈575 K. To obtain good agreement between experimental and calculated cp values in the 14≪T≪130 K temperature range, a θD of 552 K and an optical mode with an Einstein temperature θE of 219 K, which coincided with a soft shear mode observed in Raman spectroscopy, are assumed. At T≫130 K, two other optical modes—the average of two other Raman modes observed at higher wave numbers—are required to enhance the fits to the experimental results. In the absence of the anomaly, θD rises from 575 to 593 K, whereas θE decreases slightly to 211 K. The density of states at the Fermi level [≈5 (eV unit cell)-1] is comparable to previous reports. The magnetic susceptibility is small and independent of magnetic field and temperature. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adhesion shear theory of ice friction at low sliding velocities, combined with ice sintering

    Page(s): 134 - 139
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (98 KB)  

    Adhesion and shear deformation of ice have been traditionally considered to be responsible for ice friction at sliding velocities lower than about 10-2m/s, but the simple mechanism cannot explain the recent finding that the ice–ice friction coefficient increases with decreasing sliding velocity. This article proposes an improved adhesion shear theory, which takes account of junction growth of asperities at the sliding ice interface due to sintering. At lower sliding velocities and higher homologous temperatures, contacts of ice asperities develop resulting in the increase of friction force. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Thermal wave scattering by spheres

    Page(s): 140 - 149
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB)  

    In this article, the solution of the periodic temperature fluctuation of an opaque material with buried spheres as a result of a modulated illumination is presented. The model includes the multiple scattering of the plane thermal wave, generated at the sample surface, when interacting with the spheres and with the sample surfaces. A series solution to the heat diffusion equation and a matrix formulation to solve the scattering coefficients are used. The solution is general in the sense that there are neither restrictions on the number of spheres, their size, and position inside the material nor on the thermal properties of spheres and sample. Measurements on calibrated samples using an infrared radiometric microscope validate our model. This theory is specially suited to the thermal characterization and nondestructive evaluation of particulate composites using photothermal techniques. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory