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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 3 • Date Aug 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 88
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Simulation of light propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a point defect by a high-accuracy finite-difference time-domain method

    Page(s): 1181 - 1184
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    A high-accuracy finite-difference time-domain method based on what are called nonstandard finite differences was used to simulate optical propagation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with a point defect. We used a photonic crystal consisting of a triangular lattice of air columns embedded in a high-refractive index medium. We found that the transmittance spectrum has four peaks in the photonic band-gap region, and that these peaks correspond to the resonant energies of light localized at the point defect. For a point defect consisting of an air hole with a radius smaller than that of the air holes of the photonic crystal, these peaks shift to higher energy. The peak shift of the resonant mode that is associated with the electric field concentrated about the center of the point defect is larger than the peak shift of the other modes. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Metamorphosis of photonic bandgaps

    Page(s): 1185 - 1188
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    We found a nontrivial metamorphosis of photonic band gaps during interpolation between two photonic crystals with two different length scales. The interpolation is parametrized by a dielectric constant of the columns inserted at the positions that are appropriately chosen in each unit cell of the starting photonic crystal. For an instance of the metamorphosis, the first band gap that is present at the beginning gradually shortens and disappears during the interpolation, while the second band gap which is initially absent begins to appear and eventually becomes a first band gap. This mechanism of opening and closing of the photonic band gaps can be used when designing tunable photonic crystals. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • High-density plasma-induced etch damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    Page(s): 1189 - 1194
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    Plasma-induced damage of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been studied in terms of forward turn-on and reverse breakdown voltages, together with etch rate and surface morphology. The physical degradation of sidewall along with rough surface morphology of n–GaN caused by increased ion scattering induced the deterioration of the forward and reverse voltages. The forward turn-on voltage was relatively independent of the pressure up to 20 mTorr. The reverse breakdown voltage showed the worst degradation at 75% Cl2 mainly because of a sidewall contamination. It was found that the turn-on voltage is sensitive to the surface roughness of the etched n–GaN and the breakdown voltage is strongly affected by the sidewall contamination. Annealing under nitrogen after the mesa etching improved the electrical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Negative differential resistance related to self-organization phenomena in a dc gas discharge

    Page(s): 1195 - 1199
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    Oscillations stimulated by an S-shaped negative differential resistance originating from the self-assembly and decay of a self-organized space charge configuration in front of the anode of a dc gas discharge were observed. The oscillations appear in a resonant circuit, appropriate for the discharge, which contains a capacitor having a plate charged by secondary electron emission. The plate can be a metallic or a dielectric one because the negative differential resistance operates at zero dc current to the plate. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Electron energy deposition in an electron-beam pumped KrF amplifier: Impact of the gas composition

    Page(s): 1200 - 1206
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    Calculations for electron deposition in electron beam generated KrF laser at atmospheric pressure have been performed. The impact of the Ar/Kr/F2 gas mixture on the electron energy distribution function, electron density, and mean energy, energy per electron–ion pair, attachment, dissociation, excitation, and ionization rates have been investigated. The F2 abundance controls the low energy (>~9 eV) component of the distribution function, while both the fluorine and krypton mole fraction affect the distribution in the midenergy domain (9 to ∼25 eV). Consequently, the F2 attachment rate coefficient varies with the F2 mole fraction (xF2) such that the electron density scales as 1/xF20.7. The rate coefficient for direct dissociation of F2 is smaller than for attachment but the former contributes more to the total power dissipation (∼8% at xF2=0.01). The excitation-to-ionization ratio for Kr is not constant, as generally assumed, but increases by a factor of two with a decrease in either the Kr or F2 abundance. Combining the former and present investigations leads to a set of fitting formulas to be used in beam kinetics codes for various collision rates as a function of both the electron beam power density and the composition. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • CoSi2 formation in the presence of carbon

    Page(s): 1207 - 1211
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    Silicide formation was studied for Co/C/Si and C/Co/Si bilayers. Phase formation and preferential orientation of the CoSi2 phase is strongly dependent on the C layer thickness. For thin interlayers and capping layers, CoSi2 nucleation is delayed to higher temperature and epitaxially aligned nuclei are formed preferentially. To explain these findings, we propose a model based on heterogeneous nucleation theory: C is present as a contaminant in the CoSi and is able to influence CoSi2 nucleation by enhancing the CoSi grain-boundary cohesion and reducing grain-boundary diffusion. For thicker interlayers (≫1 nm), the carbon acts as a diffusion mediating interlayer, and epitaxial CoSi2 is formed by slow outdiffusion of Co from an amorphous Co–C alloy. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Observations of modulated shock waves in solid targets driven by spatially modulated laser beams

    Page(s): 1212 - 1215
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    The growth of surface perturbations due to nonuniformities in the drive laser is an important subject in laser–matter interactions. We present results of experiments using drive lasers with known, single-mode modulations to produce nonuniform shocks that propagate into planar plastic (CH) targets. An optical probe beam is used to measure the arrival of these modulated shocks at various surfaces in the target. Experiments at moderate laser intensities (>~1013W/cm2) exhibit behavior predicted by hydrocodes and simple scaling laws. This technique will be used to observe various dynamic effects in laser-produced plasmas and shock-wave propagation. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices

    Page(s): 1216 - 1220
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    The formation of interlayer transition zones (ITZs) in sputtered Mo/Si multilayer structures was studied by means of cross-section electron microscopy and grazing incidence reflectivity measurements. For the evaluation and calculation of interface effects the multiperiodic design of Mo/Si structure was used. It was found that the thickness asymmetry of ITZs (Mo-on-Si and Si-on-Mo) in Mo/Si multilayer structures depends on the degree of perfection of the crystalline structure of the molybdenum layer. A transition from asymmetrical to symmetrical ITZs with a disordering of the molybdenum crystalline structure was shown. A model for the formation mechanism of asymmetrical ITZs at the different interfaces in Mo/Si multilayer structures is suggested. According to this model, ITZ formation at the Mo-on-Si interface is controlled by the surface diffusion of Si atoms on the growing molybdenum surface. In contrast, ITZ formation at the Si-on-Mo interface is determined by the bulk diffusion of Si atoms in textured molybdenum grains. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thermoluminescence study of stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals

    Page(s): 1221 - 1226
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    Thermoluminescence (TL), optical absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been used to characterize point defects in Mg-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3. A broad TL emission, peaking at 440 nm, is observed near 94 K when these crystals are irradiated at 77 K and then rapidly warmed. X rays and below-band-gap lasers (325 and 355 nm) are equally effective in producing the TL peak. During excitation, holes are trapped on oxygen ions adjacent to lithium vacancies and electrons are trapped on niobium ions at regular lattice sites. These defects both have characteristic EPR spectra, and the trapped electron center has an optical absorption band peaking at 1200 nm. Upon warming, the electrons become thermally unstable near 94 K and migrate to the trapped-hole sites where radiative recombination occurs. We suggest that the near-edge charge-transfer absorption band from Fe3+ impurities, nominally present, provides the mechanism by which below-band-gap light initially produces the separately trapped holes and electrons. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetoabsorption spectra of intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As semiconductor quantum wells

    Page(s): 1227 - 1231
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    We present a theoretical study, within the effective-mass approximation, of the magnetoabsorption spectra of intraexcitonic terahertz transitions of light-hole and heavy-hole confined magnetoexcitons in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells. The semiconductor quantum wells are studied under magnetic fields applied in the growth direction of the semiconductor heterostructure. The various magnetoexciton states are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by an expansion of the exciton-envelope wave functions in terms of products of hole and electron quantum-well states with appropriate Gaussian functions for the various excitonic states. Intramagnetoexciton transitions are theoretically studied by exciting the allowed excitonic transitions with σ+ (or σ-) far-infrared radiation circularly polarized in the plane of the GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum well. Theoretical results are obtained for the intramagnetoexciton transition energies and magneto-absorption spectra associated with excitations from 1s-like to 2p±, and 3p±-like magnetoexciton states, and found in overall agreement with optically detected resonance measurements. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interface reactions in ZrO2 based gate dielectric stacks

    Page(s): 1232 - 1237
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    Interface reactions in Si/SiOx(Ny)/ZrO2 and Si/SiOx(Ny)/ZrO2/poly-Si gate stacks have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the case of an uncapped stack ZrSi and ZrSi2 phases form during an ultrahigh vacuum anneal at temperatures above 900 °C. Both phases show an island-type growth with an epitaxial relationship with Si (100). Gate dielectric stacks with a poly-Si cap are found to be thermally unstable at T=1000 °C, so that the reaction is initiated at the ZrO2/poly-Si interface. Here a different reaction mechanism is identified, which involves the reduction of ZrO2 and the growth of a bottom interfacial layer between ZrOx and Si. Replacement of the bottom SiO2 layer by an ultrathin Si oxinitride does not completely suppress these interfacial reactions at T≥1000 °C. We suggest that control of the poly-Si/ZrO2 interfacial reactions may be an important factor in modifying the thermal stability of a stack. These results shed a new light on understanding the material challenges involved in the integration of ZrO2 for the next generation of complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technologies. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Dissociation of nitrogen-oxygen complexes by rapid thermal anneal heat treatments

    Page(s): 1238 - 1241
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    Float zone silicon melt doped or implanted with nitrogen exhibits absorption bands in the midinfrared range that are caused by localized vibration modes of nitrogen pairs. Czochralski-grown silicon crystals melt doped with nitrogen exhibit both these lines and additional absorption lines related to the interaction of nitrogen with oxygen to form nitrogen-oxygen complexes. The stability of these complexes is studied by subjecting silicon samples containing these complexes to rapid thermal heat treatments at several temperatures and for varying times and monitoring the relative absorption by the complexes and the nitrogen pairs. We have found that the complexes begin to dissociate rapidly for temperatures above 700 °C but they are still present to some extent even after anneals at temperatures as high as 1200 °C. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Optical properties of nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    Page(s): 1242 - 1247
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    The chemical composition, structural, and optical properties of nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:N) films deposited by a pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition system were characterized by non-Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It was observed that the amount of nitrogen atoms incorporated into the ta-C:N films, as well as the sp2 fraction of the films, increased with increasing nitrogen pressure PN during deposition. As a result, the optical band gap of the ta-C:N films also decreased with increasing PN. At a fixed nitrogen partial pressure of 4×10-3Pa, the nitrogen content was found to first increase with increasing substrate negative bias voltage (-Us), up to a maximum of about 14.5 at. % at -Us of 100 and 150 V, then decreases with further increase of -Us. The sp2 fraction however increased monotonically with increasing -Us. The optical band gap of the ta-C:N films initially increased with increasing -Us, up to a maximum at a certain -Us, and then decreased with further increase in -Us. The variation of the optical band gap with the negative substrate bias voltage was discussed in terms of the different sp2-bonded carbon configurations existing in the films and the graphitization of the ta-C:N films, as indicated by the Raman and density measurement results. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Electron-hole pair generation energy in gallium arsenide by x and γ photons

    Page(s): 1248 - 1255
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    The mean energy necessary to generate an electron-hole pair in gallium arsenide by x and γ photons has been measured in the 230–320 K temperature range. The experimental apparatus consists of a Schottky junction on a high-quality epitaxial GaAs, a silicon detector that generates a reference charge signal and highly stable low-noise electronics. The resolution of the system in measuring the generation energy is better than 2 meV. An apparent value of ε=4.216 eV has been measured at 300 K, lower than previously published values of 4.35 and 4.27 eV for α particles and 4.57 eV for electrons. Charge trapping in the GaAs detector, although very weak (less than 1%), has been observed and a model, based on the Hecht theory, has been developed to derive the true value of ε=4.184±0.025 eV at 300 K. The dependence of ε on the temperature, in the 230–320 K range, has been found linear, ε=4.55-0.00122×T [eV]. The dependence of ε on the band gap has been determined ε=2.76×Eg+0.257 [eV], in good agreement with the Shockley-Klein theory. At 300 K, the found value of ε in GaAs, together with those reported for germanium and silicon, yields a linear dependence of ε on the band-gap energy ε=1.83×Eg+1.6 [eV], with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Test of response linearity for magnetic force microscopy data

    Page(s): 1256 - 1261
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    The utility of vertical propagation by the Green’s function to test response linearity has been explored for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) data from current-carrying wires, by comparing the measured signal at various tip heights to the corresponding propagated MFM signals. Application of a one-dimensional Green’s function was found to be sufficient to predict signal height variation for sample regions of high to moderate field symmetry. For regions of high field asymmetry, the two-dimensional Green’s function was required to obtain good prediction of the height variation. Agreement between the measured and propagated signals was generally within 5%, except at the tails where the signal is not well behaved. The quality of agreement deteriorates gradually with the size of the height propagation. The good agreement spanning a decade of tip and sample separation suggests that the MFM signal is not significantly affected by nonlinearities and can thus be interpreted in terms of classical electromagnetic relations governing current flow. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Photoluminescence of a third order mode optically pumped semiconductor laser structure

    Page(s): 1262 - 1267
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    Semiconductor lasers with third order waveguide mode emission are a promising way in which to achieve microsources of twin photons. The transport of electrons and holes in these particular structures is a critical issue. The temperature and pumping energy dependence of the photoluminescence spectra of a semiconductor structure specially designed for third order mode emission at 775 nm is studied. The analyses show that transfer of carriers from satellite double heterojunctions to the quantum well through a 140 nm Al0.50Ga0.50As barrier is very efficient, and the population inversion required for lasing is always obtained first in the quantum well rather than in the double heterojunctions at both low and room temperature. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Microstructural and electrochromic properties of sputter-deposited Ni oxide films grown at different working pressures

    Page(s): 1268 - 1273
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    The electrochromic properties of Ni oxide films grown at different working pressures (2.7, 5, 15, and 20 mTorr) by rf sputtering were investigated by means of in situ transmittance measurement and the resulting data were related to the crystallographic structure, surface morphology, and film density. At working pressures of over 5 mTorr, the sputter-deposited Ni oxide films crystallized gradually due to the plasma heating effect at a low growth rate. Although the Ni oxide film grown at 2.7 mTorr had the same amorphous crystallographic structure as the film grown at 5 mTorr, the former had a considerably more inhomogeneous surface and a much lower film density due to the rapid growth rate, and resulted in a defect-rich Ni oxide film. The electrochromic properties, such as the transient cycling period, coloration efficiency, and coloring/bleaching response times, were best for the sample grown at 5 mTorr and they are discussed in terms of defect-rich and crystalline Ni oxide films. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanism of the room-temperature persistent spectral hole burning in borate glasses doped with Eu3+

    Page(s): 1274 - 1279
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    Spectroscopic properties and room-temperature persistent spectral hole burning mechanisms of Eu3+-doped borate glasses were investigated. The depth of the burnt hole increased with the amount of carbon powders (i.e., degree of reducing atmosphere). This was attributed to the formation of defects which can donate free electrons for the photoreduction of Eu3+Eu2+. Holes survived ≫104 s at 20 K and approximately 40% of hole areas were preserved after annealing at 280 K. The photoreduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ is a primary mechanism of hole burning and this hypothesis was supported by spectral hole properties, relaxation properties as well as changes in the local structure of Eu3+ in glasses. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of temperature and modulation frequency on the thermal activation coupling term in laser photothermal theory

    Page(s): 1280 - 1285
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    A quantitative analysis of the influence of temperature and modulation frequency on the thermal activation coupling term in laser photothermal theory is performed. Until now it was taken for granted that the coupling term is negligible only in the case of “relatively low” temperatures and generally when the equilibrium free-carrier density n0 satisfies the Sablicov's, Vasil'ev, and Sandomirskii inequality. In this work an extensive computational study of this inequality in the temperature range of 300–1000 K was performed and a precise “map” is given concerning the violation of the inequality under various conditions including modulation frequency (0.1–106 Hz) and doping concentration (intrinsic to 1020 cm-3). Some experimental photomodulated measurements have been performed in order to test the validity of the “map.” © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer characterization of an Fe/SiO2 catalyst for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Page(s): 1286 - 1291
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    A catalyst powder was prepared by adsorption precipitation of iron acetate on a SiO2 support at a controlled pH. The selective reduction of this powder in a N2/C2H2 atmosphere at 700 °C generates multiwall carbon nanotubes. The study by x-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy of the catalyst and reduced powders reveals that hematite particles with a 8–20 nm size range are involved in the formation of these carbon nanotubes and end up as Fe3C after the catalysis process. Moreover, coalescence upon reduction produces large particles responsible for the formation of a minor proportion of large tubes of the order of 100 nm in diameter. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis and properties of Cu2O quantum particles

    Page(s): 1292 - 1297
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    Cuprous oxide quantum particles as small as 2 nm (comparable to the Bohr exciton radius) were synthesized using an electrochemical route. Quantum confinement effects are evident from a blueshift in the optical absorption. The optical absorption spectra of Cu2O nanoparticles of different sizes are discussed. Structural analysis by x-ray diffraction as well as electron diffraction shows the nanoparticles to be cubic and single phased Cu2O. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies indicate the presence of CuO on the surface of Cu2O core nanoparticles. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of metal–oxide–semiconductor processing on the surface roughness of strained Si/SiGe material

    Page(s): 1298 - 1306
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    The impact of metal–oxide–semiconductor processing on strained Si/SiGe device structures has been examined. Material was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy and ultra low pressure chemical vapor deposition, with different as-grown surface roughness. The effects of RCA cleaning, gate oxidation and rapid thermal annealing on this material were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. Certain processes caused reactions common to both material types, whereas others yielded dissimilar responses. Filtering AFM roughness data of specific wavelengths enabled the effects of processing on large-scale surface roughness dominated by the cross-hatching morphology and smaller scale microroughness to be investigated. The results suggest that as-grown Si/SiGe material quality is not a good indicator of processed device performance, rather morphological changes which occur during processing must be considered. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the carrier gas composition on morphology, dislocations, and microscopic luminescence properties of selectively grown GaN by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Page(s): 1307 - 1316
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    We have studied the influence of the carrier gas (hydrogen versus nitrogen) on the morphology and defect characteristics of GaN grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Growth was carried out on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN/sapphire patterned with SiO2 stripes, aligned along the <11¯00> GaN direction. The cross sections of the ELO-grown stripes change from trapezoidal to triangular with an increase in hydrogen content in the carrier gas due to a change of the ratio of the growth velocities on the {112¯2} and (0001) facets. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that while in stripes with trapezoidal morphology, dislocations from the window region still reach the sample surface, for triangular stripes they are bent in the horizontal direction away from the top surface. Cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy shows basically two distinct regions of luminescence intensity and nature, one showing near-band gap excitonic emission, the other a high intensity blueshifted emission band which we attribute to e–h plasma recombination, indicating a high local free carrier concentration due to intrinsic defects or impurities. These two regions are correlated with different growth facets and not with the dislocation distribution. An original two-step growth method was developed which exploits this dependence of the morphology on the gas phase composition. In the first step the formation of triangular facets is preferential. This is done to bend the dislocations which have propagated vertically from the seed layer into the horizontal direction. In the second step the layers are planarized using conditions which favor lateral growth. Very good control of the faceting and high reproducibility of the selectively grown structures and layers could be obtained. By using spatially resolved CL m- easurements carried out on cleaved cross sections of the layers, different domains could be identified and correlated with the growth mode. The ELO layers obtained by two-step growth have significantly reduced dislocation densities of around 2–3×107cm-2 at the surface, which is comparable to the best values of HVPE ELO GaN reported in the literature. The full width half maximum of the x-ray rocking curve gives values below 200 arcsec. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory