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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 2 • Date Jan 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 58
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Detection wavelength of InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells and superlattices

    Page(s): 551 - 564
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    InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures have been shown to be versatile for infrared detection. By changing the material composition, one can tune the detection wavelength from 2 to 35 μm and beyond. However, there have been few systematic calculations on the absorption wavelength of these structures with respect to their structural parameters. In this work we have adopted the transfer-matrix method to calculate both their energy levels and the wave functions. From this calculation, the absorption and the responsivity spectra of the structures can be predicted. The theory agrees with the experimental result of the test structures. Supported by the experimental evidence, we applied the calculation to a general class of midwavelength detectors and thus established a useful guideline for the detector design in this wavelength range. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of radiatively generated currents in infrared detectors

    Page(s): 565 - 568
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    The radiative contribution to the dark current in an infrared detector has been measured over the temperature range 200–300 K. Good agreement was obtained between the measured currents and a theory based on radiative coupling between neighboring elements in the array. Detectors have been made which are close to radiatively limited and which become background limited in f/2 for temperatures below 200 K. By reverse biasing neighboring elements it has been possible to switch off up to 25% of the radiatively generated component of the dark current, demonstrating that radiative generation need not be a fundamental limitation for infrared detector arrays. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Crystal growth of vanadium doped YAlO3, LaGaO3, and CaYAlO4 crystals and spectroscopic studies of vanadium valence states

    Page(s): 569 - 575
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    V4+ doped YAlO3, LaGaO3, and CaYAlO4 crystals (3d1 ion in octahedral coordination) have been grown and characterized as potential broadband laser materials using optical and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The effect of charge compensation on the vanadium valence state and spectroscopic properties of the materials are discussed. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped silica glass

    Page(s): 576 - 581
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    We have carried out a systematic study of optical emission in Yb-doped fiber glass materials which can be used for fiber laser applications. The stimulated emission crosssections of these materials have been calculated. The wavelength dependence of emission of these materials has been studied. The peak emission cross section in Yb-doped silica glass is 2.6 pm2 and the peak wavelength is at 974 nm. The codopants do not significantly alter the emission cross section or the peak wavelength of this cross section.© 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial-domain cavity ringdown from a high-finesse plane Fabry–Perot cavity

    Page(s): 582 - 594
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    We investigate the optical transmission of a tilted plane Fabry–Perot cavity leading to spatial cavity ringdown, the exponentially decaying intensity output present along the transverse spatial coordinate. Primary features of the spatial cavity ringdown are theoretically predicted from the spectral and spatial cavity transfer function which is derived analytically on the combined basis of ray optics and diffraction theory applied to an ideal diffraction lossless cavity of one transverse dimension. Spatial frequency filtration by a narrow Lorentzian-shaped cavity resonance is shown to play key roles on the spatial aspects of transmitted beam profiles. Our theoretical formulation is further extended to the case of wedged plane Fabry–Perot cavities. The experimental observation of spatial cavity ringdown signals exhibits an excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment

    Page(s): 595 - 604
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    The emission of light and external coupling after the appropriate excitons have been formed in the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) has been investigated. The internally emitted light can be classified into three modes: externally emitted, substrate waveguided, and indium–tin–oxide (ITO)/organic waveguided. A combined classical and quantum mechanical microcavity model is used to calculate the distribution of light emission into these three modes in an OLED on planar substrates. The ITO/organic modes maybe suppressed due to the thinness of the ITO/organic layers. Consequently, as much as over 50% of the internally generated light is emitted externally in some structures, much greater than the ∼20% figure given by classical ray optics. This model is used to examine how this distribution varies with exciton to cathode distance, the thickness of the ITO layer, and the index of refraction of the substrate. It can also be applied to OLEDs on shaped substrates where an increase in the total external emission up to a factor of 2.3 has been demonstrated. The numerical results agree well with experimentally measured far-field intensity profiles, edge emissions, and increase in external emission due to shaped substrates. Finally, based on these results, we discuss different approaches to device optimization, depending on the fluorescence efficiency of the emitter and whether a shaped substrate is used. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Influences on ionization fraction in an inductively coupled ionized physical vapor deposition device plasma

    Page(s): 605 - 612
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    A computer simulation was created to model the transport of sputtered atoms through an ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) system. The simulation combines Monte Carlo and fluid methods to track the metal atoms that are emitted from the target, interact with the IPVD plasma, and are eventually deposited somewhere in the system. Ground-state neutral, excited, and ionized metal atoms are tracked. The simulation requires plasma conditions to be specified by the user. Langmuir probe measurements were used to determine these parameters in an experimental system in order to compare simulation results with experiment. The primary product of the simulation is a prediction of the ionization fraction of the sputtered atom flux at the substrate under various conditions. This quantity was experimentally measured and the results compared to the simulation. Experiment and simulation differ significantly. It is hypothesized that heating of the background gas due to the intense sputtered atom flux at the target is primarily responsible for this difference. Heating of the background gas is not accounted for in the simulation. Difficulties in accurately measuring plasma parameters, especially electron temperature, are also significant. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Direct measurement of electron density and temperature distributions in a micro-discharge plasma for a plasma display panel

    Page(s): 613 - 616
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    Spatial distributions of electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) of a micro-discharge plasma for an alternating current plasma display panel cell were directly measured using the laser Thomson scattering method. The use of a triple-grating spectrometer was very successful in suppressing the strong stray laser light and allowed us to perform measurements at 0.1 mm above the surface of the electrode substrate. Values of ne and Te were (0.2–3)×1019 m-3 and (1.6–3.4) eV, respectively, depending on the time from the beginning of the pulsed discharge and the observation position. The structure of the micro-discharge is discussed in terms of the obtained distributions of ne and Te. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Page(s): 617 - 623
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    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser–gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals

    Page(s): 624 - 632
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    The deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced in Er-or Ho-LiYF4 (YLF) crystals, codoped with Nd ions, were observed by the activator’s fluorescence decays. In the case of Er:Nd:YLF, the 4I13/24I15/2 and 4I11/24I13/2 transitions at 1.5 and 2.7 μm, respectively, were analyzed. The 5I75I8 and 5I65I7 transitions at 2.1 and 2.9 μm, respectively, were investigated for the Ho:Nd:YLF system. Laser excitations generated by a tunable optical parametric oscillator were used in this investigation. The use of a resonant laser excitation to induce the fluorescence allowed accurate measurements of the donor fluorescence decay by a time-resolved infrared spectroscopic system with a time resolution of 0.5 μs. As a result, a general criterion for the migration mechanism, involved in the donor to acceptor energy transfer, was proposed and depends on a parameter R. This parameter was defined as the ratio between the transfer rate obtained from the best fit of the fluorescence decay and the theoretical transfer rate predicted by the diffusion model. It was observed that the donor to acceptor transfer is always dominated by a diffusion migration (R∼1) if the donor is in the second excited state, despite a great variation of the CDD/CDA ratio (from ∼1 to 371). Nevertheless, a discrete energy migration was found to dominate in the [Ho, Er]→Nd energy transfer when the first excited state of the activator is involved. In this case, the experimental value of the transfer rate is smaller than expected according to the hopping model. Introducing a finite trapping efficiency of an exciton migration in the hopping model, all the observed experimental results were explained. The presence of Nd ions, in addition to decreasing the lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ and Ho3+ in YLF, also depopulates the second excited state (partially), depending on the Nd concentration used. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Reaction of the Si/Ta/Ti system: C40 TiSi2 phase formation and in situ kinetics

    Page(s): 633 - 638
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    The effect of a thin Ta layer at the Si/Ti interface on the intermediate phase formation has been studied in detail by in situ sheet resistance, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of partially reacted samples. When a Ta layer is deposited at the Si/Ti interface, a new intermediate phase has been detected, i.e., the hexagonal TiSi2 C40. This phase grows on the C40 TaSi2 that is formed at the interface with silicon. The activation energies of the C40 formation (1.9±0.3 eV) and the C40–C54 phase transition (3.7±0.5 eV) have been determined and compared to the activation energies for the C49 (1.7±0.1 eV) formation and the C49–C54 (5.1±0.9 eV) transition. Both the transformation kinetics and the film morphology are consistent with an increase of the nucleation density with respect to the C49–C54 transition. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Page(s): 639 - 645
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    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into <100> p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Near-field scanning optical microscope studies of the anisotropic stress variations in patterned SiN membranes

    Page(s): 646 - 651
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    A near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) is used in transmission to study the anisotropic stress variations in SiN membranes, nominally 50 nm thick, containing arrays of submicron size holes. A polarization modulation technique is employed in combination with the NSOM to obtain quantitative measurements of the stress induced optical anisotropy on a ∼100 nm scale. A method is developed to remove the dichroic contribution from the measured retardance in order to determine stress variation. Stress patterns observed in the images provide insight into how the membrane relaxes in response to the patterning process. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interface properties and in-plane linear photoluminescence polarization in highly excited type-II ZnSe/BeTe heterostructures with equivalent and nonequivalent interfaces

    Page(s): 652 - 657
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    Properties of interfaces with no-common atom in type-II ZnSe/BeTe heterostructures are studied with polarization spectroscopy. Structures with four possible configurations of normal and inverted interfaces have been investigated. Radiative recombination and its polarization anisotropy have been found to depend crucially on the interface configuration and excitation power. The comparison of interfaces formed by the growth on anion (Se, Te) and cation (Zn, Be) terminated layers has shown that the latter demonstrate a significantly higher nonradiative recombination rate. In agreement with the quantum well (QW) symmetry, the photoluminescence (PL) of the structures with nonequivalent normal and inverted interfaces is highly linearly polarized both at low and high excitation densities. Unexpectedly, a similarly strong PL polarization has been found for structures with equivalent interfaces up to carrier densities of 1012cm-2 per QW. The polarization is explained by a built-in electric field, it decreases with increasing carrier concentration due to screening of the electric field. Finally, we have found that the PL polarization degree at interfaces with Be–Se and Zn–Te bonds amounts to about 50% and ≈70%, respectively.© 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Improved binary collision approximation ion implant simulators

    Page(s): 658 - 667
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    An efficient binary collision approximation (BCA) ion implant code with good prediction capabilities for semiconductor materials (Si, GaAs, SiC) with only one fitting parameter for low implantation doses is presented. It includes specific interatomic potentials and recent improvements in physical models for inelastic stopping. A periodic ab initio full bond electron density for the target is used. Damage accumulation is supported using a modified Kinchin–Pease model [G. H. Kinchin and R. S. Pease, Rep. Prog. Phys. 18, 1 (1955)]. Also, some of the BCA integration algorithms and target selection procedure have been refined. An algorithm commonly used for statistical noise reduction has been modified to also improve the noise reduction in the lateral and shallow zones. The agreement with experiments is good, even under channeling conditions and for different target materials. A comparison with experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy results for several projectiles and targets is presented. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Role of Ge on film quality of SiC grown on Si

    Page(s): 668 - 671
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    We find that the incorporation of Ge into SiC during the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth process improves the crystalline quality of SiC films grown on Si (111) substrates at 1000 °C. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results indicate that Ge does not act as a surfactant, but rather it incorporates throughout the entire film. Transmission electron microscopy results show that high quality, single crystalline SiC films of up to 80 nm thickness are repeatably obtained for GeH4 flow rates ranging from 20 to 30 sccm. Higher GeH4 flow rates induce twinning and result in a reduced growth rate and increased surface roughness. Lower GeH4 flow rates result in polycrystalline and/or amorphous-like SiC films similar to what is normally obtained at such a low growth temperature. We discuss the role of Ge during growth and how its presence in the reactor during Si substrate carbonization results in higher quality SiC films than normally achieved for growth temperatures of 1000 °C. View full abstract»

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  • Optoelectronic behavior in a double-barrier-emitter triangular barrier switch

    Page(s): 672 - 675
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    In this study, a triangular-barrier and a double-barrier structure were integrated to form a bi-directional switching device. In the center of the triangular-barrier structure, a delta-doped (δ-doped) quantum well was inserted to enhance the carrier accumulation. Owing to the resonant tunneling through the double barrier and avalanche multiplication in the reverse-biased junction, N-shaped and S-shaped negative-differential-resistance phenomena occurred in the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics under normal and reverse operation modes, respectively. The device characteristics also showed variations from dark to illumination conditions.© 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Mosaicity reduction during growth of heteroepitaxial diamond films on iridium buffer layers: Experimental results and numerical simulations

    Page(s): 676 - 685
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    Heteroepitaxial diamond films can be grown by bias enhanced nucleation on iridium buffer layers followed by an appropriate textured-growth step. Unlike epitaxial diamond films on silicon, the mosaicity reduction during textured growth includes tilt as well as twist. We conclude that different mechanisms causing the grain coarsening are working in the two cases. It is shown that the principle of evolutionary selection can be excluded as a decisive mechanism in the present films. Merging of neighboring grains by disclination formation yields an alternative explanation, that can convincingly substantiate the differences between the textured growth on iridium and silicon. From a Monte–Carlo type simulation describing the texture evolution due to merging of grains, a simple functional correlation between grain coarsening and mosaicity reduction is deduced. Comparison between simulation and experiment allows one to estimate the contributions of different processes. Finally, the general significance of the present findings for other materials is discussed. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Atomistic simulations of structural relaxation processes in amorphous silicon

    Page(s): 686 - 689
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    Structural relaxation processes in amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been examined by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations using the Tersoff interatomic potential. The a-Si networks generated by rapid quenching from liquid Si were annealed. Structural changes due to the relaxation of a-Si networks were observed. The present MD simulations reproduce well experimental measurements of changes in radial distribution functions, static structure factors, bond angle distributions, and phonon densities of states due to structural relaxation. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation

    Page(s): 690 - 696
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    We have studied the structural properties of ZnO thin films grown on Al2O3 (00.1) single-crystal substrates by pulsed-laser deposition using either a femtosecond or a nanosecond laser. Although hexagonal ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrate were epitaxially grown in both cases, the crystalline quality was found to be very different: ZnO films grown with the femtosecond laser are characterized by a higher mosaicity, a smaller crystallite size, a larger content of defects but also smaller residual stresses than ZnO films obtained by nanosecond laser ablation. These differences can be explained according to the kinetic energy of the species evolved during laser ablation as deduced from plasma characterization with a charged-coupled device camera: close to 1 KeV in the femtosecond regime for the population species emitted from the target with the highest velocity, versus a few hundreds of eV in the case of nanosecond pulses. The high energy species irradiation associated with a femtosecond laser is likely to induce a large structural disorder together with stress relaxation during ZnO films growth. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the glass transition and nucleation temperatures in Ge2Sb2Te5 sputtered films

    Page(s): 697 - 702
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    Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films were prepared by rf sputtering from the bulk alloy. Their electrical and optical properties were analyzed using impedance and optical transmission measurements as a function of temperature. From this analysis, it is found that the glass transition temperature of the as-prepared amorphous films is of about 100 °C. This result is confirmed by calorimetric measurements. Impedance and optical measurements in films measured at temperatures between the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures show the appearance of the nucleation centers. Using models for two-phase materials, the electrical parameters of the crystalline and amorphous phases were estimated and related with structural parameters of the samples. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Alloy composition and electronic structure of Cd1-xZnxTe by surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    Page(s): 703 - 707
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    The alloy composition of a Cd1-xZnxTe(111) sample and its spatial homogeneity have been determined by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and compared to conventional energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Experimental improvements of the former technique yield a contactless, surface sensitive, and highly accurate spectral resolution of the band gap (error≪4 meV) and consequently of the Zn concentration (error≪0.6% in comparison with the latter technique). In addition, SPS is capable of determining the face and type of the Cd1-xZnxTe as well as identifying gap states at its surface. The electronic structure has been investigated in comparison with n-CdTe(111), before and after various surface chemical treatments. An acceptor surface state has been observed at 1.21 eV below the conduction band edge and attributed to TeO2. A donor surface state (with a lower concentration relative to the corresponding state in CdTe) associated with Cd atom displacement has been found at 1.42 eV above the valence band maximum. A chemically induced surface state at 0.72 eV below the conduction band edge may be due to Zn vacancies, as supported by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Mobility enhancement limit of excimer-laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors

    Page(s): 708 - 714
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    The effects of various carrier scattering mechanisms on excimer-laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using 450 °C processes on a glass substrate were studied. Good performance of a separated by ion implanted oxygen (SIMOX) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with field-effect mobility of 670 cm2/Vs and a subthreshold swing value of 0.087 V/dec was obtained using these 450 °C processes. The results showed the formation of a good silicon/silicon dioxide (SiO2) interface that is comparable to that of thermal oxide, as well as the high capability of 450 °C processes. The performance of the above SIMOX-MOSFET is superior to that of excimer-laser-crystallized poly-Si TFTs fabricated using the same 450 °C processes. This shows that poorer performance of poly-Si TFTs is caused by the poor crystalline quality of the poly-Si film. The field-effect mobility is affected little by the in-grain microdefects and surface morphology of the excimer-laser-crystallized poly-Si film, but it is highly sensitive to the grain size. A field-effect mobility of 320 cm2/Vs was obtained for an average grain size of 700 nm. The increase in field-effect mobility began to saturate with grain sizes of approximately 1000 nm. It is not necessary to enlarge the grain size beyond the saturation point of the field-effect mobility to improve performance, because the field-effect mobility of an average grain size of 700 nm is limited by phonon scattering, but not by the grain boundary. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory