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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 10 • Date May 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 100
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • High-κ gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations

    Page(s): 5243 - 5275
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    Many materials systems are currently under consideration as potential replacements for SiO2 as the gate dielectric material for sub-0.1 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A systematic consideration of the required properties of gate dielectrics indicates that the key guidelines for selecting an alternative gate dielectric are (a) permittivity, band gap, and band alignment to silicon, (b) thermodynamic stability, (c) film morphology, (d) interface quality, (e) compatibility with the current or expected materials to be used in processing for CMOS devices, (f) process compatibility, and (g) reliability. Many dielectrics appear favorable in some of these areas, but very few materials are promising with respect to all of these guidelines. A review of current work and literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given. Based on reported results and fundamental considerations, the pseudobinary materials systems offer large flexibility and show the most promise toward successful integration into the expected processing conditions for future CMOS technologies, especially due to their tendency to form at interfaces with Si (e.g. silicates). These pseudobinary systems also thereby enable the use of other high-κ materials by serving as an interfacial high-κ layer. While work is ongoing, much research is still required, as it is clear that any material which is to replace SiO2 as the gate dielectric faces a formidable challenge. The requirements for process integration compatibility are remarkably demanding, and any serious candidates will emerge only through continued, intensive investigation. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Kinetics of the photorefractive response of bismuth silicon oxide

    Page(s): 5276 - 5281
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    The kinetics of production and dark decay of index gratings in Bismuth Silicon Oxide was investigated as a function of write-beam intensity at 300 K and of temperature over the 20–300 K temperature range. At 300 K and an intensity of about 200 mW/cm2 the gratings show a fast leading-edge peak which drops to a steady saturated value. At lower intensities the peak slows and broaden, but the grating strength at saturation remains the same. As the temperature is lowered the gratings grow more slowly, and the peak disappears at about 200 K. The slowing and disappearance of the peak are probably related to the large decrease in electron mobility in this temperature range. Below 225 K the grating strength at the end of the 500 ms write time grows significantly and reaches a maximum in the 125–150 K temperature region. The dark decays disappear quickly for temperatures down to about 180 K. At lower temperatures the decays become much slower and become persistent below 60 K. The largest change appears between 150 and 123 K. A persistent grating was written at 20 K, and its strength was measured as the sample warmed. The persistent grating annealed out between 110 and 150 K. The slowing of the dark decays and the anneal of the persistent grating correlate with the reported recovery of Fe3+. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5

    Page(s): 5282 - 5287
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    Transparent optical nonlinear crystallized glasses with the composition of 25La2O3 25B2O3 50GeO2, stoichiometric to ferroelectric stillwellite-type LaBGeO5 crystalline phase, have been prepared by a two-step heat-treatment (first heat treatment: T1=670 °C, t1=10 h, second heat-treatment: T2, t2), and their second harmonic (SH) intensities have been examined using the Maker fringe method. The samples obtained by heat treatments at T2=720∼725 °C for t2=3 h show only surface crystallization and exhibit clear and fine (narrow) fringe patterns. The samples heat treated at T2=740 and 750 °C exhibit relatively strong SH intensities, but the fringe patterns in such samples are broad. It is proposed that SH waves generated from surface LaBGeO5 crystalline layers scatter at LaBGeO5 crystals formed in the interior of glass, causing the disappearance of fine fringe patterns. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Mueller calculus and perfect polarization conversion modes in liquid crystal displays

    Page(s): 5288 - 5294
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    We introduce a 4×4 Mueller matrix for describing the polarization states of a liquid crystal cell. Using this Mueller matrix, it is possible to derive conditions whereby a linearly polarized input can be converted to either a perfectly linearly or perfectly circularly polarized output. These are called the perfect polarization conversion (PPC) conditions. These PPC conditions can be used in many different ways. For example, based on these PPC conditions, polarization mode switching schemes can be derived for the analysis of most liquid crystal displays. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thick polymer-stabilized liquid crystal films for microwave phase control

    Page(s): 5295 - 5298
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    This article describes the use of thick polymer-stabilized liquid crystal films in a new design for microwave variable phase shifters. A fine μm-order sized polymer network was formed in a 100-μm-thick liquid crystal film, using a photopolymerization-induced phase-separation method to stabilize the molecular alignment of the liquid crystal. Measurement of the electro-optic properties of the liquid crystal film revealed that the relaxation response time of the liquid crystal alignment was drastically decreased by doping the polymer at a concentration of several wt %. A new variable phase shifter composed of a microstrip transmission line (length: 193 mm, width: 200 μm) was also fabricated by using the liquid crystal film as the dielectric material. This device exhibited a microwave phase shift of -80° at a frequency of 20 GHz, when a drive voltage of 70 Vrms was applied vertically to the liquid crystal film. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Biphotonic holographic recording in a liquid crystalline cyanoazobenzene side-chain polymethacrylate. Polarization, intensity, and relief gratings

    Page(s): 5299 - 5306
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    Biphotonic holographic recording has been performed on thin films of a side-chain liquid crystalline p-cyanoazobenzene polymethacrylate. Polarization and intensity holographic gratings have been recorded by irradiation of the films with blue incoherent light and simultaneous or subsequent illumination with the red light pattern generated by the interference of two properly polarized beams from a He–Ne laser. The influence of temperature and illumination conditions on the diffraction efficiency of those gratings has been studied. Surface topography of the films has been explored using a profilometer. The appearance of relief gratings using biphotonic processes has been observed only in gratings recorded with simultaneous illumination of blue light and an intensity modulated light pattern of the red light. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Role of the Eu3+ ions in the formation of transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Page(s): 5307 - 5310
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    Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass ceramics and in the precursor glasses (30 SiO2, 15 Al2O3, 29 CdF2, 22 PbF2, 1.5 YF3, and 2.5 EuF3, in mol %) have been analyzed and compared. The Eu3+ ions in the glass ceramics are incorporated into a crystalline environment with higher symmetry and lower energy coupled phonons. Emission measurements indicate that this crystalline phase is EuF3, instead of PbxCd1-xF2 as generally considered. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of the photochromic effect in near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 with applications to holographic storage

    Page(s): 5311 - 5317
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    Near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 (LiNbO3, LiNbO3:Tb, and LiNbO3:Tb,Fe) crystals have exhibited a reversible photochromic effect at room temperature. Irradiation by UV light induced a visible absorption band extending from λ≈650 nm to the absorption edge, which could be bleached by subsequent illumination with visible light. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis at 15 K revealed an EPR signal of g≈2.0 appearing after UV irradiation with a simultaneous decrease in the Fe3+ signal intensity. This implies that the Fe3+ ions (natural impurities or dopants) act as electron traps and the induced absorption band is caused by the charge transfer from UV-sensitive absorption centers to Fe3+ ions via the conduction band. Using the induced absorption band, a high-sensitive holographic recording has been achieved with a continuous-wave green laser at λ≈532 nm. In addition, the fast response to UV light made it possible to quickly erase the stored information by UV illumination. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of ion energy on photoresist etching in an inductively coupled, traveling wave driven, large area plasma source

    Page(s): 5318 - 5321
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    We report on the effect of ion energy on photoresist etching in an inductively coupled large area plasma source driven by a 13.56 MHz traveling wave with oxygen gas. To control the ion energy at the substrate surface, the electrode on which the substrate is placed is independently driven by a capacitively coupled 1 MHz power source. The etch rate increases with increasing ion energy for gas pressure ranging from 1 to 100 mTorr. Ion-induced desorption rate constants (etch yields) are shown to be proportional to the square root of the ion energy. An increase in the ion energy leads to etch-uniformity improvement over the processing area of 40 cm×50 cm, particularly at a low gas pressure of 5 mTorr. A modified photoresist etch kinetics model combined with a spatially-varying oxygen discharge model is used to explain these experimental results. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Inductively coupled plasma etching of InP using N2/H2

    Page(s): 5322 - 5325
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    Inductively coupled plasma etching of InP in N2/H2 is demonstrated. The dependence of etch rates on N2/H2 composition, radio frequency power and etching pressure is presented. An optimized process is developed and shown to be suitable for the slow, well-controlled, etching of InP-based nanostructures, while yielding excellent surface morphology. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Control of the well-type radial potential profile in the magnetized plasma flow produced by a dc discharge

    Page(s): 5326 - 5331
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    The control of the well-type radial potential profile in a dc plasma by applying bias potential, VE, to the end plate is investigated experimentally. The experimental evidence that a plasma space potential, Φp, increases at the circumference of the plasma with the increase of VE is interpreted qualitatively by the experimental results of the current drawn by the segmented end plate, and of the relationship of Φp to VE. For the dc discharge the value of Φp at the center of the plasma is naturally settled on the value somewhat lower than the anode potential, the electron sheath therefore appears in front of the end plate and expands radially as VE is increased. Electrons are drawn from the circumference of the plasma to the end plate, inducing the nonambipolar radial electron flux. Since the cross-field electron mobility is not sufficiently large, the inwardly directed radial electric field becomes stronger. The role of electron sheath formed is crucial in actively controlling the radial potential profile in the dc plasma. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Dislocations induced by bubble formation in high energy He implantation in silicon

    Page(s): 5332 - 5338
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    He+ ions were implanted into a (111) epitaxial n-type silicon wafer at 1.6 MeV and at a dose of 2×1016cm-2. After implantation the samples were subjected to thermal annealing at 800 °C for 30 min. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize microstructural features of the induced defects. Even in the as-implanted samples the TEM observations revealed the formation of a buried layer containing a dense array of bubbles. After annealing, a large band of defects (bubbles, Frank dislocation loops) was observed as well as rows of prismatic punching related dislocations which can extend over several micrometers away from the buried layer. Planar clusters of helium bubbles, lying on the {001} planes, were also observed and were supposed to be involved in the generation of dislocation loops in the matrix. Their nucleation is discussed in terms of the trap-mutation process. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of molecular structure on anisotropic photoinduced decomposition of polyimide molecules

    Page(s): 5339 - 5342
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    We have investigated the anisotropic decomposition of polyimide molecules induced by irradiation of linearly polarized ultraviolet light (LPUVL). Three polyimides were examined: poly [4,4-oxydiphenylene-pyromellitimide], poly [4,4-oxydiphenylene-1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboximide] and poly [4,4-oxydiphenylene-1,2,3,4-cyclobutanetetracarboximide] (CBDA-ODA). Anisotropic decomposition was monitored by measuring the polarized infrared absorption spectra of ∼10 nm thick films as a function of LPUVL exposure. Among the three polyimides, CBDA-ODA showed the largest anisotropy of decomposition in the initial stage of LPUVL exposure. This result suggests that CBDA-ODA is a suitable polyimide material for photoinduced liquid crystal alignment based on photodecomposition reactions. The details of the LPUVL exposure dependence of the film anisotropy are discussed. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment

    Page(s): 5343 - 5347
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    The evolution of the sheet resistance (Rs) of n-type and p-type conductive InP layers during proton irradiation and the stability of the formed isolation during postirradiation annealing were investigated. It was found that the threshold dose (Dth) to convert the conductive layer to a highly resistive one is different for n- and p-type samples with similar initial free carrier concentrations. From our results, one infers that the antisite defects and/or related defect complexes formed by the replacement collisions are the carrier trapping centers, where InP is responsible for electron trapping and PIn for the hole trapping. A time dependence of the Rs was observed after each irradiation step to doses of ≅Dth and higher. This time variation is related to metastable processes involving free carriers. The thermal stability of the isolation of n-type samples is limited to temperatures lower than 200 °C, irrespectively of the irradiated dose. For p-type samples the thermal stability of electrical isolation is extended to 450–500 °C. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Nature of grain boundaries in laser crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Page(s): 5348 - 5354
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    The grain boundary populations in laser crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films are determined by electron microscope analysis, using electron backscattering contrast in the scanning electron microscope, and convergent beam electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope. The grain boundary populations of the grains larger than 0.5 μm are dominated by first and second order twin boundaries. This result is found to be a general feature of laser crystallization independent of the experimental details of the laser crystallization process. Texture analysis of the laser crystallized poly-Si films shows that under certain experimental conditions a {111}-preferential orientation of the grains perpendicular to the substrate can be obtained. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Structural differences between deuterated and hydrogenated silicon nitride/oxynitride

    Page(s): 5355 - 5361
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    Hydrogenated and deuterated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H and a-SiNx:D) and silicon oxynitride (a-SiOxNy:H and a-SiOxNy:D) films are prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Their transmission and photoluminescence spectra were measured. Both the photoluminescence and transmission spectra show that the deuterated films have higher energy gaps than those of the hydrogenated films in the same growth condition. The infrared absorption spectra of these samples are identified and compared in detail. From the infrared spectra, the interaction between N–D bond rocking vibration and Si–N bond stretching vibration is observed, which pushes N–D bond rocking vibration to a higher energy. It is also observed that the refractive index of deuterated film is lower than the hydrogenated film in the same growth condition due to its lower density. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid crystallization of silicon films using electrical-current-induced joule heating

    Page(s): 5362 - 5367
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    Melt-regrowth properties of 60-nm-thick silicon films were characterized in the case of electrical-current-induced joule heating. The electrical energy accumulated at a capacitance caused melting of the silicon films via joule heating with a maximum intensity at 1.5×106W/cm2. The melt-regrowth duration increased from 6 to 75 μs as the capacitance increased to 0.05–1.5 μF. Crystalline properties of the silicon films were also investigated. 7 μm long crystalline grains with the (110) preferential crystalline orientation were observed using a transmission electron microscope. The tensile stress at 3.4×108Pa remained in the films. The analysis of electrical conductivity resulted in a density of defect states of 3.5×1016cm-3 in the films. The product of the generation efficiency, the carrier mobility and the average carrier lifetime was estimated to be ∼10-3cm2/V. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Decay of the elastic precursor in a filled glass

    Page(s): 5368 - 5371
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    Plate-impact experiments have been performed upon a lead-filled glass to understand its shock response. Stress measurements have been made using manganin stress gauges in both longitudinal and lateral orientations. It has been observed that there is a pronounced decay in Hugoniot elastic limit with distance into the target. In the experiments conducted, a steady value for the precursor amplitude has not been reached. Failure waves were seen to sweep the entire thickness of the glass specimens until stopped by release waves from the rear of the target. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Compression and shear wave measurements to characterize the shocked state in silicon carbide

    Page(s): 5372 - 5380
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    Compression and shear wave experiments using plate impact loading were conducted on polycrystalline silicon carbide (SiC). The material was subjected to combined compression-shear loading to peak compressive stresses ranging from 3 to 18 GPa. The compression (shock) wave profiles and the propagation velocities of shear and longitudinal release waves in the shocked SiC were measured using in situ, electromagnetic velocity gauges. The Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the material was found to be 11.5±0.4 GPa. The measured wave velocities were used to determine the elastic moduli of the material as functions of density compression in the shocked state. The data were further analyzed to obtain the mean stress response of the SiC under uniaxial-strain compression. The longitudinal and mean stress results completely characterize the material stress state. Numerical simulations were also carried out to verify the peak-state data analysis. Our results show that the Poisson’s ratio of the material increases with elastic shock compression from an ambient value of 0.161 to 0.192 at the HEL. Above the elastic limit, the maximum shear stress supported by the material increases from 4.5 to 6.4 GPa at a peak stress of 18 GPa. This finding verifies independently the results from lateral manganin gauge measurements in the same material [R. Feng etal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 79 (1998)]. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • An investigation on the modeling of transient enhanced diffusion of ultralow energy implanted boron in silicon

    Page(s): 5381 - 5385
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    We have investigated and modeled the B diffusion in Si following ultralow energy implantation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements revealed that B diffusion is transient enhanced. For the simulation we have used a kick-out model which requires only two uncorrelated parameters able to describe the microscopical processes involved. By optimizing the parameters, an excellent agreement between the simulated and the experimental profile broadening is achieved. Moreover, an extension of the previous model that accounts for interstitial cluster formation and dissolution was implemented in order to achieve a better description of B diffusion. The extracted parameters are discussed and compared with published values. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Proton transport polarization and depolarization of hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Page(s): 5386 - 5392
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    Polarization of sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics by application of an external dc field at higher temperature was analyzed by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements. The mechanisms for the polarization and depolarization of HAp were discussed in relation to the instability of the protons in the hydroxide groups. The TSDC spectra consisted of broad peaks, while the ferroelectric substances such as the BaTiO3 ceramics exhibited a sharp peak. Although the maximum current density of 7.87 nA cm-2 for the HAp polarized at 400 °C under 1.0 kV cm-1 was approximately 1/12 lower than that of BaTiO3, the polarization charge of 14.9 μC cm-2 was almost twice as large as that of BaTiO3. Considering the activation energy of 0.72–0.89 eV for the depolarization, it was revealed that the polarization of HAp was ascribed to the migration of protons in the columnar OH- channels with a micrometer-order distance. It was also found that the polarization charge was large and long enough to enhance the biological reactivity of HAp ceramics for biomedical implants. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Self-diffusion in 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures

    Page(s): 5393 - 5399
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    Gallium and antimony self-diffusion experiments have been performed in undoped 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures at temperatures between 571 and 708 °C under Sb- and Ga-rich ambients. Ga and Sb profiles measured with secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that Ga diffuses faster than Sb by several orders of magnitude. This strongly suggests that the two self-atom species diffuse independently on their own sublattices. Experimental results lead us to conclude that Ga and Sb diffusion are mediated by Ga vacancies and Sb interstitials, respectively, and not by the formation of a triple defect proposed earlier by Weiler and Mehrer [Philos. Mag. A 49, 309 (1984)]. The extremely slow diffusion of Sb up to the melting temperature of GaSb is proposed to be a consequence of amphoteric transformations between native point defects which suppress the formation of those native defects which control Sb diffusion. Preliminary experiments exploring the effect of Zn indiffusion at 550 °C on Ga and Sb diffusion reveal an enhanced intermixing of the Ga isotope layers compared to undoped GaSb. However, under the same conditions the diffusion of Sb was not significantly affected. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Irradiation enhanced diffusion of boron in delta-doped silicon

    Page(s): 5400 - 5405
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    Two kinds of silicon samples have been used in this work: one containing a sequence of boron spikes and one with a sequence of alternating boron and antimony spikes, both grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These samples were irradiated with 2.5 MeV protons at an elevated temperature ranging from 500 to 830 °C and characterized by secondary-ion-mass spectrometry. The energy of the proton beam was chosen such that the generation rate of point defects can be considered as uniform throughout the delta-doped Si samples. The influence of the sample surface and of the boron concentration (ranging from 5×1015 to 3.2×1018B/cm3 in the different samples) on the diffusion of boron have been studied in detail. The effect of antimony on boron diffusion has also been analyzed. For each sample, the B diffusion coefficient is increased under irradiation as compared to the B diffusion coefficient in unirradiated areas. This enhancement is dependent on the irradiation temperature, on the position of the boron spike and on the boron concentration. Further, the presence of antimony enhances the boron diffusion during low-temperature proton irradiation. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Structural studies of Cu–III–VI2 chalcopyrite semiconductor heteroepitaxial films grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Page(s): 5406 - 5413
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    Growth orientation, domain structures, and residual strain of Cu(Al,Ga)(S,Se)2 epitaxial films grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on various substrates were systematically investigated. All epilayers grew in such a manner that the lattice mismatch between the epilayer and the substrate became minimum. Domain structure of the epilayer changed depending on the type of substrate. Most residual strain in the epilayer was assigned as being due to the pseudomorphic stress for the epilayers having small lattice mismatch (≪1%) against the substrate and to the thermal stress for large lattice mismatch (≫1%) ones. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory