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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 4 • Date Feb 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 79
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Essential role of impedance in the formation of acoustic band gaps

    Page(s): 1593 - 1596
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    We investigate acoustic band gaps (ABGs) in a two-dimensional lattice of cylinders for the cases of constant impedance, Z, and constant velocity, v. ABGs become wider for the case of constant v (varying Z), and become smaller, eventually disappearing in the opposite case. As the volume fraction increases, the upper (bottom) edge of the stop band increases (decreases) and then decreases (increases) in composites with impedance variation only, so that the midgap frequency changes very little and a larger ABG can be created. The upper (bottom) edge of the stop band increases (decreases) when the impedance ratio increases, so that the midgap frequency decreases slightly and the size of the ABG increases. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on second-harmonic generation grown on (311)B and (411)A GaAs substrates

    Page(s): 1597 - 1603
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    We have studied blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) grown on (411)A and (311)B GaAs substrates in order to investigate suitable substrate orientations for SHG-VCSELs. The comparison among substrate orientations has been made on three parameters, SHG conversion efficiency, transparency current density and gain coefficient. The transparency current density and the gain coefficient are characterized by edge emitting lasers grown on the above substrates. We also discuss the transparency current density and the gain coefficient for (311)A reported previously by Takahashi etal [M. Takahashi, M. Hirai, K. Fujita, N. Egami, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4551 (1997)]. SHG conversion efficiency is 38 and 30% W for SHG-VCSELs grown on (311)B and (411)A substrates, respectively, which is consistent with theory, assuming identical nonlinear coefficients for the A face and B face. Transparency current density for (311)A, (311)B and (411)A is 80, 105 and 60 A/cm2, and gain coefficients for (311)A, (311)B and (411)A are 20, 13 and 18 cm-1, respectively. There are no significant differences between (311)A and (411)A, while those for (311)B are less than those for (311)A. In conclusion, SHG efficiency is dependent on crystal orientation consistent with theory and thus the (311) orientation is preferable. Optical gain is independent of substrate orientation, while it is dependent on substrate face and A face is preferable. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Femtosecond laser micromachining of TiO2 crystal surface for robust optical catalyst

    Page(s): 1604 - 1609
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    The two-photon laser ablation of TiO2 photocatalyst using intense ultrashort titanium sapphire laser was investigated experimentally and theoretically aiming at the enhancement of photocatalytic reaction. The black surfacing of the TiO2 photocatalyst crystal was successfully achieved by drilling a large number of conical microholes with two-photon laser ablation. The ablated surface has a roughness of submicrometer order, and no heat-affected zone was observed. The simple equation is developed to explain two-photon ablation process of the TiO2 photocatalyst and the dependence of the ablation characteristic on the pulse duration. A maximization procedure of the ablated surface area is achieved and the optimization of laser parameters is shown for dense integration of ablated conical holes to increase the surface area. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analysis of switching times in polarization switching lasers

    Page(s): 1610 - 1613
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    Switching times for polarization switching lasers are analyzed using two-mode rate equations including carrier dynamics. Two-mode operations are considered in weak, neutral, and strong coupling with a net gain difference between two modes and light output as parameters. It is found that a modulation speed is enhanced with increases in a net gain difference and a light output, and with a decrease in coupling constant. For example, when a net gain ratio α21 is 0.2 and the light output is 20 mW, a modulation speed of 24.3 Gbit/s for nonreturn-to-zero signals is expected. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Images of cleaved GaAs(110) surfaces observed with a reflection optical second harmonic microscope

    Page(s): 1614 - 1619
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    We have developed a reflection optical second harmonic (SH) microscope as a new surface probe. Using the combination of the developed SH microscope, a near infrared microscope, a confocal laser microscope, a Raman microprobe spectrometer, and an electron probe microanalyzer for x-ray fluorescence, we have observed microstructures on cleaved GaAs(110) surfaces. We have demonstrated that slab structures on these surfaces are unambiguously identified by the analysis using a combination of these microscopes. We have found that the reflection SH microscope is especially sensitive to the slab structures. The enhancement of second harmonic generation by the slab structure could be well accounted for by an electromagnetic calculation of the SH intensity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.   View full abstract»

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  • Third-order nonlinear optical response of metal dielectric composites

    Page(s): 1620 - 1625
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    Effective linear and third-order nonlinear optical properties of metal/dielectric composites are studied. We take into account the interaction between metal particles and dielectric matrix by introducing an interfacial factor I via a simple model. Explicit expressions for the effective linear dielectric function Єe(0) and cubic nonlinear susceptibility χe(3), which are dependent on I and the mean radius a of metal particles (or the annealing temperature TA), are derived with Taylor expansion methods. We find that the interfacial factor I plays an important role in determining both the linear and nonlinear optical properties. Our theoretical results are in agreement with the observed dependence of the linear absorption coefficient α and the nonlinear susceptibility χe(3) on the mean radius a (or TA). © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancement of amplification characteristics in a plasma-filled Cherenkov laser at millimeter wavelengths

    Page(s): 1626 - 1631
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    On the basis of the fluid model of the electron beam, amplification characteristics of a two-dimensional plasma-filled Cherenkov laser at 100 GHz bands are analyzed. By injecting a dense plasma into the background of a Cherenkov laser, the coupling between a relativistic electron beam and an electromagnetic wave at millimeter wavelengths has been improved, and the weak beam–wave interaction problem has become less serious. In particular, we show that due to electron–ion collisions in the background plasma, proper choices of parameters are essential for good operation in this regime. The numerical results indicate that a Cherenkov laser with background plasma can generate higher output power with a greatly enhanced growth rate at a more reasonable interaction length. The plasma injection, in addition, enables the device to gain more output power with a higher beam current. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal and nonthermal regimes of gliding arc discharge in air flow

    Page(s): 1632 - 1641
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    Gliding discharges comprising both equilibrium and nonequilibrium plasma conditions offer high energy efficiency and selectivity for chemical processes. Prevailing parameters satisfying nonequilibrium plasma conditions at relatively high power levels should be well understood and characterized. In the present work, gliding discharges formed between diverging electrodes in air flow were studied experimentally over a wide range of gas velocities and power levels. Depending on the system parameters the following discharge regimes were observed: low power nonequilibrium discharge; thermal quasiequilibrium discharge; and gliding discharge with equilibrium to nonequilibrium transition. The effect of system parameters on discharge characteristics is analyzed. The equilibrium to nonequilibrium transition was experimentally observed as a change of voltage increase rate with discharge length growth. The local electric field, defined as dV/dl, increased up to three times, indicating the change of plasma conditions. However, previously reported phenomenon of length explosion was not supported by our experimental data. The co-existence of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases is also discussed in the frame of phenomenological theory, assuming formation of a growing nonequilibrium fragment inside the gliding discharge channel. It was found that high flow velocities provide intensive cooling, an increase of electric field, and a decrease of gas temperature, promoting equilibrium to nonequilibrium transition at high power levels. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of chlorine inductively coupled plasmas. Measurement of electron temperatures and electron energy distribution functions

    Page(s): 1642 - 1649
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    The goal of the study that begins with this paper is the creation of a base set of parameters (densities and temperatures or energy distributions of all charged and neutral species) in a chlorine transformer-coupled plasma, measured with the same commercial plasma source over an extensive range of pressure and power. Electron temperatures Te and electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are reported as a function of pressure (1–20 mTorr) and power (10–1000 W) during slow etching of SiO2-covered Si wafers. Te values are obtained both by trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe methods. EEDFs are obtained with the Langmuir probe. A zero-dimensional (global) model with revised rate coefficients is used to compute Te from both minimum (pressure, total plasma density, gas temperature, and wall recombination coefficient) and maximum (all experimentally measured parameters necessary to calculate Te) sets of input parameters. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Si–H bonding in low hydrogen content amorphous silicon films as probed by infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction

    Page(s): 1650 - 1658
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    A systematic series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films) has been deposited by the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique onto crystalline silicon substrates, and the H bonding has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. All deposition parameters were kept the same, except that the substrate temperature (TS) was varied to affect changes in the film H content. Although the peak position of the Si–H stretch mode changes minimally with increasing substrate temperature, the stretch mode shape changes, becoming more intense (compared to the height of the wag mode) and considerably narrower. We show, through annealing experiments, that this narrow stretch mode may be a universal feature of low H content films, and suggest interpretations for this finite (narrow) linewidth. By correlations with x-ray diffraction data, we also show that the narrowing of the stretch mode peak for low H content HWCVD films is an indication of improved lattice ordering, and suggest that this improved ordering might also exist for other types of low H content a-Si:H films as well. However, for the as-grown HWCVD films the narrowing of the stretch mode peak width at lower H contents does not completely compensate for the increase in peak height, and as a result the integrated intensity of the peak mode (relative to that of the wag mode) increases. We comment on the differences between as-grown, low H content a-Si:H HWCVD films and high H content films annealed to reduce the film H content to comparable levels, and discuss possible reasons for these intensity changes versus sample H content. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Annealing properties of defects during Si-on-insulator fabrication by low-dose oxygen implantation studied by monoenergetic positron beams

    Page(s): 1659 - 1665
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    The depth distributions and species of defects in Si on insulator (SOI) fabricated by low-dose oxygen implantation were determined from measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons. The temperature range for the annealing of the defects in the subsurface region (≪100 nm) was divided into three stages. Annealing behaviors of the defects in stages I (600–800 °C) and II (800–1100 °C) were identified as the introduction of vacancy clusters and their recovery process, respectively. The major species of the defects in stage III (1100–1300 °C) was identified as oxygen-related defects, and the mean size of the open volume of such defects was close to that of a hexavacancy. The oxygen-related defects in the SOI layer were found to be present even after annealing at 1350 °C. The effect of the presence of vacancy-type defects on the depth distribution of oxygen atoms is also discussed. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Debye function analysis of structure in diffraction from nanometer-sized particles

    Page(s): 1666 - 1675
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    The special features of diffraction from particles in the nanometer size range are discussed and the problem of structure determination is considered. A direct method of structure analysis, known as Debye Function Analysis, is presented and evaluated. The method is capable of obtaining information about both the size and structure of domains in a sample, and can identify noncrystalline structures. Numerical simulations of observations are used to investigate the limitations of the technique, and also provide a general method for quantifying uncertainties in parameters estimated by Debye Function Analysis. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Structural and electrical characterization of microcrystalline silicon films prepared by a layer-by-layer technique with a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition system

    Page(s): 1676 - 1680
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    Microcrystalline silicon films have been prepared on indium-coated glass utilizing a layer-by-layer technique with a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition system. The microcrystalline films were fabricated by varying the number of cycles from 10 to 60 under a fixed H2 time (t2) of 120 s, where the corresponding deposition time (t1) of amorphous silicon thin film was 60 s. Structural properties, such as the crystalline volume fraction (Xc) and grain sizes were analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscopy. The carrier transport was characterized by the temperature dependence of dark conductivity, giving rise to the calculation of activation energy (Ea). Optical energy gaps (Eg) were also investigated using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. In addition, the process under different hydrogen plasma time (t2) at a fixed number of 20 cycles was extensively carried out to study the dominant role of hydrogen atoms in layer-by-layer deposition. Finally, the correlation between structural and electrical properties has been discussed on the basis of experimental results. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Annihilation of thermal double donors in silicon

    Page(s): 1681 - 1689
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    We performed systematic experiments on the annihilation of six species of thermal double donors, or TDDs (TDD1–TDD6) under various conditions in both carbon-lean and carbon-rich Si crystals, by means of low-temperature infrared spectroscopy. We found that two kinds of TDD annihilation occurred in two different time regions. The first annihilation occurred typically within 1000 min at 500 °C, and is ascribed to the dissociation of oxygen clusters responsible for TDDs. We analyzed TDD annihilation on the basis of the model of successive dissociation of oxygen clusters, and obtained an activation energy of about 4 eV and a pre-exponential factor of the order of 1022s-1, regardless of TDD species and carbon density. We discuss the origin of such a high activation energy and a large pre-exponential factor. The second annihilation occurred typically after 1000 min at 500 °C, and is ascribed to the neutralization of TDDs. The neutralization behavior strongly depends on the amount of carbon in the silicon crystals. The C-rich crystal shows the usual thermal activation process with an activation energy of 1.7 eV and a pre-exponential factor of about 106s-1, independently of TDD species. On the other hand, the C-lean crystal shows no distinct temperature dependence on neutralization rate, suggesting an athermal process. These results strongly suggest two different mechanisms of TDD neutralization, one of which is related to carbon and the other independent of carbon. We propose models to explain the features of these two kinds of TDD neutralization. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Cobalt and tin substituted barium ferrites: the K and R phases

    Page(s): 1690 - 1692
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    Crystals of different barium ferrite phases (M, K, and R phases) were grown by slow cooling and the top seeded solution growth technique, using the (0.4Na2O–0.6B2O3)–BaO–(4.5Fe2O3+1.5CoSnO3) system. It has been demonstrated that different ferrite phases, e.g., the K and R phases, may coexist in the same crystal with an interface that is free from observable misfit dislocations and amorphous zones. The magnetization of these two phases, measured with an applied magnetic field parallel to the crystallographic c axis, had a paramagnetic behavior. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Formation and propagation of failure in shocked glasses

    Page(s): 1693 - 1700
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    Under plane shock wave compression, a glass may undergo elastic deformation at the shock wave front, and fail catastrophically at a later time. Since this time delay increases with the distance into the material, the phenomenon has been interpreted as a failure wave. In this article, a new theory of failure formation and propagation in shocked glasses is presented. Stress concentration due to the defects and transient loading conditions on the impact surface is assumed as the origin for initiating heterogeneous microdamage. The progressive percolation of microfissures into the material bulk gives rise to the failure wave phenomenon. Through the failure process, the deviatoric strain energy in the intact material is converted to the volumetric potential energy in the comminuted and dilated material. The state of material damage is measured in terms of the dilated volume of comminuted material at full release. The failure propagation is governed by coupled nonlinear diffusion and time-dependent evolution of the dilated volume. Numerical results are presented and compared to the lateral stress gauge measurements in two shocked glasses. It is shown that the proposed theory and simple modeling can capture the essence of the failure wave phenomenon. The theory also eliminates the ambiguity in the previous modeling work on the failure wave phenomenon in shocked glasses. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Low temperature dependencies of the elastic properties of Ti4AlN3, Ti3Al1.1C1.8, and Ti3SiC2

    Page(s): 1701 - 1703
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    In this article we report on the temperature dependencies of the longitudinal and shear sound velocities in Ti4AlN3, Ti3Al1.1C1.8, and Ti3SiC2. The velocities are measured using a phase sensitive pulse-echo ultrasonic technique in the 90–300 K temperature range. At room temperature, Young’s, ERT, and shear, μRT, moduli and Poisson’s ratio of Ti4AlN3 are 310±2, 127±2 GPa, and 0.22, respectively. The corresponding values for Ti3AlC2 are 297.5±2, 124±2 GPa, and 0.2. Both moduli increase slowly with decreasing temperature and plateau out at temperatures below ≈125 K. A least squares fit of the temperature dependencies of the shear and Young’s moduli of Ti4AlN3 yield: μ/μRT=1-1.5×10-4(T-298), and E/ERT=1-0.74×10-4(T-298), for T≫125 K. The corresponding relationships for Ti3Al1.1C1.8 are: μ/μRT=1-1.2×10-4(T-298), and E/ERT=1-0.84×10-4(T-298) for T≫125 K. The acoustic Debye temperatures calculated for Ti4AlN3 and Ti3AlC2, as well as Ti3SiC2, are all above 700 K, in agreement with values calculated from low temperature heat capacity measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular diffusion in periodic porous media

    Page(s): 1704 - 1711
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    The diffusion of fluid through a porous medium was modeled for a periodic array. The time dependent bulk effective diffusion coefficient D(t) was calculated using Bloch type eigenfunctions. The calculations were made for periodic media composed of octahedron-like obstacles which ranged from completely separated to highly overlapping obstacles (porosity of 3%). The calculation of D(t) involves evaluation of the nuclear magnetic resonance pulsed field gradient spin echo amplitude M(k,t), which is a measurable quantity. The method, which is most effective for long times, produces results which also agree with short time asymptotics. This method is applicable for any periodic microgeometry and virtually any porosity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Diffuse interface model for electromigration and stress voiding

    Page(s): 1712 - 1721
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    We report a diffuse interface or phase field model for simulating electromigration and stress-induced void evolution in interconnect lines. Our approach is based on the introduction of an order parameter field to characterize the damaged state of the interconnect. The order parameter takes on distinct uniform values within the material and the void, varying rapidly from one to the other over narrow interfacial layers associated with the void surface. The evolution of this order parameter is shown to be governed by a form of the Cahn–Hilliard equation. An asymptotic analysis of the equation demonstrates, as intended, that the zero contour of the order parameter tracks the motion of a void evolving by diffusion under the coupled effects of stresses and the “electron wind” force. An implicit finite element scheme is used to solve the modified Cahn–Hilliard equation, together with equations associated with the accompanying mechanical and electrical problems. The diffuse interface model is applied to simulate a range of problems involving void evolution in interconnect lines. Results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with those computed previously using equivalent sharp interface models. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Rutherford backscattering study of sputtered CdTe/CdS bilayers

    Page(s): 1722 - 1726
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    Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate interdiffusion and surface properties of CdS/CdTe bilayers. The films were grown by radio-frequency sputtering and received postdeposition heat treatments similar to the ones employed in CdTe solar cell fabrication. It is found that a CdCl2 anneal strongly enhances both the diffusion of S into the CdTe layer and the surface oxidation. The diffusion of S in CdTe in this process can be described by a constant surface source model with the diffusivity given by D=3.2×10-5exp(-1.2 eV/kT) cm2 s-1 in the temperature range studied. The change in the chemical composition of the surface following the CdCl2 anneal was analyzed by XPS showing that Te oxides and residual compounds containing Cl were present which could account for the straggling in the RBS spectrum. An HCl etch completely removes oxides and residues leaving a smooth surface. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interdiffusion study of magnesium in magnetite thin films grown on magnesium oxide (001) substrates

    Page(s): 1727 - 1733
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    Magnetite (Fe3O4) films and multilayers were grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and result in single-phase films grown in registry with a MgO substrate. No evidence of interdiffusion is detected on as-grown films. Both structural and magnetic probes indicate behaviors expected for a magnetite thin film. A thermal stability study of these films was performed by annealing these films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at temperatures below 900 K. Bulk techniques such as x-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm that the magnesium interdiffuses throughout the entire film, and surface techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/ion scattering spectroscopy show changes in the surface structure and stoichiometry of the film caused by the magnesium intermixing. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Ellipsometric study of polycrystalline silicon films prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Page(s): 1734 - 1742
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    Polysilicon layers with thicknesses between 8 and 600 nm deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition at temperatures ranging from 560 to 640 °C were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) to determine the layer thicknesses and compositions using multilayer optical models and the Bruggeman effective-medium approximation. The dependence of the structural parameters on the layer thickness and deposition temperature have been investigated. A better characterization of the polysilicon layer is achieved by using the reference data of fine-grained polysilicon in the optical model. The amount of voids in the polysilicon layer was independently measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The SE and RBS results show a good correlation. The comparison of the surface roughness measured by SE and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that independently of the AFM window sizes, a good correlation of the roughness determined by SE and AFM was obtained. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison study of nucleation and growth characteristics of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films on CoSi2 (001) and Si(001)

    Page(s): 1743 - 1747
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    Epitaxial CoSi2 (001) layers, deposited on Si(001) substrates by molecular beam allotaxy, were used as substrates for diamond deposition in order to realize applications. The nucleation and textured growth of diamond films were compared with those on the Si(001) substrates. The results indicate that in a microwave-plasma chamber diamond can be nucleated with a higher density on CoSi2 at lower temperatures using a bias-enhanced method. High-quality [001]-textured diamond films can be synthesized on CoSi2 (001) using the [001]-textured growth conditions. So far, epitaxial growth of diamond on CoSi2 cannot be observed. Statistically, a rotating angle distribution of diamond grains around the [001] axis in a [001]-textured film shows, however, preferred in-plane orientations of 13°, 22°, 45°, and 77° relative to the CoSi2 [011] axis. The structural and chemical analyses show that no Co and Si element diffusion from the CoSi2 substrate into the diamond film can be detected. The films grown on CoSi2 have similar crystal quality to that of epitaxial films deposited directly on Si. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory