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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 1 • Date Jul 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 101
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Nitrogen in germanium

    Page(s): 1 - 30
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    The known properties of nitrogen as an impurity in, and as an alloy element of, the germanium network are reviewed in this article. Amorphous and crystalline germanium–nitrogen alloys are interesting materials with potential applications for protective coatings and window layers for solar conversion devices. They may also act as effective diffusion masks for III-V electronic devices. The existing data are compared with similar properties of other group IV nitrides, in particular with silicon nitride. To a certain extent, the general picture mirrors the one found in Si–N systems, as expected from the similar valence structure of both elemental semiconductors. However, important differences appear in the deposition methods and alloy composition, the optical properties of as grown films, and the electrical behavior of nitrogen-doped amorphous layers. Structural studies are reviewed, including band structure calculations and the energies of nitrogen-related defects, which are compared with experimental data. Many important aspects of the electronic structure of Ge–N alloys are not yet completely understood and deserve a more careful investigation, in particular the structure of defects associated with N inclusion. The N doping of the a-Ge:H network appears to be very effective, the activation energy of the most effectively doped samples becoming around 120 meV. This is not the case with N-doped a-Si:H, the reasons for the difference remaining an open question. The lack of data on stoichiometric β-Ge3N4 prevents any reasonable assessment on the possible uses of the alloy in electronic and ceramic applications. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution diffraction using Larmor precession and multiple narrow beams defined by multislits

    Page(s): 31 - 37
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    A new method is introduced to measure lattice constants by diffraction in Bragg scattering with very high accuracy. Use is made of Larmor precession of a polarized neutron beam in a magnetic field. The number of precessions is directly related to the wavelength of the neutron beam and the phase change in one precession period can be identified as a slightly changed wavelength, which itself is indicative of a change in the lattice parameter. Using multislits as diaphragms in the incident and in the diffracted beams, one selects angular regions of the neutron beam in the scattering plane with phase angles in Larmor precession that differ only by multiples of at a certain magnetic field in the Larmor coil. Doing this, a very high resolution in lattice parameter can be obtained with an intensity, which is a multiple of the intensity in conventional diffraction methods at this high angular resolution. Use of the proposed method in materials science applications such as stresses in materials and in crystal size determination in materials is discussed.© 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • The coupled influence of sample heating and diffraction on thermal diffusivity estimate with infrared photothermal microscopy

    Page(s): 38 - 43
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    We consider the influence of sample heating on spatially resolved thermal diffusivity measurements with a photothermal microscope using infrared detection. The continuous component of temperature induced by an intensity modulated focused laser beam results in a sensitivity amplification in the laser beam area and contributes to enhance the effect of diffraction on the phase profile, yielding a thermal diffusivity overestimate if it is not considered. A model including diffraction and nonlinear infrared emission is presented. For moderate heating, the influence of sample heating on the phase shift and on the amplitude of the infrared signal as seen by the detector is calculated. By using this model for fitting successively the amplitude and the phase data, no significant change in thermal diffusivity value is found on a homogeneous Y2O3-doped ZrO2 sample when the modulation frequency is changed. Validation of our model is done by comparing experimental amplitude data with the expected profiles obtained with the experimental absorbed power and with the reference thermal conductivity estimate for cubic zirconia. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Bridging the pressure gap for palladium metal-insulator-semiconductor hydrogen sensors in oxygen containing environments

    Page(s): 44 - 51
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    A comparison has been made between the steady state response obtained from palladium metal-insulator-semiconductor (Pd-MIS) structures exposed to hydrogen in presence of oxygen under atmospheric conditions and the response calculated from a model valid under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. It is shown that the model gives a good description of the steady state response as a function of hydrogen and oxygen pressure. This is of interest not only for the understanding of the sensing mechanism of Pd-MIS hydrogen sensors but would also imply that the used model for the water forming reaction on Pd gives realistic estimates for the hydrogen coverage on the Pd surface over a vast pressure range. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Glass and silicon probes: A comparative theoretical study for near-field optical microscopy

    Page(s): 52 - 57
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    Glass fibers, chemically etched at their extremities and covered with a thin metal coating, are often present in near-field optical microscopy. Such elongated systems can be used to either probe the evanescent components of the electromagnetic field at the surface of a sample, or locally couple this sample with optical evanescent waves. In this article, we analyze theoretically an alternative tip design made with a silicon core. This kind of probe could be very useful when infrared properties of a surface are to be investigated. The advantages of using such a material for near-field optical detection will be stressed and compared with the performances of a bulk glass fiber. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Noise in optical measurements of cantilever deflections

    Page(s): 58 - 63
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    The optical beam deflection method using the knife edge detection technique is one of the simplest optical sensing methods. We investigate theoretically the limit to the resolution when sensing the displacements of a mechanical cantilever using the knife edge detection technique implemented with a quasimonochromatic thermal-like optical source. Simple formulas for the minimum detectable displacement of the cantilever’s front end are derived assuming all nonoptical noises negligible. It is shown that superluminiscent diodes can yield a minimum detectable displacement of the cantilever about 5 dBs above the shot noise for 1 mW of optical power. It is also shown that in many cases of practical interest the source induced noise is smaller than the thermal-vibration noise of the cantilever. Thus, in many cases, using an inexpensive thermal-like source with the knife edge detection technique can be as effective as using a high-coherence shot-noise limited source. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency response of cantilever beams immersed in viscous fluids with applications to the atomic force microscope

    Page(s): 64 - 76
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    The vibrational characteristics of a cantilever beam are well known to strongly depend on the fluid in which the beam is immersed. In this paper, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the frequency response of a cantilever beam, that is immersed in a viscous fluid and excited by an arbitrary driving force. Due to its practical importance in application to the atomic force microscope (AFM), we consider in detail the special case of a cantilever beam that is excited by a thermal driving force. This will incorporate the presentation of explicit analytical formulae and numerical results, which will be of value to the users and designers of AFM cantilever beams. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays

    Page(s): 77 - 82
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    We have developed new bistable twisted nematic (BTN) displays that operate between the -π/2 and 3π/2 twist states and between the π/2 and 5π/2 twist states. Together with the (0,2π) BTN, this forms a set of all possible transmittive BTNs. Experimentally, it was confirmed that several switching wave forms could be used to switch the BTN from one state to another. Voltages below 10 V are sufficient to reset and switch these BTNs. The effect of the d/P0 ratio on the bistable switching characteristics is also investigated. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization dependence of crystalline colloidal array diffraction

    Page(s): 83 - 86
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    We measured the polarization dependence of the Bragg diffraction efficiency of a crystalline colloidal array and compared the experimental results to that predicted by theory. The diffraction efficiency for π polarized light decreases to zero for an incidence angle of 45° to the diffracting planes. Our experimental diffraction and transmission results quantitatively agree with the predictions of dynamical diffraction theory. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of trapping parameters in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting devices using thermally stimulated currents

    Page(s): 87 - 92
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    Employing thermally stimulated current (TSC) technique, the existence of distinct trap distributions in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) light-emitting devices has been established. In devices with an indium tin-oxide (ITO) anode two TSC peaks in the temperature range between 100 and 150 K are observed. They correspond to trap levels with a depth of 0.03–0.06 eV and 0.13–0.18 eV, respectively. The total density of these trap species is of the order of 1016 cm-3 which is in good agreement with the dopant concentration obtained from capacitance-voltage measurements. The investigated peaks in the TSC spectrum do not occur if a Au electrode is used instead of ITO. Hence, the reaction of ITO with the elimination products (mainly HCl) during the conversion of the PPV precursor leads to the formation of these shallow traps. Deeper trap states with energies between 0.6 and 1 eV have been detected, too. The latter trapping levels appear independently of the anode substrate material and are due to the influence of air. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Sputter-deposited yttria–alumina thin films for optical waveguiding

    Page(s): 93 - 99
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    Yttria–alumina planar waveguides were fabricated by reactive codeposition from yttrium and aluminum targets. These waveguides were verified to be amorphous with yttria contents as high as 23.4% by x-ray diffraction, both conventional and glancing angle, and by transmission electron microscopy. Above 41.8% yttria, the waveguides had mixed crystallinity and contained microcrystallites (0.5–0.9 nm) dispersed throughout an amorphous matrix. These microstructures appeared to be unaffected by the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The index of refraction was found to increase strongly as a function of yttria content, but remain constant with oxygen content. Although the waveguides had wide transmission windows, the infrared edges were observed to shift with composition toward the values of the end member edges of 11 (alumina) to ≥15 μm (yttria). In general, the waveguides had optical losses of 10–20 dB/cm. However, films with compositions roughly equivalent to that of yttrium iron garnet had lower losses (1–5 dB/cm). These losses are the lowest reported to date for yttria–alumina waveguides, and combined with the extended infrared transparencies, make these films very promising hosts for waveguide amplifiers. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of inductively amplified magnetron discharges by optical emission, absorption spectroscopy, and Langmuir probe measurements

    Page(s): 100 - 106
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    A direct current (dc) magnetron discharge is coupled to an inductively induced radio frequency (rf) one. The rf part is obtained by means of an induction coil, placed parallel to the cathode. We study the effects of the rf induction coil on the properties of an argon discharge. The discharge is characterized experimentally by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probe measurements and quartz microbalance. The results are analyzed in order to obtain information on the electrons (density, temperature), ions (density), and excited neutrals (density) as a function of the pressure, the dc and rf powers. It is found that the density of the cathode species is proportional to the dc power while the excitation or ionization degree of the species impinging the substrate is dependent on the rf power. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Monte Carlo method for ion transport in ion-molecule asymmetric systems at high electric fields

    Page(s): 107 - 114
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    An improved Monte Carlo method is developed for the simulation of the ion transport in classical drift tube in the case of ion-molecule asymmetric systems such as O-/O2 or N+/N2. The aim of this new method is to overcome the problem of incident ions which vanish at relative high electric field due to asymmetric charge transfer or electron detachment. These ion removal processes are compensated by a fictitious ion creation which improves the accuracy of the ion distribution function and swarm coefficient calculations. The classical ion-molecule collision processes occurring in weakly ionized gases at room temperature (elastic collisions including energy exchange and thermal motion of background gases and also inelastic collisions) are taken into account. This new method is then validated and the transport and reaction coefficients have been given for a large range of E/N (a part of them for the first time in the literature) in O-/O2 and N+/N2 systems. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interpulse plasma of a high-power narrow-bandwidth pulsed microwave discharge

    Page(s): 115 - 120
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    The plasma produced by high-power (60–100 kW), narrow-pulse-width (0.5–1 μs) microwaves with a repetition frequency of 0.3–1 kHz has been studied experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the plasma between pulses (interpulse plasma). The plasma was created by launching microwave pulses from a magnetron operating at 3 GHz into a magnetic confinement device in a vacuum chamber. The gas used was a rare gas (Ar), a molecular gas (N2), and a molecular gaseous mixture (O2+N2), with a volume mixing ratio of 1:4. The temporally decaying ion current measured with a Langmuir probe showed different features for the three kinds of gases, which are attributed not only to the effects of recombination and diffusion but also those of metastables and negative ions. The plasma density at the end of each microwave pulse was of the order 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature was 6–8 eV, much higher than that of the usual afterglow. Numerical simulation of the decay characteristics showed a fair agreement with the experimental results. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Collisional-radiative model for an argon glow discharge

    Page(s): 121 - 136
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    An extensive collisional-radiative model for the argon atoms in a glow discharge has been developed. Sixty-five effective argon atomic levels are considered. The processes taken into account are radiative decay, electron, fast argon ion and argon atom and thermal argon atom impact ionization, excitation and deexcitation between all the levels, electron-ion radiative recombination, and electron-ion three-body recombination where the third body is an electron, fast argon ion or atom, or a thermal argon atom. Some additional processes are incorporated for the two 4s metastable levels, i.e., Penning ionization of sputtered atoms, two- and three-body collisions with argon ground state atoms, collisions between two atoms in a metastable level, and diffusion and subsequent deexcitation at the walls. Typical results of the model are the populations of the various excited levels as a function of distance, and the relative contributions of different populating and depopulating processes for all levels. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Percent dissociation of Cl2 in inductively coupled, chlorine-containing plasmas

    Page(s): 137 - 146
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    The percent dissociation of Cl2 was determined for two configurations of a commercial transformer-coupled plasma (TCP) reactor (LAM Research Alliance metal etcher), using Cl2 and BCl3/Cl2 feed gases, during slow etching of SiO2 covered Si wafers. Emission from Cl2 at 305 nm was recorded as a function of TCP source power, along with emission from 1% Ar and Xe, added as part of an equal mixture of the five rare gases. Absolute Cl2 number densities were determined from the Cl2-to-rare gas emission intensity ratios. The Cl2 percent dissociation increases with power, reaching 70% between 1 and 2 mTorr at the highest power (900 W, 0.080 W/cm3). The percent dissociation decreases with increasing pressure between 1 and 10 mTorr. Decreasing the gap between the TCP window and the wafer chuck from 11 to 6.5 cm decreases dissociation at pressures between 0.5 and 2 mTorr, and increases dissociation slightly at 10 mTorr. The percent dissociation as a function of power, and for the most part as a function of pressure and gap, is reproduced by a zero-dimensional model that includes electron-impact dissociation and dissociative attachment of Cl2, and diffusion-controlled recombination of Cl at the walls. Addition of BCl3 to Cl2 - increases the percent dissociation of Cl2, most likely due to a passivation of the chamber walls by adsorbed BClx, lowering the Cl-atom recombination coefficient. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of an axially inhomogeneous microwave argon plasma column at a moderate pressure

    Page(s): 147 - 153
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    In this article, we present theoretical results for axial distributions of charged particles and excited atoms in an axially inhomogeneous microwave sustained argon plasma column at a pressure of 1.8 Torr. The model includes two self-consistently linked parts—electrodynamic and kinetic ones. It is found that the electron temperature is not a constant along the column length. The dependence of the mean power required for sustaining an electron–ion pair in the discharge on the electron number density is obtained taking into account different elementary processes. The theoretical results are in agreement with the available experimental data. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of charging damage during interlevel oxide deposition in high-density plasmas

    Page(s): 154 - 160
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    Monte Carlo simulations of pattern-dependent charging during interlevel dielectric (ILD) deposition in high-density plasmas reveal that the initial conformality of the ILD film plays a crucial role in metal line charging up and the subsequent degradation to the buried gate oxide to which the metal line is connected. Line charging occurs when the top dielectric is thick enough to prevent tunneling currents while the sidewall dielectric thickness still allows tunneling currents to flow to the metal line; the differential charging of the sidewalls, which induces the latter currents, is caused by electron shading. The results suggest that charging can be reduced by depositing a more conformal ILD film around the metal line and/or by increasing the ability of the film surface to dissipate charge. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • On the influence of the gas velocity on dissociation degree and gas temperature in a flowing microwave hydrogen discharge

    Page(s): 161 - 167
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    We report on the influence of the gas velocity on the discharge equilibrium in a low-pressure (1 Torr) microwave driven hydrogen plasma. We show that the gas velocity has a great influence on the dissociation degree, the key parameter being the residence time of the molecules in the plasma with respect to their effective dissociation time. The power balance (plasma length, electric field…) is substantially modified by the variations of the dissociation degree induced by the change in gas velocity. On the contrary, the gas temperature, determined by Doppler broadening of H atom Balmer lines, is not directly dependent on the gas velocity. Simple calculations confirm that the gas temperature is determined by local parameters and that heat is not axially transported. Surprisingly, dissociation of the H2 molecules does not seem to play any significant role for the heating of the gas. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of mechanical damage by high resolution x-ray diffraction and minority carrier recombination lifetime in silicon wafer

    Page(s): 168 - 173
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    In Czochralski silicon wafers, the effect of mechanical back side damage was systematically analyzed by x-ray diffuse scattering and minority carrier recombination lifetime measurements. X-ray section topography and wet oxidation/preferential etch methods were also employed. A liquid honing method was used to induce mechanical damage, and the damage grade was varied by controlling process parameters. A high resolution x-ray analysis of the samples was carried out before and after heat treatment at 1100 °C for 60 min. The magnitude of diffuse scattering was analyzed quantitatively by integrating the excess intensity of diffuse scattering into a reciprocal space map and its correlation with the mechanical damage was examined. As the grade of mechanical damage increased, the degree of diffuse scattering increases and minority carrier recombination lifetime decreases, suggesting the generation of more defects. We discuss other experimental results from the viewpoint of the structure–property relationship. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Optoelectronic and structural properties of a-Ge1-xCx:H prepared by rf reactive cosputtering

    Page(s): 174 - 180
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    Optoelectronic, structural, and mechanical properties of hydrogenated amorphous germanium carbon (a-Ge1-xCx:H) alloys are presented. The films were prepared by the rf cosputtering technique using graphite-germanium composite targets. Films with carbon contents in the 0≪x≪1 range were prepared under the same conditions used to obtain a-Ge:H films with good optoelectronic properties. The trends of the optical gap, infrared absorption, dark conductivity, and mechanical stress as a function of the carbon content suggest that the properties of films with low carbon concentration are mainly controlled by the incorporation of sp3 hybridized carbon. These films have good optoelectronic and structural properties. As the carbon content increases, the properties of the films are determined by the concentration of sp2 carbon sites. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength

    Page(s): 181 - 188
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    The alignment behavior of nematic liquid crystal (LC) on the surface of four types of polyimide (PI) films, three aromatic PIs and a PI with an alicyclic dianhydride, exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength (366 nm) was investigated by polarizing microscopy. It was found that the alignment of the LC was induced by all of the exposed PIs and the alignment direction of the LC was perpendicular to the polarization direction of the linearly polarized light. The degree of uniformity of LC alignment increased with increasing exposure energy incident on PI films. To produce the uniform alignment state, the PI with an alicyclic dianhydride had to be exposed to higher energy than aromatic PIs. Ultraviolet (UV) -visible spectroscopy indicated that the absorbance changes of the aromatic PIs were much smaller than that of the PI with an alicyclic dianhydride when uniform alignment of the LC was caused. Furthermore, both UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy showed the change in the absorbance of the aromatic PI with a diphenyl ether diamine was still very small even though it was exposed to linearly polarized light with a large dose. These results demonstrate that the aromatic PIs are more favorable as a photosensitive alignment layer and the uniform alignment of the LC can be induced without significant destruction of the chemical structure of PI with a diphenyl ether diamine. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Direct imaging of submicron-scale defect-induced birefringence in SrTiO3 bicrystals

    Page(s): 189 - 193
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    Using a near-field scanning optical microscope capable of quantitative polarimetry, we map the anisotropic strain fields associated with individual submicron defects near the fusion boundaries of SrTiO3 bicrystals. Many defects exhibit unexpected spiral-shape strain patterns, whose handedness is believed to be linked to the bicrystal synthesis process. Direct observation of these defect-induced strain fields helps explain previously reported nonuniformity in the characteristics of hightemperature superconductor grain-boundary junctions fabricated on SrTiO3 bicrystals. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Nickel induced crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films

    Page(s): 194 - 200
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    Nickel (Ni) induced crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been studied by selective deposition of Ni on a-Si thin films. The a-Si under and near the Ni-covered regions was found to be crystallized after heat treatment at 500 °C from 1 to 90 h. Micro-Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that a large amount of Ni stayed in the region under the original Ni coverage, but no Ni was detected either in the crystallized region next to the Ni coverage or in the amorphous region beyond the front of the laterally crystallized Si. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a nonuniform Ni distribution through the depth of the crystallized film under the original Ni coverage. In particular, a Ni concentration peak was found to exist at the interface of the crystallized Si and the buried oxide. It was found that a layer of 5-nm-thick Ni could effectively induce lateral crystallization of over 100 μm of a-Si, but the lateral crystallization rate was found to decrease upon extended heat treatment. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the crystallized film under the Ni coverage was composed of randomly oriented fine grains, while that outside the Ni coverage was mainly composed of large (110)-oriented grains. A unified mechanism is proposed to explain the Ni induced crystallization of a-Si and possible reasons for the reduction in the lateral crystallization rate are discussed. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory