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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 8 • Date Apr 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 92
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Hydrogen adsorption states at the Pd/SiO2 interface and simulation of the response of a Pd metal–oxide–semiconductor hydrogen sensor

    Page(s): 3947 - 3951
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    The response of a Pd–SiO2–Si hydrogen sensor depends on the reaction kinetics of hydrogen on the Pd surface and on the hydrogen adsorption states at the Pd/SiO2 interface. In this work we show that besides the dominating hydrogen adsorption state located on the oxide side of the interface, a second state, resulting in opposite hydrogen polarization, exists. This state is possibly a reminiscence of the hydrogen adsorption state on a clean Pd surface. Taking both states into account, a simulation of the hydrogen response over more than ten decades in hydrogen pressures gives good agreement with published data. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Vertical metrology using scanning-probe microscopes: Imaging distortions and measurement repeatability

    Page(s): 3952 - 3971
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    We report a study of the repeatability as limited by instrumental imaging distortions in scanning-probe microscope (SPM) measurements of the heights of nominal 44 and 88 nm steps in calibration artifacts. By imaging the same series of locations on different days, we are able to distinguish sample variations from variations originating in the imaging process. In particular, the value and repeatability of the measured step heights are found to depend upon the algorithm used to infer the step height from the SPM image. The three general approaches tested are: a manual single-point method, which represents the most commonly used practice in the SPM community; a histogram-based method, which is available in commercially available SPM image-analysis software; and the polynomial step-function fit (PSFF), which explicitly removes image bow and sample tilt. Factors related to variations in the sample measured such as image size and location on the sample cause up to 10% variations in the step-height measurements. Methods of statistical analysis of variance are used to separate sample variations from instrumental and algorithmic variations. Once image bow and sample tilt have been corrected properly using PSFF, SPM instrument-related variations are under 1%. Without PSFF, the step height exhibits a systematic dependence upon sample tilt and image bow which distorts the measured step height. In our study, these distortions occur at a level of up to 2% of the step height. However, these step-height distortions can be far more extreme in some cases. We show an example of a step-height measurement in which the image bow is so extreme that the step can barely be identified without first correcting the image bow. We also show that, for small images of a rough sample, tip wear can contribute a significant systematic error in the step height measurement, of up to 1% per image in this case, which can lead to large cumulative errors if the tip is not changed often enough. Thus, underst- anding SPM image distortions and their effect on step-height measurement repeatability is crucial to SPM metrology. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal control of ultrasoft cantilevers for force microscopy

    Page(s): 3972 - 3977
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    The goals of optimal control in force microscopy are: (1) to obtain favorable cantilever dynamic properties and (2) to control the cantilever to a desired amplitude, while (3) exerting as little control force as possible, and (4) preserving the force signal-to-noise ratio of the uncontrolled cantilever. This article describes the experimental implementation of an optimal controller that achieves these goals. The application of this controller to an ultrasoft cantilever with spring constant of 110 μN/m at 10 K reduced the resonant quality from 15 000 to 220, reduced the Brownian amplitude from 11.2 Å to 1.4 Å, used less than 7×10-17 N of control effort, left the force sensitivity unaltered at

    9.8×10-18 N/  Hz
    , and demonstrated feedback control can force cantilever motion to track a reference input. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal-response time of superconducting transition-edge microcalorimeters

    Page(s): 3978 - 3985
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    We investigate limits on the thermal-response time of superconducting transition-edge microcalorimeters. For operation at 0.1 K, we show that the lower limit on the response time of a superconducting transition-edge microcalorimeter is of order 1 μs due to the heat diffusion time, electrical instabilities, the amplifier noise, and the critical current of the superconducting film. The response time is not limited by self-heating effects and is independent of the intended photon energy. However, design constraints associated with the inductance of the bias circuit make it difficult to achieve the fastest response times for devices with heat capacities high enough for x-ray and gamma-ray detection. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of poling temperature on optical second harmonic intensity of sodium zinc tellurite glasses

    Page(s): 3986 - 3990
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    Poling temperature dependence of optical second harmonic intensity has been examined for Na2O–ZnO–TeO2 glasses. All the glasses exhibit such a tendency that the second harmonic intensity increases, experiences a maximum, and decreases as the poling temperature increases. The poling temperature giving rise to the maximum second harmonic intensity, which we call an optimum poling temperature, correlates with glass transition temperature; there exists a linear relation between them. This phenomenon indicates that the structural change of glass network near the glass transition temperature affects the orientation of electric dipoles with a long range order which induces the second harmonic generation. We suggest that some electrochemical reactions take place on the anode-side surface of glass at around the glass transition temperature where viscous flow is allowed and disturb the orientation of electric dipoles. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy

    Page(s): 3991 - 3997
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    We have performed cavity ring-down spectroscopy by locking a high-finesse resonator to the probe laser. We have obtained combination overtone spectra of water vapor in the ambient environment with a baseline noise of 5×10-9 cm-1 for decay constants (R=99.93% reflectors) of 1 μs. This cavity-locked approach ensures single transverse mode excitation, reduces shot-to-shot fluctuations in the decay constant to 4×10-3, and eliminates oscillations in spectral backgrounds. This approach also allows ring-down decay acquisition rates limited only by the ring-down and buildup constants of the resonator, and holds the promise of offering truly shot-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization properties of light emitted by a bent optical fiber probe and polarization contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Page(s): 3998 - 4003
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    This article describes the polarization properties of light emitted by a bent optical fiber probe which is used for scanning near-field optical microscopy operated in atomic force mode (SNOM/AFM). SNOM/AFM can be applied to the observation of magnetic domains by imaging polarization contrast in transmission mode. A bent optical fiber probe with a subwavelength aperture is vibrated vertically as a cantilever for atomic force microscopy. Plane polarized light with an extinction ratio of better than 70:1 was emitted by the aperture by controlling the polarization state of incident light to the probe. A particular transverse polarization component of light transmitting a sample is selected by a polarization analyzer and detected. We obtained clear polarization contrast images of 0.7 μm length bits written with a conventional method using a focused laser beam on a bismuth-substituted dysprosium-iron-garnet film. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • An increase of the spall strength in aluminum, copper, and Metglas at strain rates larger than 107s-1

    Page(s): 4004 - 4011
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    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum, copper, and Metglas shocked by a high-power laser to hundreds of kilobars pressure are reported. The strain rates in these experiments are of the order of 107s-1, which cannot be reached in impact experiments. The free-surface velocity behavior associated with spallation is characterized by oscillations caused by the reverberations of the spall layer. An optically recording velocity interferometer system was developed to measure the free-surface velocity time history. This diagnostic method has the advantages of being a noninterfering system and produces a highly accurate continuous measurement in time. The spall strength was calculated from the free-surface velocity as a function of the strain rate. The results show a rapid increase in the spall strength, suggesting that a critical phenomenon occurs at strain rates ∼107s-1, expressed by the sudden approach to the theoretical value of the spall strength. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the size, optical index and density of particles in an argon–silane radio-frequency discharge

    Page(s): 4012 - 4017
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    We have determined, by laser light scattering experiments at three different angles (90°±9°) and by use of the Mie theory, the temporal evolution of particle size (in the range 40–110 nm) in an argon silane radio frequency discharge. The results are in good agreement with values previously determined by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of the optical indices (absorption and refraction) has been calculated as a function of the particle size at λ=514 nm. We have also shown that these variations are independent of the electrical charges of the particles. The particle density in the discharge is about 108 cm-3. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear-induced electrical conductivity in 3He

    Page(s): 4018 - 4023
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    The results of a computational and experimental investigation of nuclear-induced electrical conductivity enhancement in 3He is discussed with application to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Calculations based on the standard model of interactions and conductivity in a gas of partially ionized 3He suggest a region of conditions not previously considered may provide significant conductivity enhancement. Specifically, at densities less than standard atmospheric density and neutron flux greater than 1×1012/cm2 s, conductivity greater than 10 mho/m may be achievable. These calculations also suggest conductivities of several hundred mho/m may be possible for an achievable range of conditions. Additionally, the calculations show that nuclear-induced conductivity is strongly density dependent and weakly temperature dependent. Therefore, higher flow velocities, and hence higher power densities than those typical in traditional MHD channels utilizing thermal ionization would be possible. Experiments were designed to measure the conductivity enhancement in pure 3He for temperatures from 300 to 1500 K, pressure from 3.8×103–7.6×10-2Torr, and thermal neutron flux from 1010 to 1016/cm2 s. Due to unforeseeable events, the reactor facility was shut down prior to the completion of these experiments resulting in a sparse data set. The data collected indicate the actual conductivity enhancement is approximately three orders of magnitude below the value calculated by the standard model of interactions. Possible reasons for this discrepanc- y are discussed, and additional calculations and experiments are proposed to resolve the discrepancy. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial characteristics of electron swarm parameters in gases

    Page(s): 4024 - 4029
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    The results of a Monte Carlo simulation study focusing on the spatial characteristics of swarm parameters in an isolated electron swarm and the distribution of the electron density and flux taking into account the anode boundary are presented. The spatial variation of the swarm parameters is interpreted using conventional swarm theory, and potential problems with the measurement of arrival-time spectra of electrons are considered. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of relative BCl density in BCl3-containing inductively coupled radio frequency plasmas

    Page(s): 4030 - 4036
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    The relative density of BCl radicals in inductively coupled plasmas has been studied using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the BCl excited state has been studied using plasma-induced emission (PIE). Measurements were made as a function of input power, pressure, position, and as a function of gas ratio for industry-relevant metal-etch gas mixtures containing BCl3, Cl2, Ar, and N2. LIF was used to measure the ground state BCl population, whereas PIE monitored the BCl A1Π excited state; the LIF and PIE intensities varied differently as the plasma parameters were changed. Between 150 and 400 W input power at 20 mTorr pressure, there was no variation in BCl density, indicating that the dissociation fraction for BCl3 to BCl was constant with power. No significant interactions between BCl3 and Cl2 or Ar were evident in the LIF measurements. However, the BCl density was suppressed by addition of nitrogen to the plasma. The BCl density was radially uniform for all gas mixtures, but axial measurements showed a slight decrease in BCl density near the upper electrode. After running the reactor with a BCl3/N2 mixture, BCl was observed for up to an hour after the discharge was switched to Cl2: this is attributed to buildup of BN films on reactor surfaces and subsequent etching of the film by Cl. View full abstract»

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  • Double crystal x-ray diffraction simulations of diffusion in semiconductor microstructures

    Page(s): 4037 - 4041
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    Diffusion in group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors is an interesting problem not only from a fundamental physics viewpoint but also in practical terms, since it could determine the useful lifetime of a device. Any attempt to control the amount of diffusion in a semiconductor device, whether it be a quantum well structure or not, requires an accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient. The present theoretical study shows that this could be achieved via x-ray diffraction studies in quantum well structures. It is demonstrated that the rocking curves of single quantum wells are not sensitive to diffusion. However the intensity of the first order satellite, which is characteristic of superlattice rocking curves, is strongly dependent upon diffusion and it is proposed that this technique could be used to measure the diffusion coefficient D. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Electrically detected magnetic resonance signal from iron contaminated Czochralski silicon crystal

    Page(s): 4042 - 4048
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    The electrical detection of magnetic resonance (EDMR) measurement, a detection method for the spin-dependent recombination, was applied to characterize iron contaminated silicon samples grown by the Czochralski method. The observed signal was different than previously reported electron paramagnetic resonance signals from defects in silicon. In addition, as the signal was not detected from similarly contaminated samples prepared from floating zone grown silicon crystal, we propose that the signal originates from defects containing iron and oxygen, namely, from iron decorated oxide precipitates. The dependency of EDMR signal on different experimental conditions (microwave power, illumination intensity, and temperature) were studied. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Ion beam induced amorphization in α quartz

    Page(s): 4049 - 4054
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    The amorphization of α quartz induced by light and medium mass ion bombardment has been investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry, resonant nuclear reaction analysis and mechanical surface profiling. The single crystalline samples were irradiated at 77 K with H+, N+, Ne+ and Na+ ions at energies of 10–100 keV and fluences up to 5×1016ions/cm2. Disordering of α quartz by ion bombardment was found to occur by three-dimensional nucleation and growth of defect agglomerates and, possibly, small, spatially separated amorphous zones in the still crystalline surrounding. The nucleation rate scales with the energy density FD in elastic collisions. Above a critical energy density EC=1.92(7)eV/at deposited by nuclear collisions (corresponding to a displacement rate of 0.04 dpa) a coherent amorphous layer forms at the depth of maximum energy deposition, which then grows towards the surface and into larger depths during continued ion bombardment. Mechanical surface profiling reveals large compressive stresses (∼1.5 GPa), built up at low fluences, which are released at higher fluences after the amorphous layer extends to the surface. The stress release is accompanied by a significant reduction of the atomic density by about 19%. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular dynamics simulations of low-energy (25–200 eV) argon ion interactions with silicon surfaces: Sputter yields and product formation pathways

    Page(s): 4055 - 4063
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    The etch yield and subsurface damage are important issues in low energy (200 ≪ eV) ion interactions with surfaces. In particular, atomic layer etching requires etching of electronic materials with monolayer precision and minimal interlayer atomic mixing. In this study, the molecular dynamics technique is used to simulate the impact of argon ions on chlorine-free and chlorine-passivated silicon surfaces, under conditions relevant to atomic layer etching. Thousands of individual ion impact simulations are performed on a massively parallel supercomputer. The silicon sputter yield is obtained for Ar ion energies ranging from 25 to 200 eV. Where possible, simulation results are compared to available experimental data. Volatile product formation during ion bombardment of ordered surfaces tends to follow distinct local trajectories. For example, the formation of products due to 120 eV Ar ions impacting onto Si(001)(2×1) at normal incidence has been found to occur mainly by a mechanism in which the Ar ion impacts directly in-between a surface silicon dimer pair. The energetic recoiled silicon atoms undercut nearby silicon atoms resulting in product formation. Several other product formation pathways have also been observed. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of Si0.982C0.018 pseudomorphic layer after excimer laser annealing

    Page(s): 4064 - 4068
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    We have studied the effect of excimer laser annealing on a high-quality Si0.982C0.018 pseudomorphic layer, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction. The substitutional carbon concentration is found to decrease as a function of fluence for 50 laser pulses performed at room temperature and vacuum. The strain profile evolution is obtained with x-ray diffraction and dynamical diffraction simulations. After melting, most of the strain is released, and a new FTIR and Raman peak appears around 830 cm-1. This feature is attributed to the formation of SiC microprecipitates and V-O asymmetrical centers. A mechanism for the substitutional carbon removal is proposed. It involves SiC precipitation and reaction between V-O and substitutional carbon to form volatile CO. In the case of pulsed laser induced epitaxy, we predict that the highest substitutional carbon content should be obtained with one laser pulse in an oxygen-free ambiant. From these results, it is inferred that pulsed-laser-induced epitaxy is suitable for the localized patterning of ultrashallow buried Si1-yCy junctions. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Deep levels and minority carrier lifetime in proton irradiated silicon pin diode

    Page(s): 4069 - 4074
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    Deep levels induced by MeV-proton irradiation in n-(ν) region of Si p-ν-n diodes were investigated by photocapacitance method under constant capacitance condition. Electrical property, dosage dependence, spatial distribution, and annealing behavior of the deep levels were studied. Carrier lifetime reduction in pin diodes by the deep level was examined by current–voltage characteristics and impedance measurements. From proton dosage dependence and annealing effect, the decreasing behavior of minority carrier lifetime with increasing deep level density was revealed. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of optically active defects created by noble gas ion bombardment of silicon

    Page(s): 4075 - 4080
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    The modification in the G-line (969.5 meV) and the C-line (789.4 meV) photoluminescence (PL) intensities were studied as a function of the fluence, energy, and mass of the bombarding ions (He, Ne, Ar, and Kr). The intensities of the luminescent lines induced by 1 keV Ne bombardment were found to decrease with increasing dose after reaching a maximum at about 1×1012ions/cm2. Considerable reductions in the intensities of the G- and C-lines were also recorded during bombardment using heavier noble gas ions and they have been attributed to the higher rates of nuclear energy deposition with increasing bombarding ion mass. The incident ion energy at which the PL intensities of the spectral lines reached their maximum values was found to be dependent on the ion mass and fluence. We have explained the decrease in PL intensities of the G-line and C-line to be due to the introduction of increased amounts of nonradiative recombination centers with increasing incident ion dose and mass. Further, the integral sum of defects induced during bombardment as a function of projected ion range and excitation depth of the Ar-ion laser has been used to qualitatively describe the decrease in the intensities of the two lines. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic effects in the deactivation of ion implanted arsenic

    Page(s): 4081 - 4090
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    Observation has been made of a photonic enhancement effect during optical rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of high dose, As implants in Si. Arsenic implant activation using optical radiation heating from tungsten–halogen lamps, λpeak=0.8 μm, was compared with annealing in a continuously heated rapid thermal vertical furnace, λpeak=2 μm. Energetic photons assist in the rapid deactivation of electrically active As+ to its equilibrium value in less than 5 s at the annealing temperature of 1000 °C. A model is presented for rapid As deactivation which is based upon the lowering of reaction energies through electron/hole recombination events. Transient-enhanced diffusion is observed in the RTA sample but not in the furnace-annealed sample. Rapid deactivation by recombination-enhanced processes causes the generation of excess self-interstitials of sufficient concentrations to contribute to the growth of end-of-range dislocation loops at the original amorphous/crystalline interface. After deactivation ends and the excess self-interstitials dissipate, the loops are able to dissolve and coarsen, thereby emitting self-interstitials which cause As transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) in the lower concentration portions of the RTA-annealed As profile. By contrast, end-of-range loops in samples similarly annealed in the vertical furnace are somewhat smaller but of higher density, and a 1000 °C, 15 s anneal results in As deactivation overshoot where [As+] drops below the electrical solubility limit. No As TED was observed in this sample due to the absorption of excess self-interstitials by the growing loops over the duration of the anneal. © 1998 American Institute - of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning tunneling microscopy study on void formation by thermal decomposition of thin oxide layers on stepped Si surfaces

    Page(s): 4091 - 4095
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    We investigate void formation by thermal decomposition of thin oxide layers on stepped Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces by using high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. We have found that the surface roughening during void formation on stepped Si surfaces is less than that on on-axis Si surfaces. The Si atoms necessary for oxide decomposition are supplied from step edges on the stepped surface rather than by hole nucleation. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A biaxial film-compensated thin homogeneous cell for reflective liquid crystal display

    Page(s): 4096 - 4100
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    Computer simulations on the display characteristics of a biaxial film compensated thin homogeneous liquid crystal cell are performed. Results indicate that the biaxial film-compensated reflective displays exhibit a relatively weak wavelength dispersion, wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio, low operation voltage, abundant gray scale, and fast response time. Their potential applications for reflective direct-view and color-sequential projection displays are emphasized. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Study on the effect of ion beam bombardment during deposition on preferred orientation in rutile-type titanium dioxide films

    Page(s): 4101 - 4105
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    Rutile-type titanium dioxide films, which exhibits tetragonal structure, were synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition with ion beam incidence inclined 45° to the substrate. The influence of ion bombardment during deposition on the texture of films was studied. A change of preferred orientation from (110) to (200) with increase of ion to deposited atom arrival ratio was observed in case Ne+ and Xe+ ion bombardment were used during film growth, respectively. It is found that in rutile type TiO2 films (110) plane exhibits the lowest surface free energy and crystallites with (100) orientation have the widest channel to ions when ion beam injects with direction 45° to the film. The preferred orientation of titanium oxide films from (110) to (200) is accounted for in terms of channeling of ions and surface free energy. When arrival ratio of ion to atom is low, crystallites with (110) orientation which has lowest surface free energy grow preferentially. As the increase of arrival ratio, the damage induced by ion bombardment compresses the growth of crystallites with shallow ion channeling. Then (200) preferred orientation is observed because of its deep ion channeling. Compared to the cases Ne+ is used, lower arrival ratio is required to change the orientation from (110) to (200) for Xe+ bombardment, because heavier ion leads to stronger radiation damage. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory