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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 8 • Date Oct 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 78
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Dynamic force microscopy by means of the phase-controlled oscillator method

    Page(s): 3641 - 3651
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    Dynamic force microscopy, a technique also known as non-contact force microscopy, has proved to be a powerful tool for atomic resolution imaging. A number of schemes have been developed, but recently the oscillator method has become the preferred operating mode. Here, the force sensor acts as resonator in an active feedback circuit. A practical implementation of the method is described and the underlying key concepts are discussed. It is shown that a tracking oscillator excitation scheme is superior to the more standard direct feedback method for cases in which the force sensor exhibits only a weak resonance enhancement. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of dissipative interaction channels is an important extension of dynamic force microscopy. It allows one to differentiate between sample materials via their plasto-mechanical response. As an example, a Cr test grating has been imaged in the constant force gradient mode. The dissipation measured on Cr-covered areas is significantly lower than that on the bare quartz glass substrate, which enables one to distinguish between the two materials with a lateral resolution comparable to that of the topographic image. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.   View full abstract»

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  • Oscillation of the cantilever in atomic force microscopy: Probing the sample response at the microsecond scale

    Page(s): 3652 - 3660
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    The relaxation of an atomic force microscope microlever is investigated after the unsticking instability. We show that the different oscillating behavior can be explained by considering that polymer chains remain stuck at the tip even when the microlever is away from the sample. A simple rheological model is used which satisfactorily describes the different features observed. The approach described in the article provides useful additional information to understand the behavior of a microlever coupled to a polymer network. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Physical properties of BeAl6O10 single crystals

    Page(s): 3661 - 3666
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    Single crystals of BeAl6O10, beryllium hexaaluminate, were grown by the Czochralski method. The optical, acousto-optical, elastic, and a number of thermo-mechanical properties of bulk crystals of BeAl6O10 were investigated in comparison with crystal of BeAl2O4, chrysoberyl. It has been demonstrated that this material is the promising host for active media of tunable solid state lasers. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of substrates on the transverse geometry photorefractive thin films

    Page(s): 3667 - 3671
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    Although photorefractive thin films in the transverse geometry retain most of the basic features of the bulk photorefractive materials, the abrupt changes in the dielectric constant across the boundary regions always accompany polarized charge gratings. These gratings are generated by the perpendicular component of the space charge field and they are absent in the bulk transport equations. Our systematic theoretical calculation indicates that these boundary charge gratings will strongly influence device performance. Adjustment of the dielectric properties of media sandwiching the thin film can serve as a method by which control device performance. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Stefan problem for a finite liquid phase and its application to laser or electron beam welding

    Page(s): 3672 - 3678
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    An exact solution of a heat conduction problem with the effect of latent heat of solidification (Stefan problem) is derived. The solution of the one dimensional Stefan problem for a finite liquid phase initially existing in a semi-infinite body is applied to evaluate temperature fields produced by laser or electron beam welding. The solution of the model has not been available before, as Carslaw and Jaeger [Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1959)] pointed out. The heat conduction calculations are performed using thermal properties of carbon steel, and the comparison of the Stefan problem with a simplified linear heat conduction model reveals that the solidification rate and cooling curve over 1273 K significantly depend on which model (Stefan or linear heat conduction problem) is applied, and that the type of the thermal model applied has little meaning for cooling curve below 1273 K. Since the heat conduction problems with a phase change arise in many important industrial fields, the solution derived in this study is ready to be used not only for welding but also for other industrial applications. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Growth and decay of macroparticles: A feasible approach to clean vacuum arc plasmas?

    Page(s): 3679 - 3688
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    Metal and carbon plasmas produced at nonstationary cathode spots are inherently contaminated with micron-size macroparticles, and their removal is typically done by guiding the plasma through curved magnetic macroparticle filters in order to spatially separate plasma and macroparticles. In this article, a possible alternative approach is discussed in which macroparticles are destroyed rather than removed. Mass and energy transfer from the plasma to macroparticles are considered. Both cold and warm ion approximations are discussed. It was found that the desired result—complete evaporation of macroparticles before arrival at the substrate—cannot be easily achieved in any case. Ion bombardment heating is reduced by thermionic electron emission when the macroparticle approaches the temperature region of strong evaporation. The heat loss mechanisms, thermal radiation and evaporation, increase strongly with temperature. Direct heating of the macroparticle seems to be most promising. Microwave heating was ruled out because of the plasma shielding effect. The use of infrared lasers has been proposed, but this solution is likely to be uneconomical. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of collisionless rf plasma sheaths

    Page(s): 3689 - 3709
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    The behavior of rf plasma sheaths has been the subject of much scientific study and also is technologically important for plasma etching and deposition in the manufacture of integrated circuits. This paper presents a semianalytic model of rf sheaths and describes an experiment that tested the model. An approximation to the first integral of the Poisson equation allows solving for the response of plasma sheaths to an imposed rf bias voltage. This approximation enables the plasma sheaths to be included within an electrical model of the plasma and external rf circuit components, and affords a prediction of the ion energy distributions impacting the electrodes, which are in contact with the plasma. The model is a significant advance beyond previous sheath models because it has no restriction on the ratio of the rf period to the ion transit time across the sheath. The model is applicable to those high-density, low-pressure plasmas in which the Debye length is a small fraction of the ion mean-free path, which itself is a small fraction of the plasma dimension. The experimental test of the model was conducted by comparing the predicted and measured rf potential, current, and power at the sheath adjacent to a capacitively coupled, rf-biased electrode in a plasma reactor with argon discharges sustained by an inductively coupled plasma source. The comparisons included both linear and nonlinear components of the rf electrical parameters. Results of the experiment were in substantial agreement with model predictions. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A self-consistent nonlinear theory of a premodulated electron beam propagating through a helix-loaded waveguide

    Page(s): 3710 - 3721
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    A self-consistent nonlinear theory of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a waveguide loaded with a sheath helix is developed by making use of Maxwell equations. A closed integrodifferential equation is obtained for the normalized beam current described in terms of the normalized time θ and propagation distance ζ. An analytical investigation of the partial integrodifferential equation of the current modulation is carried out by Fourier decomposing the current modulation with harmonic number l. The mode strength c(ζ) is obtained in terms of the spatial oscillation frequency η and growth rate ξ of the mode amplitude, which are, in turn, determined in terms of the electrostatic and helix effects. The spatial oscillation frequency increases as the electrostatic effect (g) increases. On the other hand, the growth rate increases with the strength of the helix effect. It is found that the mode strength c is oscillatory and that it grows during propagation when the spatial frequency η (the electrostatic effect) is considerably larger than the growth rate ξ (the helix effect). Otherwise, the exponential growth dominates. Investigation of the helix mode must include the electrostatic effect for an intense beam. View full abstract»

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  • Photoluminescence and the thermal stability of color centers in γ-irradiated LiF and LiF(Mg)

    Page(s): 3722 - 3729
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    Pure and magnesium doped (2000 ppm) LiF crystals have been irradiated with γ rays from 241Am and 60Co sources and the thermal stability of the resulting defects has been studied using photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption (OA). The composite nature of the M band at 440 nm is highlighted by PL data which reveal emission attributed to F3+ defects otherwise hidden in OA measurements. The following bands appear in excitation spectra; Z3 (222 nm), Z2 (285 nm), R1 (329 nm), R2 (375 nm), F3+ (440 nm), and F2 (440 nm). Notable differences are observed between pure and doped samples during thermal annealing relating to the F2 and F3+ bands in particular. Results support the idea of Z centers as being F and F- centers trapped at impurity ions in the crystal. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Raman microstructural analysis of silicon-on-insulator formed by high dose oxygen ion implantation: As-implanted structures

    Page(s): 3730 - 3735
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    A microstructural analysis of silicon-on-insulator samples obtained by high dose oxygen ion implantation was performed by Raman scattering. The samples analyzed were obtained under different conditions thus leading to different concentrations of defects in the top Si layer. The samples were implanted with the surface covered with SiO2 capping layers of different thicknesses. The spectra measured from the as-implanted samples were fitted to a correlation length model taking into account the possible presence of stress effects in the spectra. This allowed quantification of both disorder effects, which are determined by structural defects, and residual stress in the top Si layer before annealing. These data were correlated to the density of dislocations remaining in the layer after annealing. The analysis performed corroborates the existence of two mechanisms that generate defects in the top Si layer that are related to surface conditions during implantation and the proximity of the top Si/buried oxide layer interface to the surface before annealing. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Raman-scattering criteria for characterization of anneal-restored zinc blende single crystals: Application to Si+-implanted InP

    Page(s): 3736 - 3739
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    We have studied the lattice recovery by rapid thermal annealing of Si+-implanted InP using Raman spectroscopy. The crystallinity recovery for different annealing temperatures of samples totally amorphized by the implantation can be monitored by means of their Raman spectra. However, free-charge coupling with the LO mode and possible misorientation of the recrystallized material may alter substantially the first-order Raman spectrum, making it unreliable for a good characterization of the lattice recovery. The study of second-order Raman spectrum overcomes the problems present in the analysis of first-order Raman spectrum and provides suitable criteria to assess the recrystallization of the implanted and annealed samples. After rapid thermal annealing at 875 °C for 10 s, the intensity of the second-order peaks approaches 70% of its value in virgin InP, and third-order Raman peaks are also clearly detected, evidencing the good lattice recovery achieved. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Structural modifications of alumina implanted with zirconium, copper, and titanium ions

    Page(s): 3740 - 3746
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    Microstructural modifications (amorphization, lattice deformation, phase transformations) in alumina induced by implantation of zirconium, copper, or titanium ions and by postimplantation thermal annealings were studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. It was shown that the amount of lattice deformation and the type of damage resulting in the lattice depend on the ion implanted. When zirconium was implanted, the alumina lattice was highly deformed. Amorphization was observed when a high ion dose was implanted. Copper implantation led to the formation of gamma alumina. With titanium ions, very high strain was created and delta alumina was formed. After postimplantation annealings, lattices returned to their equilibrium state through crystallization of alpha alumina and precipitation of oxides of the implanted species (ZrO2, CuO and CuAl2O4, and TiO2). © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Failure of planar fiber networks

    Page(s): 3747 - 3753
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    We study the failure of planar random fiber networks with computer simulations. The networks are grown by adding flexible fibers one by one on a growing deposit [K. J. Niskanen and M. J. Alava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3475 (1994)], a process yielding realistic three dimensional network structures. The network thus obtained is mapped to an electrical analogue of the elastic problem, namely to a random fuse network with separate bond elements for the fiber-to-fiber contacts. The conductivity of the contacts (corresponding to the efficiency of stress transfer between fibers) is adjustable. We construct a simple effective medium theory for the current distribution and conductivity of the networks as a function of intra-fiber current transfer efficiency. This analysis compares favorably with the computed conductivity and with the fracture properties of fiber networks with varying fiber flexibility and network thickness. The failure characteristics are shown to obey scaling behavior, as expected of a disordered brittle material, which is explained by the high current end of the current distribution saturating in thick enough networks. For bond breaking, fracture load and strain can be estimated with the effective medium theory. For fiber breaking, we find the counter-intuitive result that failure is more likely to nucleate far from surfaces, as the stress is transmitted more effectively to the fibers in the interior. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic solutions for strain distributions in quantum-wire structures

    Page(s): 3754 - 3762
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    Analytic expressions are derived for the strain field due to a lattice-mismatched quantum wire buried in an infinite medium whose cross-section is composed of any combination of line elements and circular arcs. Expressions for the strain field for rectangular, triangular and circular quantum wires are found confirming published results. For the rectangular wire, useful limiting relations are obtained for the stress components close to the edge of the wire. Good agreement is demonstrated with measurements of lattice spacing reported by Chen etal [Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2202 (1994)] for an In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs rectangular wire if the indium concentration is assumed to be 24%. The strain field of a single AlGaAs/GaAs crescent-shaped wire, with and without lateral wells, is presented. The lateral wells introduce only minor modifications to the strain distribution when compared to a wire of the same thickness but without lateral wells. For a crescent-shaped quantum-wire stack, it is found that the strain field of each wire is almost independent of other wires in the stack when the wire separation is five times the thickness or more. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A quantitative analysis of surface deformation by stick/slip atomic force microscopy

    Page(s): 3763 - 3770
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    This article presents a quantitative determination of static deformation at a nanometer scale of a surface caused by the tip of an atomic force microscope. An analysis of cantilever displacements while in contact with the surface leads to a directly measurable dimensionless parameter which is well sensitive to surface deformation. The method is specifically aimed at stick/slip friction measurements like on layered compounds, like TiS2 or on a relatively rigid surface of an ionic crystal, in this study NaCl [100]. Stick/slip friction images offer a possibility to investigate details of strain-dependent deformation. The observed deformation in TiS2 could play an important role in the occurrence of strong stick/slip friction in this and other layered materials. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Detonation waves in triaminotrinitrobenzene

    Page(s): 3771 - 3782
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    Fabry–Perot laser interferometry is used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of copper, tantalum, or magnesium disks driven by detonating triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB)-based charges and of the interfaces between detonating TATB and transparent salt crystals. Detonation reaction zone profiles are measured for self-sustaining detonation waves propagating through various thicknesses of LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% KelF binder) and pure ultrafine particle size TATB. The experimental records are compared to particle velocity histories calculated with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code using the ignition and growth reactive flow model. The calculations yield excellent agreement with the experimental records for LX-17 using an unreacted von Neumann spike pressure of 33.7 GPa, a reaction rate law which releases 70% of the chemical energy within 100 ns, and the remaining 30% over 300 additional ns, and a reaction product equation of state fit to cylinder test and supracompression data with a Chapman–Jouguet (C–J) pressure of 25 GPa. The late time energy release is attributed to diffusion controlled solid carbon particle formation. Ultrafine TATB, pressed to a lower density (1.80 g/cm3) than LX-17 (1.905 g/cm3), exhibits lower unreacted spike and C–J pressures than LX-17 but similar reaction rates. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Grain refinement and the stability of dendrites growing into undercooled pure metals and alloys

    Page(s): 3783 - 3790
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    We present an analysis of the stability of a dendrite against a small perturbation to the tip velocity. We find that dendritic growth in pure metals and alloys will become unstable above some upper critical undercooling ΔT2*. In alloys above a critical concentration, dendritic growth may also become unstable below a lower critical undercooling, ΔT1*. In the example systems studied, Ni–Cu and Ag–O, the location of these unstable regions shows remarkably close agreement with the onset of spontaneous grain refinement. We obtain values of ΔT2* for Ni and Ag of 195 K and 160 K, respectively, in good agreement with the observed values of 170 K and 133–153 K. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogen migration in diamond-like carbon films

    Page(s): 3791 - 3796
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    Properties of physical vapor deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) films and the migration of hydrogen in H+ and 4He+ ion implanted and hydrogen co-deposited DLC films have been studied. Measurements utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed that the films studied have an average mass density of 2.6±0.1 g/cm3. The bonding ratio sp3/sp2 is typically 70% measured with the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis technique. Impurities and their depth distributions were deduced from the particle induced x-ray emission and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Distributions of implanted and co-deposited hydrogen were measured by the nuclear resonance reaction 1H(15N,αγ)12C and SIMS. It was found that annealing behavior of implanted H in DLC has a diffusion like character. The obtained diffusion coefficients resulted in the activation energy of 2.0±0.1 eV. It was observed that in H co-deposited DLC films the temperature of H release varied between 950 and 1070 °C depending on the H concentration. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.   View full abstract»

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  • Scanning tunneling microscope study of the morphology of chemical vapor deposited copper films and its correlation with resistivity

    Page(s): 3797 - 3807
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    In this article we report the results of the scanning tunneling microscope study of the surface morphology of copper films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from the precursor Cu(tbaoac)2. Films ≈100 nm in thickness were grown by varying the reactor pressure. The images reveal the crucial role of the reactor pressure and growth rate on the morphology and grain growth of the films. Films grown at a low growth rate have a smooth surface with small well connected grains of 10–40 nm diameter with relatively lower resistivity, while films grown at higher growth rates have rougher surfaces and larger grain sizes of 10–100 nm diameter with poor connectivity that leads to higher resistivity. The correlation of the morphology with resistivity (ρ) and the temperature dependence of ρ in the range 300–4.2 K was investigated. Comparison with the ρ of pure bulk copper shows that these films have much higher resistivities. A large part of the high resistivity at room temperature arises from an enhanced temperature dependent part of ρ and is not due to an enhancement of the residual resistivity alone. The films exhibit deviations from Matthiessen’s rule. From a semi-quantitative analysis of the data using existing theories we could assign the large ρ as well as the temperature dependence of ρ to grain boundary scattering and surface scattering. However, for T≫50 K we find that an extra temperature dependent ρ term which may be related to enhancement of electron-phonon interactions by the rough film surface is required. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Growth kinetics of amorphous interlayers and formation of crystalline silicide phases in ultrahigh vacuum deposited polycrystalline Er and Tb thin films on (001)Si

    Page(s): 3808 - 3814
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    The growth kinetics of amorphous interlayer (a-interlayer) and formation of crystalline silicide phases in ultrahigh vacuum deposited polycrystalline Er and Tb thin films on (001)Si have been investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The growth of the amorphous interlayer in both Er/Si and Tb/Si systems was observed to exhibit similar behaviors. The growth was found to follow a linear growth law initially in samples annealed at 190–240 °C. The activation energy of the linear growth and maximum thickness of the a-interlayer were measured to be 0.5 eV, 15.5 nm, and 0.35 eV, 16 nm in Er/Si and Tb/Si systems, respectively. Crystalline silicides (ErSi2-x or TbSi2-x) were found to form at the amorphous interlayer/Si interfaces in samples after prolonged and/or high-temperature annealing. Simultaneous growth of the a-interlayer and crystalline phase was observed and the growth rate of a-interlayer was faster than the growth of epitaxial ErSi2-x and TbSi2-x phases in samples annealed at 270–300 °C in Er/Si and Tb/Si systems, respectively. The competitive growth can be understood from energetic consideration. A high density of recessed amorphous regions were found to form between isolated epitaxial silicide regions which led to uneven silicide/Si interfaces and eventually pinholes in the silicide films at high temperatures. The formation mechanism of rough silicide/Si interface is discussed. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Irradiation-induced alloying in immiscible Mo–Cu system through multilayer technique

    Page(s): 3815 - 3820
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    Room temperature 200 keV xenon-ion irradiation of multilayers, designed under interfacial free energy concern, did result in the formation of Mo–Cu metallic glasses only within a narrow Mo-enriched composition range. In addition, some Cu-based alloys of metastable fcc solid solutions were also formed at different irradiation stages. To obtain a possible thermodynamic interpretation, a Gibbs-free-energy diagram was calculated based on the semiquantitative Miedema’s model and the related methods proposed by Alonso. The free energy of the Mo–Cu multilayers including excess interfacial free energy was also estimated and was compared to that of the amorphous state. It turned out that the interfacial free energy stored in the multilayered films could raise the energy level of the multilayers to a state higher than that of the metastable phases and thus played an important part, in comparison to the energy deposited by irradiation, in inducing alloying in this immiscible system. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Precipitation of Al2Cu in blanket Al-Cu films

    Page(s): 3821 - 3827
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    We have used x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the formation and dissolution of θ-Al2Cu precipitates in blanket Al-Cu films. In one series of experiments, we examined films deposited at different temperatures and average Cu concentrations. For a given temperature, there is a Cu concentration above which precipitates form. This effective solvus agrees with the equilibrium solvus at high temperatures, but exceeds the equilibrium values at low deposition temperatures. The formation of precipitates correlates with a pileup of Cu in the part of the film which was deposited first. This pileup is explained by a model involving precipitate growth at grain boundaries and grain growth during deposition. We also measured the kinetics of precipitation formation and dissolution in Al-0.5 w/o Cu. In the range 200–270 °C, the precipitation kinetics show an activation energy of 0.54 eV, which is lower than that for grain-boundary diffusion of Cu in Al. Precipitate dissolution over the range 300–400 °C shows an activation energy of 1.37 eV, consistent with lattice diffusion. These results may be useful in designing heat treatments which will minimize the occurrence of precipitates in integrated-circuit interconnects when process corrosion could be a problem, yet leave the material with precipitates before use, when electromigration becomes an issue. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Deep level of iron-hydrogen complex in silicon

    Page(s): 3828 - 3831
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    Deep levels related to iron in n-type silicon have been investigated using thermally stimulated capacitance (TSCAP) combined with minority carrier injection. The TSCAP measurement reveals two traps of EV+0.31 and EV+0.41 eV. The trap of EV+0.41 eV is a donor due to interstitial iron. The trap of EV+0.31 eV, due to a complex of interstitial iron and hydrogen, is observed in the sample etched chemically with an acid mixture containing HF and HNO3 and annihilates after annealing at 175 °C for 30 min. It is demonstrated that interstitial 3d transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, and iron tend to form complexes with hydrogen in n-type silicon, and the complexes induce donor levels below the donor levels of the isolated interstitial species. This trend is related to the interaction between the metals and hydrogen in the complexes. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory