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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 2 • Date Jan 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 74
  • Edge effects in photorefractive thin films

    Page(s): 545 - 549
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    We have used a two-dimensional charge transport model to study edge effects in photorefractive thin films. Our result shows the presence of a large surface charge layer that causes saturation of trap-limited-field in the large fringe spacing limit. Quadratic electro-optic materials were used as an example to quantitatively study the contribution of the surface-charge-layer field to the total photorefractive grating. We clearly demonstrate that the device performance can be dominated by either surface charge or bulk trap charges. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Combination of Maker fringe and total reflection technique: Nonlinear optical properties of 4-nitro-2-ethoxyamide-4-benzyloxytolane

    Page(s): 550 - 553
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    A new approach to measure the optical second-order nonlinear coefficient tensor of material which is difficult to prepare as a large single crystal is demonstrated. In such a case, due to the limitation of the crystal direction the Maker fringe measurement cannot provide each tensor component but instead yields an effective value. A technique using the second-harmonic generation with evanescent wave (SHEW) makes up for the Maker fringe result. We have applied the measurements to the organic material 4-nitro-2-ethoxyamide-4benzyloxytolane (NEBT). The combined results from different measurements clarify the nonlinear optical character of NEBT molecules and the largest component of the optical second-order coefficient tensor was obtained to be 39±8 pm/V. The combination of the Maker fringe and the SHEW technique can be a powerful tool. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Self-consistent model of high current density segmented hollow cathode discharges

    Page(s): 554 - 568
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    A two-dimensional model of the hollow cathode and the high-voltage segmented hollow cathode sputtering discharges at high current densities is presented. The main plasma parameters (e.g., complete electron distribution function, spatial distributions of particle densities, gas temperature, etc.) are determined self-consistently. The most important mechanisms contributing to the operating characteristics of these hollow cathode discharges are identified and described quantitatively. The most representative hollow cathode configurations are analyzed and the results are compared to existing experimental data for the helium-argon-copper system, e.g., voltage-current characteristics, density of copper atoms as a function of the discharge current, and percentage argon. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental results. The model can be adapted to other high-voltage variants of the hollow cathode discharges. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A semianalytic radio frequency sheath model integrated into a two-dimensional hybrid model for plasma processing reactors

    Page(s): 569 - 577
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    In high plasma density ([e]≫1011–1012 cm-3) reactors for materials processing, the sheath thickness is often ≪100 s μm while the reactor dimensions are 10 s cm. Resolving the sheath in computer models of these devices using reasonable grid resolution is therefore problematic. If the sheath is not resolved, the plasma potential and stochastic electron heating produced by the substrate bias may not be well represented. In this article, we describe a semianalytic model for radio frequency (rf) biased sheaths which has been integrated into a two-dimensional model for plasma etching reactors. The basis of the sheath model is to track the charging and discharging of the sheath in time, and use a one-dimensional analytical model to obtain the instantaneous sheath voltage drop based on the sheath charge and the plasma conditions at the sheath edge. Results from the integrated model for an inductively coupled plasma etching reactor with powers of 200–800 W and rf bias powers from 50 to 400 W in Ar and Ar/Cl2 will be discussed. We found that the sheath voltage wave form remains nearly sinusoidal, and that the plasma density, and consequently the ion flux to the surface, scale primarily with inductively coupled power. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Relative atomic chlorine density in inductively coupled chlorine plasmas

    Page(s): 578 - 581
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    Atomic chlorine is an important chemical species in plasma processing of silicon and III–V compound semiconductors. Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been used to measure the relative atomic chlorine density in an inductively driven, rf discharge in chlorine gas. The Cl density in the center of the discharge was independent of rf power in the range of 150–400 W and increased a factor of 2 when the pressure was increased from 15 to 50 mTorr. LIF measurements performed on both levels of the chlorine spin-split ground state indicate similar trends for both energy levels in the inductive plasma mode. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of forward breakdown mechanism in high-pressure argon plasma produced by irradiation by an excimer laser

    Page(s): 582 - 586
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    When a XeCl excimer laser beam was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a hot and dense plasma was produced at the focal spot. The plasma developed not only backward but also forward, which differed from one produced by a visible laser. The radius of the forward plasma became smaller beyond the focal spot. There had been no explanation for the development mechanism of the forward plasma. A new model for the forward development mechanism called a forward breakdown wave was proposed. The forward plasma was calculated assuming that the laser beam transmitted through the plasma was further focused by the plasma. This model could predict the forward development behavior considerably well. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Ion irradiation-induced amorphization in the Al2O3–SiO2 system: A comparison with glass formation

    Page(s): 587 - 593
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    The ion beam-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition has been investigated for crystalline phases in the Al2O3–SiO2 system: Al2O3, SiO2 (quartz), Al2SiO5 (kyanite, andalusite, sillimanite), and 3Al2O3∙2SiO2 (mullite). Xe+ 1.5 MeV was used to irradiate samples at temperatures from 15 to 1023 K in situ in a transmission electron microscope to determine the critical amorphization doses. The susceptibility to amorphization is (highest to lowest): quartz, sillimanite, kyanite, andalusite, mullite, and alumina. These data are compared to viscosities and activation energies for viscous flow of melts in this system. The doses required for amorphization by ion irradiation are related to the viscosities of the melts. The activation energies for irradiation-enhanced annealing are qualitatively correlated with the activation energies of viscous flow. These results suggest a parallel between ion beam irradiation-induced amorphization and glass formation. Glass-forming “ability’’ correlates with susceptibility to radiation-induced amorphization. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Combined texture and structure analysis of deformed limestone from time-of-flight neutron diffraction spectra

    Page(s): 594 - 600
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    The orientation distribution of a textured polycrystalline material has been traditionally determined from a few individual pole figures of lattice planes hkl, measured by x-ray or neutron diffraction. A new method is demonstrated that uses the whole diffraction spectrum, rather than extracted peak intensities, by combining the orientation distribution calculation with the crystallographic Rietveld method. The feasibility of the method is illustrated with time-of-flight neutron diffraction data of experimentally deformed polycrystalline calcite. It is possible to obtain quantitative information on texture, crystal structure, microstructure, and residual stress from highly incomplete pole figures and from regions of the diffraction spectrum containing many overlapping peaks. The approach provides a key for quantitative texture analysis of low symmetry compounds and of composites with complicated diffraction spectra. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Anomalous shock initiation of detonation in pentaerythritol tetranitrate crystals

    Page(s): 601 - 612
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    The anomalous, low-stress, shock initiation of detonation observed in earlier studies of pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystals was examined in more detail experimentally. Time-resolved particle-velocity histories were obtained for [110], [001] and [100] orientations of single-crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate explosive for shock input stresses of 4–7 GPa using laser interferometry instrumentation. At about 4.2 GPa an elastic-plastic, two-wave structure was noted in [110] and [001] orientations, and a single shock wave for [100] orientation. The two-wave structure provides an explanation for the anomalous shock initiation sensitivity and intermediate velocity transition previously observed in [110] orientation at this stress level. It also explains details of fluorescent emission histories from [110] and [001] crystals previously measured. The orientation-dependent results are consistent with the model of steric hindrance to shear at the molecular level. Fits to the elastic Hugoniot data in [110] and [001] orientations are given as well as a revised fit for the bulk Hugoniot. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Phase evolution during ion-beam mixing of Ag–Cu

    Page(s): 613 - 623
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    Ion-beam mixing of the immiscible Ag–Cu alloy system was investigated using 1.0 MeV Kr ion irradiation at temperatures ranging from 80 to 473 K. Mixing of binary (80 nm Cu/55 nm Ag) and multilayer [(8.5 nm Cu/12.2 nm Ag)×11] samples was characterized by backscattering spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and x-ray diffraction. Below room temperature, the Ag–Cu system is rendered completely miscible by Kr irradiation with the formation of a simple homogeneous phase. For irradiation at 473 K, the system again becomes immiscible, but with enhanced solubilities in the two terminal phases. At intermediate temperatures, two or three phases are formed, a nearly equiatomic phase, and one, and sometimes two, terminal phases. Irradiation at elevated temperatures of samples completely mixed at low temperature led to the decomposition of the near equiatomic phase; the new steady states were nearly the same as those obtained by direct irradiation of an as-deposited sample. Phase formation depended only weakly on the ion flux, although at the higher temperatures the decomposition reaction was favored by lower ion fluxes. The experimental results are explained using a diffusion model based on a competition between cascade mixing and thermally activated demixing. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal properties of the organic nonlinear optical crystal 4-nitro-4-methylbenzylidene aniline

    Page(s): 624 - 630
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    The thermal properties of high-quality nonlinear optical single crystals of 4-nitro- 4-methylbenzylidene aniline (NMBA) have been measured in various temperature ranges. The specific heat was measured in the range from 273 to 373 K by differential scanning calorimetry and was found to obey the relationship Cp=2.3×10-3 T+0.487 J g-1 K-1. The peak melting point was detected at a temperature of 402 K with a corresponding enthalpy of melting ΔHm of 113.63 J g-1. Principal thermal expansion and thermal conductivity coefficients were determined at different temperatures. For example, at room temperature (295 K) they were α1=1.274×10-4 K-1, α2=0.826×10-4 K-1, and α3=0.239×10-4 K-1. The principal thermal conductivity coefficients were k1=0.40 W m-1 K-1, k2=0.19 W m-1 K-1, and k3=0.21 W m-1 K-1 and these values were independent of temperature up to 370 K. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A predictive model for transient enhanced diffusion based on evolution of {311} defects

    Page(s): 631 - 636
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    It has been observed that {311} defects form, grow, and eventually dissolve during annealing of Si-implanted silicon wafers. The fact that for subamorphizing silicon implants {311} defects initially contain the full net dose of excess interstitials, and that the time scale for dissolution of these defects is about the same as the time scale of transient enhanced diffusion (TED) leads to the conclusion that {311} defects are a primary source of interstitials under TED conditions. We describe a comprehensive model which accounts for the evolution of these defects during ion implant annealing, and in combination with point defect parameters from previous work also correctly predicts TED behavior. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Interdiffusion in epitaxial Co/Pt multilayers

    Page(s): 637 - 645
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    Interdiffusion kinetics were measured using x-ray diffraction methods in epitaxial (001) and (111) Co/Pt multilayers in which the chemical modulation wavelength was in the range 2.5–4.0 nm. Multilayers were prepared by e-beam evaporation and were subsequently annealed in vacuum at temperatures between 275 and 375 °C. The activation enthalpy of the interdiffusion process in this temperature range was estimated using a novel approach for scaling nonlinear diffusion data. Activation enthalpies for interdiffusion in (001) and (111) multilayers were determined to be 1.1±0.2 and 0.8±0.2 eV, respectively. The low values obtained for the activation enthalpies may result from coherency strains or “short-circuit’’ diffusion in the faulted, epitaxial multilayers. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of growth rate on step structure and ordering in GaInP

    Page(s): 646 - 649
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    CuPt ordering is widely observed in GaInP epitaxial layers grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The formation of this spontaneously ordered structure during epitaxial growth is intimately related to the atomic-scale physical processes occurring on the surface, specifically surface reconstruction and the attachment of atoms at steps. For growth on singular (001) GaAs substrates the surface structure, measured using atomic force microscopy, is seen to consist of small islands surrounded by either monolayer or bilayer steps. An increase in the growth rate from 0.25 to 2.0 μm/h with a constant tertiarybutylphosphine partial pressure at 670 °C has no effect on either the degree of order or the step structure. Only the step spacing is observed to change. It decreases systematically as the growth rate is increased, following an approximate 1/(growth rate) 1/2 dependence. As the growth rate increases, the time atoms have to rearrange before being frozen due to coverage by the next layer decreases. This leads directly to the dependence observed. These observations are consistent with previous observations which appear to show a close correlation between step structure (monolayer versus bilayer) and ordering, although the causative factor has not been determined. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal stability of the electrical isolation in n-type gallium arsenide layers irradiated with H, He, and B ions

    Page(s): 650 - 655
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    The stability of the electrical isolation in n-type GaAs layers irradiated with ions of different mass is compared. The irradiations were performed with proper doses of 1H+, 4He+, or 11B+ ions to create specific damage concentration level which lead to: (i) the trapping of practically all the carriers (Rs ≈108 Ω/◻), (ii) the onset of hopping conduction (Rs ≈108 Ω/◻), and (iii) a significant hopping conduction (Rs ≈106 Ω/◻). Irrespectively of the ion mass, the temperature range for which the isolation is preserved, i.e., Rs ≫108 Ω/, extends up to 200 or 600 °C, respectively, for the cases (i) and (ii). In case (iii), this range comprises temperatures from 400 to 650 °C. Annealing stages at 200 and 400 °C recover in a great extent the conductivity and improve the carrier mobility in low dose irradiated samples [case (i)]. In samples irradiated to higher doses [cases (ii) and (iii)], the conductivity recovers in a single stage. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Reactively sputtered Ti-Si-N films I. Physical properties

    Page(s): 656 - 663
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    Films of Ti-Si-N were synthesized by reactively sputtering TiSi2, Ti5Si3, or Ti3Si targets in an Ar/N2 gas mixture. They were characterized in terms of their composition by MeV 4He backscattering spectrometry, their atomic density by thickness measurements combined with backscattering data, their microstructure by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and their electrical resistivity by four-point-probe measurements. All films have a metal–to–silicon ratio close to that of their respective targets. The as-deposited films are either entirely amorphous or contain inclusions of TiN-like nanometer-sized grains when the overall atomic composition of the films approaches the TiN phase in the ternary Ti-Si-N diagram. A correlation between the resistivity of the as-deposited films and their position in the ternary phase diagram is evident, indicating that at the atomic scale, the spatial arrangement of atoms in the amorphous phase and their bonding character can approximate those of the equilibrium phases. A mixture of nanocrystalline TiN and amorphous Si-N is proposed for some titanium- and nitrogen-rich films. The atomic density of some films exceeds 1023 at./cm3. The resistivity of the films increases with the Si and the N content. A thermal treatment in vacuum at 700 °C for 1 h decreases the resistivity of the Ti-rich films deposited from the Ti5Si3 or the Ti3Si target, but increases that of the Si-rich films deposited from the TiSi2 target when the nitrogen content exceeds about 30 at. %. The effectiveness of these films as diffusion barriers between Si and Al or Cu is reported in Part II. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Reactively sputtered Ti-Si-N films. II. Diffusion barriers for Al and Cu metallizations on Si

    Page(s): 664 - 671
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    Ti-Si-N films synthesized by reactively sputtering a TiSi2, a Ti5Si3, or a Ti3Si target in Ar/N2 gas mixture were tested as diffusion barriers between planar (100) Si substrates and shallow n+p Si diodes, and Al or Cu overlayers. The stability of the Ti-Si-N barriers generally improves with increasing nitrogen concentration in the films, with the drawback of an increase in the film’s resistivity. Ti34Si23N43 sputtered from the Ti5Si3 target is the most effective diffusion barrier among all the Ti-Si-N films studied. It works as an excellent barrier between Si and Cu. A film about 100 nm thick, with a resistivity of around 700 μΩ cm, maintains the stability of Si n+p shallow junction diodes with a 400 nm Cu overlayer up to 850 °C for 30 min vacuum annealing. When it is used between Al and Si, the highest temperature of stability achievable with a 100-nm-thick film is 550 °C. A thermal treatment at 600 °C causes a severe intermixing of the layers. The microstructure, atomic density, and electrical resistivity of these films are described in an accompanying Part I. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Combined surface Brillouin scattering and x-ray reflectivity characterization of thin metallic films

    Page(s): 672 - 678
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    The structural and elastic properties of a thin gold film alloyed with Cu and Ni have been studied by surface Brillouin scattering, x-ray reflectivity and low angle x-ray diffraction. The role of guided (Sezawa) acoustic modes to determine precise values of the elastic constants has been ascertained. Although weak, the hardening effect of alloying elements has been clearly detected. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Er–Yb codoped CaF2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 679 - 684
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    Yb:Er: codoped CaF2 monocrystalline films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using YbF3, ErF3, and CaF2 evaporation on CaF2 substrates. Luminescence and excitation of luminescence at 25 K are measured in order to investigate the role of Yb3+ codoping and the effect of the growth conditions during the MBE process on the incorporation of active rare-earth species in CaF2. It is found, from a comparison with earlier work on singly doped thin films, that the energies of the levels of Er3+ ions are not modified by the double doping, whereas mixed complex centers are formed. Growth conditions are found to be important controlling factors for the incorporation of Yb3+ as a sensitizer, and, consequently, for the transfer efficiency. From excitation and absorption spectra it is shown that the lowest component of the Er:4I11/2 manifold has an energy higher than that of Yb:2F5/2 and the consequences are discussed. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of ZnTe by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy: Surface adsorption reactions, precursor stoichiometry effects, and optical studies

    Page(s): 685 - 692
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    The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth of ZnTe by di-isopropyl-telluride and di-methyl-zinc (Me2Zn) precursors is investigated by studying the epilayer growth rate as a function of both growth temperature and precursor transport rates. The ZnTe growth is a thermally activated process involving the heterogeneous pyrolysis of both Zn and Te alkyls onto the ZnTe surface. The growth rate dependence on growth conditions is explained in terms of surface adsorption-desorption reactions, assuming that the incorporation of Zn and Te atoms into ZnTe takes place through their selective adsorption on different surface lattice sites. There is also evidence that the occurrence of a competitive species for the surface adsorption of Zn atoms, which is identified as the CH3 (methyl) radical, is produced by the pyrolysis of Me2Zn. Photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements performed on ZnTe allow to identify two new donor-acceptor pair (DAP) bands, originated from the recombination of a Ga donor with two acceptor centers, whose ionization energies are 56 meV for the higher energy band and around 140–150 meV for the lower energy one. Hall measurements show that the 56 meV acceptor is responsible of the p-type conductivity of the layers. The nature of the impurities originating such PL features is discussed with the support of secondary ion mass spectrometry. It is shown that Ga, Si, and C are dominant impurities in the layers, whereas Cu does not occur in our ZnTe. Unintentional C doping occurs in ZnTe as a consequence of the strong methyl and iso-propyl radical surface adsorption. We show that C is incorporated as an acceptor in ZnTe, originating the DAP bands observed in the PL spectra. Within this view, the 56 meV ionization energy acceptor is tentatively assigned to substitutional C atoms on Te lattice sites. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • BaTiO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates by a molecular-beam-epitaxy method using oxygen radicals

    Page(s): 693 - 697
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    BaTiO3 (BT) thin films were grown by a molecular-beam-epitaxy method using an oxygen radical source. BaO and TiO2 layers were alternately deposited on SrTiO3 (001) (ST) substrates, and the structure of the thin films obtained was evaluated by x-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BT thin films were oriented in the [001] direction and epitaxially grown without misfit dislocations. The lattice constants of the thin films varied with distance from the interface of BT and ST. Near the interface the a value was shorter than that for bulk BT while the c value was longer than that for bulk BT. The surface analysis indicated that adsorbed oxygen was enriched on the BaO-terminated surface in comparison with the TiO2-terminated surface. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Structure, chain orientation, and properties in thin films of aromatic polyimides with various chain rigidities

    Page(s): 698 - 708
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    Several high temperature polyimides, as model polymers with various chain rigidities and chain orders, were synthesized through the polycondensation of p-phenylene diamine (PDA) with five different aromatic dianhydrides [i.e., pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), 4,4-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), and 4,4-hexafluoroisopropylidenediphthalic anhydride (6F)], and investigated in terms of structure and properties. Both fully rodlike PMDA-PDA and ether-linked ODPA-PDA polyimides showed excellent orientation and poor ordering of chain in x-ray diffraction patterns, whereas both biphenyl-linked (BPDA-PDA) and carbonyl-linked (BTDA-PDA) polyimides exhibited excellent orientation and high ordering of chain. However, hexafluoroisopropylidene-linked 6F-PDA polyimide is structureless. The coherence length along the chain axis, which is a measure of chain rigidity and ordering, was estimated from (00l) peaks of x-ray diffraction patters: 6F-PDA (could not be measured) ≪ODPA-PDA (95 Å)≪BTDA-PDA (98 Å)≪BPDA-PDA (104 Å)≪PMDA-PDA (130 Å). In films prepared on substrates, all polyimides were preferentially oriented in the film plane. However, the degree of molecular in-plane orientation strongly depended on the coherence length. Higher coherence length, i.e., higher chain rigidity and ordering, caused higher in-plane orientation of chains. However, the chain rigidity is more critically responsible for molecular in-plane orientation, in comparison to the chain ordering. Higher in-plane orientation of chains led to larger anisotropies of refractive indices and dielectric constants, higher in-plane modulus, lower in-plane thermal expansion coefficient, and lower residual stress. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative mobility spectrum analysis of multicarrier conduction in semiconductors

    Page(s): 709 - 713
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    We demonstrate an optimized quantitative mobility spectrum analysis (QMSA) technique for determining free electron and hole densities and mobilities from magnetic-field-dependent Hall and resistivity data. The procedure is applied to an In1-xGaxAs–In1-xAlxAs single quantum well, GaAs–AlAs asymmetric double quantum wells, and Hg1-xCdxTe epitaxial thin films containing multiple carrier species. The results illustrate the reliability, versatility, and sensitivity of the analysis, which is fully computer automated following input of the magnetic-field-dependent data. QMSA is found to be a suitable standard tool for the routine electrical characterization of semiconductor material and device transport properties. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • On the theory of measurement of anisotropic electrical resistivity by flux transformer method

    Page(s): 714 - 718
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    A method is developed for computing resistivity tensor from measured current and voltage in the flux transformer method. It is based on the solution of two dimensional Laplace’s equation. A new feature here is the separation of a slowly converging series that generally describes the nonuniform potential distribution inside a rectangular block into rapidly and slowly converging parts. The slowly converging sub series can be calculated exactly, while the rapidly converging one lends itself easily to numerical evaluation. The effects of the finite sizes of current and voltage contacts are also taken into account. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical calculation of electron mobility in HgCdTe

    Page(s): 719 - 725
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    The low field electron mobility in n-type HgCdTe is calculated by using the relaxation time approximation method. Scattering mechanisms considered in the analysis are ionized impurity, electron–hole, alloy, and polar optical-phonon (two types) scatterings. The calculation also retains band-structure effects such as nonparabolic conduction band, electron wave function admixture, and velocity degradation as the electron energy increases. Furthermore, degeneracy is incorporated without approximation. For polar optical-phonon momentum relaxation time, we employ a model that can be applicable at low temperature, when the thermal energy is lower than the optical-phonon energy. The calculation results for drift mobility are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results. The effects of donor level, compensation, and ionicity of impurity on Hall mobility are also presented. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory