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Military Electronics, IRE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 1961

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Military Electronics

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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 185
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  • W. L. Doxey [Biography]

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  • Message from the National Chairman

    Page(s): 187
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  • J. Earl Thomas, Jr. [Biography]

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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 189 - 190
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  • Birth, Life, and Death in Microelectronic Systems

    Page(s): 191 - 201
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    In order to exploit the technological promises of microelectronics, electronic system techniques must be developed so that defective portions of a system can be tolerated without system malfunction. Such defects might be introduced during manufacture (at birth), or cause errors during operation (life). The number of permanent failures which could be endured by a system before it fails completely will determine its lifetime (death). In this paper, an adaptive vote-taker is proposed which compares the outputs of paralleled (redundant) system parts in a binary system and determines the most probable answer based on past performance of the separate parts. Initially, the vote-taker assigns equal significance to each redundant part, and (in a binary system) requires that a simple majority of the parts be correct. With experience, the vote-taker continually reduces the weight (significance) of the outputs from those parts that make mistakes, thereby gradually eliminating the defective parts. Thus the vote-takers (which also may be paralleled if they are unreliable) act as automatic repairmen which delete defective parts of a system. System dependability and life expectancy can be made to exceed the dependability and average life expectancy of the component parts. The heart of an adaptive vote-taker is an element providing variable gain with memory. A variable resistor with memory (memistor), which uses electrochemical deposition or removal of copper to achieve the variable memory, has been successfully applied to this function. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Passive Redundancy in Electronic Systems

    Page(s): 202 - 208
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    Circuit design predicated solely upon the premise of providing circuits with greater and greater immunity against component tolerances at some point results in an increase in catastrophic failure rates. Thus, circuits which are overdesigned to provide maximum protection against drift failures may actually contribute to a lower system reliability than do those circuits which are designed to operate with tighter component tolerances. These considerations lead to the conclusion that as systems grow in complexity or as reliability requirements are significantly increased for current equipment, a point is reached where further improvement in design procedures will not necessarily lead to further increases in system reliability. A way out of this dilemma appears to be the introduction of some form of redundancy on the component or circuit level in order to overcome the effects of the inevitable occurrence of catastrophic component failures. This paper discusses the application of redundancy techniques, of a nonadaptive and passive nature, to electronic circuits and systems. View full abstract»

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  • Power Dissipation in Microelectronic Transmission Circuits

    Page(s): 209 - 216
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    The interrelationship of power dissipation, gain, stability, terminal impedance values, dynamic range and efficiency is investigated for small-signal amplifiers in the middle range of frequencies. Utilizing a novel circuit-design theory which treats a transistor along with its biasing resistors as a single entity, amplifier designs are derived which combine optimum ac performance and minimum dc power dissipation. The product of ac power gain and dc-to-ac efficiency is found to be a useful figure of merit for microelectronic transmission circuits. View full abstract»

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  • A Thermal Design Approach for Solid-State Encapsulated High-Density Computer Circuits

    Page(s): 216 - 226
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    This paper considers the thermal problems associated with the design of high component-density encapsulated circuits, constructed with small solid-state components. The thermal resistance to the dissipation of component-generated heat is shown to consist of that of the encapsulating medium, plus that of the external circuit cooling process. Because the external cooling becomes more difficult as the size of an encapsulated circuit is reduced, a method of constructing such circuits is proposed which minimizes the thermal resistance due to the encapsulating medium. This construction makes a large fraction of the allowable component temperature rise available for use in the external heat dissipation process by providing high thermal conductance paths for the transfer of heat from the surfaces of the components to one surface of the circuit structure. Analytical models are developed for the most important heat transfer processes in the proposed circuit structure. The equations based on these models are arranged in a form suitable for design use, and example designs are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Microcircuitry Into Microassemblies

    Page(s): 227 - 233
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    The necessity to hybridize newer microcircuitry techniques with existing design capabilities to achieve efficient equipment designs is established. An analysis is presented of the net size and weight advantages calculated for several components of a typical weapons system, as first the micromodule and then, progressively, thin-film and solid-circuit techniques are integrated into the system design. The diminishing returns on the introduction of microcircuitry into many areas of the system emphasize the need for high efficiency in the integration of newer techniques. The potential capabilities of an advanced type micromodule, which still retains the standardized microelement dimensions and assembly procedures, are explored. A further advanced modular interconnection of microcircuitry wafers into a projected microassembly is then described. 0.002 × 0.010-inch copper ribbon conductors are welded to the metallized edge terminations of stacked substrate wafers by an electron beam technique. Interconnection requirement is 1600 terminations per square inch. Sample illustrated showed 2000 terminations per square inch, or 80,000 terminations per cubic inch. Termination capability is increased three times, and effective useful module volume is doubled compared to existing micromodule. Details of materials and processes for the microconnections are described together with a summary of the statistical reliability evaluation. The latter confirms the high reliability objective for this connection. View full abstract»

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  • A Family of Semiconductor Devices for Microelectronic Applications

    Page(s): 233 - 239
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    A variety of approaches to microminiaturization is now being widely explored by electronic systems designers. Among the approaches taken, continued reliance is being placed upon discrete active components that can be used in module, welded, thin-film, or hybrid types of microcircuits. By the use of discrete elements, maximum circuit flexibility is retained, tight component tolerances are possible, and production shrinkage of complete circuit functions is minimized, as compared with the solid-state circuit approach. Moreover, ``throw-away'' maintenance costs are low. A series of microminiature silicon diodes and transistors has been developed and produced for use in applications where stringent size and weight limitations, and high reliability requirements, exist. Through the use of extremely simple mechanical constructions, surface passivation techniques and impervious glass-like coatings, low cost can be achieved in mass production without sacrificing reliability. By use of appropriate fabrication processes, alloyed or diffused diodes and transistors can be formed in mesa or planar configurations, and an extension to epitaxial structures can be employed. Electrical characteristics are comparable to, or better than those of existing conventional types of diodes and transistors. At 25°C, failure rates below 0.01 per cent per thousand hours have been substantiated. This paper begins with an outline of the theory underlying surface protection techniques used, describes the construction and characteristics of several devices in the family, and presents test information proving a high degree of reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Inductive Semiconductor Elements and Their Application in Bandpass Amplifiers

    Page(s): 239 - 250
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    Filter circuits using wire-wound inductors are hard to microminiaturize because coils are rather bulky. This paper discusses different inductive semiconductor devices which may replace coils where space is a problem. Forward-biased diodes, properly designed, behave like very lossy inductances. Combining them with negative-resistance devices increases the Q but creates serious temperature and stability problems. Relatively temperature-stable inductance elements are possible by combination of a phase shift network with a transistor. The principle, well-known in tube circuitry, gives high inductances with only a moderate Q because of the low input impedance of the transistor. Promising results have been demonstrated with a transistor operating in the a cutoff region. The device is dc stable, and has a moderate temperature sensitivity which might be partly compensated if necessary. Avalanche multiplication is used to reduce the damping resistance of the inductive transistor. Simple band-pass amplifier circuits are presented in the last section to demonstrate how to use the inductive transistor in practice. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Microminiaturized Core Memories by Plastic Encapsulation Techniques

    Page(s): 250 - 256
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    Plastic encapsulation of nonlinear ferrites, and the effect of this encapsulation on the magnetic characteristics of the ferrites, is discussed in this paper. This technique provides greater immunity to shock and vibration damage than conventional core frames and provides bit densities in excess of one million per cubic foot. Chemical deposition and photographic techniques may be used to form a portion of the wiring matrix. Through-hole plating of ferrites having a 15-mil diameter hole is possible. Small-evaluation memories have been fabricated, using both toroids and transfluxors. Temperature tests on these memories show that encapsulation causes a slight increase in switching speed and a small decrease on output for a given drive current. These changes remain almost constant over the temperature range. No significant changes have been noted in the noise output. Techniques outlined are presently being used in the fabrication of microminiaturized, nondestructive memories for missile and satellite application. View full abstract»

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  • MIST Module Electronics

    Page(s): 256 - 259
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    The MIST module is a proposed building block for electronic telemetry systems for use with weather balloons, providing a minimum hazard to fast-flying aircraft. This electronic telemetry system may be spread in two dimensions while having a minimum build-up or structure in the third dimension. Minimum STructure modules (MIST modules) are a proposed answer to such a requirement. MIST modules have been built on an experimental basis and the brief experimental experience with working modules indicates that they will meet the requirements and provide electronic systems which can be safely floated in the air lanes. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 260 - 262
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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The new retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.

Full Aims & Scope