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Review of Scientific Instruments

Issue 8 • Date Aug 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 54
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an “intensity-dip” method

    Page(s): 3203 - 3213
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    Injection seeding by a single-mode continuous-wave (cw) laser provides a convenient way to achieve narrowband tunable operation of a laser with a broad spectral gain profile, or of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Continuous single-mode tunability of the laser or OPO output usually requires the length of the optical cavity to be controlled as the injection-seeding wavelength is scanned. We report a novel variant on established methods of locking the optical cavity length to the seed wavelength. Our approach takes advantage of the resonance properties of an optical cavity. When the cavity is in resonance with the cw seed radiation, the total intensity of that radiation reflected off the cavity displays a pronounced dip; this intensity dip can be used as a locking signal to reset the cavity length piezoelectrically during each interval between the pump pulses that excite the laser or OPO. Our active cavity-locking scheme is realized in the case of a ring-cavity OPO, incorporating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), pumped at 1.064 μm by a single-mode pulsed Nd:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser and injection-seeded at its signal wavelength by a 1.55 μm single-mode tunable diode laser. The coherent infrared output of this injection-seeded PPLN OPO is shown to be continuously tunable, with an optical bandwidth of ∼130 MHz (0.0045 cm-1) and excellent spatial beam quality. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.   View full abstract»

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  • Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator

    Page(s): 3214 - 3221
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    We use a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and a multi-tau software correlator to measure dynamic light scattering (DLS) at many angles simultaneously, from 0.07° to 5.1°. Real-time autocorrelation functions are calculated by averaging both over time and over CCD pixels, each corresponding to a different coherence area. In order to cover the wide spectrum of decay times associated with the large range of accessible angles, we adopt the multitau scheme, where the correlator channel spacing is quasilogarithmic rather than linear. A detailed analysis is presented of the effects of dark noise, stray light, and finite pixel area, and methods to correct the data for these effects are developed, making a CCD camera a viable alternative for a DLS detector. We test the apparatus on a dilute suspension of colloidal particles. Very good agreement is found between the particle radius derived from the CCD data, and that obtained with a conventional DLS setup. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Transient temperature measurements in an ideal gas by laser-induced Rayleigh light scattering

    Page(s): 3222 - 3226
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    A laser-induced Rayleigh light-scattering (RLS) system was assembled and used to noninvasively measure the transient molecular number density in an ideal gas. This information was used to find the transient gas temperature when operating at known pressure. The laser was a 4 W argon ion operating on all lines at a total power of about 2.5 W. The theoretically predicted photon arrival rate at the photomultiplier tube detector was calculated and compared well with the observed photon rates. These rates were high enough that sampling could be averaged over a 1 s period with theoretical uncertainty due to electronic shot noise below 0.1%, and below 2% for a 0.001 s averaging time. A propagated error analysis showed uncertainty in the transient temperature due to all sources was 2–4 K. The RLS system was used to record transient air temperature at several locations above a flat plate during heating from room temperature to 475 K. Results showed buoyancy-induced fluctuations of about 3 Hz, and instabilities in temperature in addition to the overall temperature rise due to plate heating. Excellent transient temperature records were obtained, substantiating the predicted 2–4 K uncertainty. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of graded multilayers as focusing elements for x-ray optics

    Page(s): 3227 - 3232
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    We have developed a design method to produce laterally graded multilayer x-ray mirrors based on sputter deposition techniques. The optimization of all relevant parameters yields an ab initio estimation of any layer gradient suitable to achieve precise x-ray focusing devices. The performance and the accuracy of this method are demonstrated. A graded W/B4C multilayer was deposited on a flat substrate that was bent to a parabola. The obtained nonlinear lateral gradient differed from the theoretical calculations by less than 1%. Focusing experiments performed at an x-ray energy of 8 keV on the ESRF optics beamline revealed an excellent performance with a focal spot size of about 7 μm. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Study of the capability of energy dispersive small angle x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation

    Page(s): 3233 - 3238
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    Energy dispersive small angle x-ray scattering is a unique method that takes advantage of a continuous spectrum of a synchrotron radiation source. In this study, the capability of this scattering measurement is explored. Using a detector mask with three acceptance rings of different ring radius and a sample to detector distance of 440 mm with the usable x-ray energy ranging from 4 to 20 keV, we can cover a q range from 0.01 to 0.4 Å-1. However, sample transmission and detector response function limit the application range at low energy. Slit scattering is the dominant source of background. The signal to background ratio for a standard cross-linked polyethylene sample can be more than 100. For a time-resolved experiment, data acquisition rate is limited by the throughput of the detector. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Six-circle diffractometer for surface diffraction using an in-vacuum x-ray detector

    Page(s): 3239 - 3243
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    We report on the design of a diffractometer, which offers improved capabilities for x-ray experiments in ultrahigh vacuum. Its main features are (i) the possibility to follow the evolution of diffraction spots in situ during adsorption or film deposition; (ii) the measurement of reflections at high exit angles, i.e., large perpendicular momentum transfer. This goal is achieved by placing a movable x-ray detector inside the vacuum chamber. (iii) Other surface analysis equipment, e.g., a low-energy electron diffraction or an electron energy analyzer can be moved in front of the sample and operated simultaneously with x-ray diffraction. (iv) A load lock system—currently in preparation—will allow the quick exchange of samples without breaking system vacuum. In addition, a new design of the chi circle used for sample alignment provides a compact, space-saving design of the diffractometer. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Multiply charged cluster ion crossed-beam apparatus: Multi-ionization of clusters by ion impact

    Page(s): 3244 - 3253
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    An experimental setup is described, which is used to multi-ionize neutral clusters and to study their stability and the importance of different decay processes. Clusters are ionized in collisions with slow multiply charged ions (projectile charge z ranging from 1 to 30, kinetic energies ranging from 1 to 20 keV/charge). Both ion and cluster beamlines, as well as the characteristics of the analysis and detection systems, are described. Collisions with highly charged ions such as Ar8+ or Xe30+ turn out to be efficient tools in preparing clusters in high charge states without increasing significantly their internal temperature. Measurements performed in coincidence with the number of electrons stabilized by the projectile ion after the collision allowed us to control the charge and the excitation energy of the ionized system. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated for sodium clusters and C60 molecules. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • The generation of a tunable laser emission in the vacuum ultraviolet and its application to supersonic jet/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry

    Page(s): 3254 - 3258
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    An optical parametric oscillator and a Ti:sapphire laser are used as a pump source for the generation of high-order vibrational stimulated Raman emission in the vacuum ultraviolet region. This tunable laser is employed as an excitation/ionization source in a supersonic jet/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometric study of benzene. The merits and potential advantages of this approach are discussed in this study. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Repetitively sampled time-of-flight mass spectrometry for gas-phase kinetics studies

    Page(s): 3259 - 3264
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    An apparatus has been constructed to study radical–radical reactions in the gas phase. It consists of a tubular quartz reactor in which radicals are produced by flash photolysis using an excimer laser as light source. The composition of the gas mixture is analyzed in situ by photoionizing sampled gases using the vacuum ultraviolet emission of a hollow cathode lamp and subsequent time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A simple arrangement of grids at the entrance to the flight tube is used to interrupt the constant flux of ions by application of a combination of constant and pulsed voltages. Individual mass spectra can be taken at a repetition rate of around 20 kHz following each photolysis event. Signal counts from a specified number of consecutive mass spectra are fed into a 2 GHz multiscaler and accumulated as a sampling-time-indexed series of mass spectra. This allows simultaneous observation of the concentrations of multiple transient or stable species on a millisecond time scale. To achieve a suitable signal-to-noise ratio, signals were typically accumulated over several tens of thousands of laser shots at a pulse rate of 10–15 Hz. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.   View full abstract»

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  • A crossed molecular beam apparatus using high-resolution ion imaging

    Page(s): 3265 - 3270
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    A new crossed molecular beam apparatus with a high-resolution ion imaging detector is described. Two pulsed supersonic molecular beams are crossed at right angles in a vacuum of 10-7 Torr. The collision region is irradiated with a tunable laser pulse that ionizes the scattered particles state selectively. The generated ions are accelerated by stacked electrodes in a two-dimensional (2D) space focusing mode that increases the velocity resolution of the apparatus. A cylindrical hexapole deflector is placed in the middle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer to compensate the center-of-mass velocity of the ions and to direct them to the center of the 2D imaging detector. Real-time image processing of the charge coupled device camera signal eliminates blurring of the image detector. The performance of the apparatus was examined by observing the inelastic scattering of NO+Ar at a collision energy of 66 meV. The observed multiple rainbow peaks clearly demonstrate the high performance of the apparatus. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Optical high voltage measurement using Pockels microsingle crystal

    Page(s): 3271 - 3276
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    A new optical high voltage sensor using a Pockels microsingle crystal in a longitudinal modulation arrangement is presented. A prototype of the sensor is assembled and shows an advantage of directly measuring voltage levels up to 50 kV without any potential divider in a wide frequency bandwidth of direct current to 116 MHz. In conventional Pockels sensors, acoustic resonance driven by piezoelectric effect introduces oscillatory components to signals obtained from measurements of lightning impulse voltages. In the new sensor, the measured signal is free from the oscillatory components. An accuracy of 1.9% in good agreement with predicted values is obtained from the lightning impulse voltage measurement. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of high charge electron beams induced by excimer laser irradiation

    Page(s): 3277 - 3281
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    This work reports on electron beam characteristics obtained from a Cu photocathode utilizing an UV excimer laser of 222 nm for the first time. The values of the current, emittance, and brightness of the electron beams generated are reported. A suitable slit–slit emittance meter was developed to assess the electron beam emittance. This instrument allowed us to determine the electron beam phase-space areas by slicing the beam in small beamlets and measuring the beamlet direction distributions. Small Faraday cups placed after the slits were utilized to this reason. The laser beam was focused in a 4 mm2 spot and the maximum energy laser was established to 0.5 mJ. The highest current was 410 mA and the corresponding normalized emittance value was 10 π mm mrad corresponding to 80% of the total points. From these data the beam quality, expressed as normalized beam brightness, resulted in 4.1×109A[π m rad]-2 and the quantum efficiency was 4.6×10-5. By increasing the KrCl laser spot and its energy a very charge electron beam was extracted of 16.4 A. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: Measurements and modeling

    Page(s): 3282 - 3288
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    The measurements of the electron cloud footprints produced by a stack of microchannel plates (MCPs) as a function of gain, MCP-to-readout distance and accelerating electric field are presented. To investigate the charge footprint variation, we introduce a ballistic model of the charge cloud propagation based on the energy and angular distribution at the MCP output. We also simulate the Coulomb repulsion in the electron cloud, which is likely to cause the experimentally observed increase in the cloud size with increasing MCP gain. Calculation results for both models are compared to the charge footprint sizes measured both in our experiments with high rear-field values (∼200–900 V/mm) and in the experiments of Edgar etal [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673 (1989)] (accelerating electric field ∼30–130 V/mm). © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Fast beam photofragment apparatus for studies of electronic and nuclear dynamics

    Page(s): 3289 - 3298
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    A new fast beam photofragment apparatus for studies of electronic and nuclear dynamics is described. The experimental setup involves a chopped ion beam crossed at 90° by a pulsed laser beam. Photofragments are extracted parallel to the ion beam direction and imaged on a multisphere plate (MSP) detector. The time of flight of a photofragment from the interaction point to the MSP detector is determined by a coincidence technique. The setup allows determination of the photofragment energy and the direction of emission for each event of photofragmentation. In photoelectron spectrometry the energy resolution is tunable down to the meV region. For testing, the apparatus has been applied to photodetachment of Li-(1S) at 1064 nm. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A compact electron energy analyzer for measuring field emission energy distributions

    Page(s): 3299 - 3302
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    A simple instrument to determine field emission tip work functions and shape functions from simultaneous current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and field emission energy distributions of field emitter tips and tip arrays is described. This instrument uses a cylindrical energy analyzer with a few correcting elements to simulate a hemispherical analyzer and provides a low cost and more compact alternative to a commercial hemispherical spectrometer. I–V curves and energy distributions may be automatically obtained as a function of time to study field emission tip degradation with usage and/or exposure to gases of interest. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Focusing characteristics of intense beam solenoid lens

    Page(s): 3303 - 3307
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    In this article, by solving the nonlinear envelope equation of the intense beam in the cylindrical coordinate system, we have obtained the varying relations of the beam radius and the beam divergent angle with the paramedics (the magnetic induction strength in solenoid lens, the characteristic quantity of beam intensity, the beam emittance, the initial beam radius, and initial beam divergent angle). By theoretical analysis for the relations, we have obtained the beam peak radius and beam peak position in solenoid lens, the beam waist radius and beam waist position in the case of perfect focusing. In the ideal focusing condition, the radius of intense beam solenoid lens should not be less than the beam peak radius; the length of the solenoid lens must not be less than the beam peak position; and in order to gain optimum focusing, an optimal length should be selected; the magnetic induction strength must not be less than the threshold for getting a focusing beam through solenoid lens, and its optimum value should be selected so as to obtain the minimum value of beam divergent angle at the exit port for getting an perfect focusing output beam. The conclusions in this article have some guiding significance for the design and operation of the intense beam solenoid magnetic lens.© 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Using the induced axial magnetic field to measure the root mean square beam size and beam density uniformity of an electron beam in an induction linac

    Page(s): 3308 - 3313
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    An intense electron beam in a solenoidal axial magnetic field rotates azimuthally, and generates a diamagnetic axial field that counteracts the applied field. However, the magnetic flux within the beam pipe is conserved over sufficiently short times, and this induced diamagnetic field must lead to an increase in the axial field outside the beam, which is measurable with a loop or an optical Faraday rotator. If the applied axial magnetic field is uniform across the beam pipe, the measurement directly leads to the rms transverse beam size. However, if the axial magnetic field has sinusoidal components, measurement of the diamagnetic field at two axial positions yields both the beam’s rms transverse size and the beam’s fourth radial moment. Comparison of these moments can give a figure of merit of the beam’s density uniformity. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Toroidal crystal spectrometer for time-resolved x-ray absorption diagnostic in dense plasmas

    Page(s): 3314 - 3318
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    A toroidal crystal spectrometer was designed with the purpose of measuring the aluminum K-absorption edge shift, in the wavelength range around 7.9 Å, in strongly compressed matter. The expected shift is about 100 mÅ (∼20 eV). The x rays reflected from the crystal are focused onto a streak camera slit of 16 mm high and 100 μm width, to obtain a time-resolved spectrum. High resolution and dispersion of about 1–16 Å/mm on the detection window are obtained. A crystal with a toroidal surface is used to enhance the focusing power in the spatial dimension as in the spectral one. Numerical simulations are performed by means of one- and two-dimensional codes for the determination of the crystal characteristics like the dimension and the curvature radius with respect to the geometric constraints. Some experimental results are presented concerning the obtained spectra. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • The characteristics of the newly designed microchannel plate detector in a strong magnetic field

    Page(s): 3319 - 3323
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    A gold neutral beam probe system which uses a microchannel plate (MCP) as a beam detector is being constructed in order to measure the electrostatic potential at the inner mirror throat (IMT) of the plug/barrier cell in the tandem mirror. The MCP detector was newly designed so as to be able to be used in the IMT strong magnetic field. The characteristics of the MCP gain were measured on a test stand with the strong magnetic field. The characteristic curves of the relative MCP gain were described as functions of the magnetic field strength, the MCP bias voltage, and the angle between the magnetic field and the capillary axis of the MCP. It was found that the newly designed MCP detector was useful for the potential measurement at the IMT region. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Ion beam mass spectrometer for compositional analysis of plasma assisted surface processes in the pressure range of 1–50 mbar

    Page(s): 3324 - 3328
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    Ion beam mass spectrometry (IBMS) has been developed for in situ, real-time monitoring of the ion composition of a plasma in the vicinity of the substrate surface up to a pressure of 50 mbar. Our system was designed for the specific case of diamond deposition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber, however, it can be adapted to other applications as well, without significant change in the process chamber. Ion beam mass spectrometer is a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) based plasma sampling system installed into a separately pumped small analysis chamber. The interface between the two chambers is the top part of the IBMS, specially designed to serve as the sample holder of the reactor chamber (sample heating and biasing is possible). A technique containing wet etching and laser treatment has been developed to form a sufficiently small orifice in various substrates. This orifice samples the particles arriving onto the surface from the plasma but is small enough to maintain the flow effusive into, and an appropriate pressure in the analysis chamber. Directly behind the orifice specially designed ion-optics direct the ions coming from the process chamber into the QMS for mass and energy separation. Since the total flow from the reactor chamber is low, the mean free path in the analysis chamber is sufficiently longer than the distance from the orifice to the QMS, therefore, ions do not collide, thus they do not react after sampling. As a consequence, nonstable species are also detected. The carefully designed ion-optics ensure that a high ion current reaches the QMS. In this article, it is shown that the intensity ratios in the spectra correspond to the concentration ratios of the ions arriving to the substrate surface. The QMS is also equipped with a conventional cross electron beam ion source allowing measurements of neutral species by conventional ionization. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum arc plasma transport through a magnetic duct with a biased electrode at the outer wall

    Page(s): 3329 - 3331
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    Metal plasma formed by a vacuum arc plasma source can be passed through a toroidal-section magnetic duct for the filtering of macroparticles from the plasma stream. In order to maximize the plasma transport efficiency of the filter the duct wall should be biased, typically to a positive voltage of about 10–20 V. In some cases it is not convenient to bias the duct, for example if the duct wall is part of the grounded vacuum system. However, a positively biased electrode inserted into the duct along its outer major circumference can serve a similar purpose. In this article, we describe our results confirming and quantifying this effect. We also show the parametric dependence of the duct transport on the experimental variables. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Production of microwave plasma in narrow cross sectional tubes: Effect of the shape of cross section

    Page(s): 3332 - 3337
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    A microwave plasma is produced in a conducting tube with a cross section smaller than the cutoff value. Waves of 2.45 GHz are launched perpendicularly to the multicusp magnetic field formed by permanent magnets surrounding the tube. Circular and square cross sectional tubes are tested. Overdense plasmas with a density of (0.8–2.0)×1011 cm-3 are obtained in the range of 10-4 Torr for powers of 200–360 W. The electron temperature is 6–12 eV. Under the same experimental conditions, the plasma density and the electron temperature are higher for the circular cross section. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • A flexible high-current lead for use in high-magnetic-field cryogenic environments

    Page(s): 3338 - 3340
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    A flexible high-current lead for use at cryogenic temperatures and in high-magnetic fields has been developed using high purity aluminum. Readily available high purity aluminum has distinct advantages over copper, namely lower resistivity at liquid-helium temperature, lower magnetoresistance, lower yield stress, lower density, lower cost for material with comparable conductivity, and room temperature annealing. Aluminum may also be used in high magnetic fields, where flexible superconductors cease to function. Practical issues encountered in the design and fabrication of such flexible leads are discussed, such as geometrical considerations where sample loading and heating are important issues. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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  • Stroboscopic x-ray topography in crystals under 10-μm-surface acoustic wave excitation

    Page(s): 3341 - 3345
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    High-frequency stroboscopic x-ray topography is developed with the goal to visualize surface acoustic wave propagation. For this purpose the resonant frequencies of LiNbO3-based surface acoustic wave devices (290 and 355 MHz) are synchronized with the frequency of x-ray flashes (5.68 MHz) delivered by the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble). X-ray topographs, taken in such a manner, revealed periodic contrast caused by a “frozen” acoustic deformation field. This technique allows for visualization of individual wavefronts of traveling acoustic waves having a wavelength in a 10 μm range. X-ray stroboscopic topographs showed a weak wavefront distortion due to the scattering of acoustic waves on linear dislocations. Secondary spherical waves were observed as a result of the strong acoustic wave interaction with submicron size density perturbations. © 1999 American Institute of Physics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Review of Scientific Instruments, published by the American Institute of Physics, is devoted to scientific instruments, apparatus, and techniques.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor
Albert T. Macrander
Argonne National Laboratory