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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

Issue 3 • Date May 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 94
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Theory of nanotip formation

    Page(s): 757 - 761
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    We derive an analytic expression for the shape of nanometer-scale protrusions or nanotips which can form near the apex of a micrometer-scale Spindt-type base tip. We reconsider the model system that produces Taylor cones (that is, surface tension and Maxwell stress at a conductive meniscus), but here we admit only finite-diameter protrusions from a smooth surface. We find that the height of the resulting structures depends on absolute anode voltage as well as on the local electric field. We use the theory to predict the mechanical response of the field-emitting region of a Spindt microtip and to explain the empirical power-law relation between breakdown voltage and gap spacing in planar broad-area high-voltage gaps. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional site control of self-organized InAs quantum dots by in situ scanning tunneling probe-assisted nanolithography and molecular beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 762 - 765
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    Self-organization sites of InAs quantum dots (QDs) are arranged to form three-dimensional (3D) lattices by ultrahigh vacuum in situ processing. In-plane QD arrangement in the 3D lattices is initially defined by site-controlled InAs QD arrays fabricated by a scanning tunneling microscope probe-assisted technique. With the QD arrays used as strain templates, self-organized InAs QDs are vertically aligned by multistacking, resulting in the 3D QD lattices. The photoluminescence from the 3D QD structures is investigated at room temperature. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Morphological evolution and surface and interface structure of aluminum on polyimide

    Page(s): 766 - 775
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    Al growth and nucleation on polyimide and the resultant surface morphologies and interfacial structures have been investigated by atomic force microscopy, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Al growth on polyimide proceeds in a two-dimensional-like mode. Initial Al deposition results in the formation of nanoparticles, exhibiting the interface structures arising from the Al interacting with the carbonyl groups of the polyimide. Subsequent Al growth produces a landscape of crystallized islands, and these islands have submicrometer dimensions with different orientations. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of polishing pretreatment on the fabrication of ordered nanopore arrays on aluminum foils by anodization

    Page(s): 776 - 782
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    It is reported that a pretreatment step is required for the fabrication of ordered nanopore arrays on Al by anodization. In this study, one step anodization was carried out on the Al foils with different surface features that resulted from different polishing conditions. The effect of surface morphologies on their anodization characteristics was determined. When the nonelectropolished Al substrate was anodized, only limited-sized ordered domains could be obtained. Nearly perfect hexagonal close packed ordered pore arrays with domain size of about 2–4 μm could be obtained on the electropolished Al substrate even with different surface features due to different electropolishing conditions. In addition, the differences of current density for the electropolished and nonelectropolished substrates were affected by the distinct characteristics of the oxide. The increase of the oxidation current in the later stage of anodization was caused mainly by the breakdown of the oxide on the nonelectropolished substrates on which highly ordered pore arrays cannot be obtained. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning capacitance microscopy measurements using diamond-coated probes

    Page(s): 783 - 786
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    Diamond-coated cantilevers have been used for scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) as an alternative for metal-coated cantilevers in order to improve the stability of probes. It is shown that the diamond-coated probes produce adequate intensity of dC signal and high contrast for both p-type and n-type silicon samples and also provide superior endurance characteristics to metal-coated probes. Due to the robustness of the diamond-coated probes, we are able to evaluate the reproducibility of measurements and the homogeneity of the ultrathin oxide for both dry oxidation (heated up to 300 °C in air under ultraviolet illumination) and wet oxidation (immersed into a hydrogen peroxide solution at 70 °C). The dry oxidation shows better reproducibility, while the wet oxidation shows better homogeneity. Finally, comparison of SCM with secondary ion mass spectrometry measurement shows that diamond-coated probes can be used at least for one-dimensional quantitative SCM measurements without any significant effect of depletion in the diamond-coated tip itself. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Field electron emission device using silicon nanoprotrusions

    Page(s): 787 - 790
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    Nanometer-scale silicon field emitters with the high packing density have been fabricated successfully by using a self-organized selective oxidation technique. The diameter at the bottom of each nanoemitter was 20–30 nm, and its height was 3–5 nm. The density was approximately 3–5×1011 tips/cm2. Emission characteristics were measured in a diode structure without gate electrodes for simplicity. As a result, it was found that the field emission current was detected at much lower anode voltages than conventional cone-shaped Si emitters. The apex shape was dependent on the oxidation conditions, and the emission current was dependent on the microscopic tip shape. It is expected that the field is significantly enhanced by the nanoprotrusions. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon

    Page(s): 791 - 796
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    Dry etching of silicon is an important process in the manufacturing of integrated circuits and micromachined devices. Traditionally, the etch rate limiting step for an isotropic silicon etching process is considered to be the arrival of fluorine atoms directly from the gas phase onto the silicon surface, and the mechanism to promote anisotropy is the prevention of lateral etching by the formation of an inhibiting layer on the vertical walls. Furthermore, isotropic dry etching is considered to etch features in the same way as isotropic wet etching. Conventional mechanisms cannot explain, however, the perfect anisotropic etching of silicon with pure SF6, when no polymer is formed. Neither can it be understood how a deep (≫50 μm), isotropic, dry etching process applied to silicon can result in structures with a pinched neck and sharp ridges, in contrast with a wet etching process, where the corners are rounded and no pinching of the neck is observed. It is proposed that long-range diffusion of fluorine atoms can precede the eventual binding to a silicon atom. The rate of binding increases if the silicon is bombarded with high energy ions. Tests were performed to corroborate this model which is also consistent with the findings of others. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced transfer system for spin coating film transfer and hot-pressing in planarization technology

    Page(s): 797 - 801
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    A film transfer system suitable for the spin coating film transfer and hot-pressing (STP) method was developed. The STP method consists of three steps: spin coating a base film with a dielectric, transferring it from the base film to a wafer by hot pressing in a vacuum, and peeling off the base film from the dielectric. STP is simple and cost effective for film deposition and planarization, since both processes can be performed simultaneously. Among the above steps, the transfer step is the most crucial in achieving stable and reproducible transfer of a dielectric. To improve this step, we devised an arrangement of the base film and wafer, and introduced a tension ring for stretching the base film and a press force equalizer. Each technique was individually evaluated and proved to be effective. A low-k material (k=2.9) was applied to the system and the overall effect of the three techniques working together was also investigated. The experimental results show that the system achieves better film transfer with the thickness variation of 1.8% on the wafer and that STP is a very promising key technology for planarization. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon nanotube films grown by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Page(s): 802 - 811
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    Films of pure high-quality multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown by laser-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition in a cold wall reactor. A CO2 laser is used to locally heat a substrate on which nanotubes are grown, employing the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles. Two kinds of experiments are reported: In a two-step mode, catalytic iron particles and solid carbon are deposited separately, leading to the formation of homogeneous films of nonaligned pure multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs). The role of gas phase heating was investigated by the addition of a sensitizing molecule that absorbs the laser radiation. It is found that large-volume gas phase heating is not needed for the synthesis of high-quality nanotube films. Focused laser radiation allows growth of locally defined nanotube films. In a second set of experiments, iron and carbon are deposited simultaneously. Films of vertically aligned MWNTs of extremely high packing density were produced in this mode under very lean hydrocarbon supply conditions. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum transport through one-dimensional aluminum wires

    Page(s): 812 - 817
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    Quantum conductance in narrow channels has been well understood by using the two-dimensional electron gas, a model system which has been realized in semiconductor heterojunctions. An essential property of this electron gas is its ability to support a constriction of width comparable to the Fermi wavelength, a property not shared by even thin metal films. The advent of scanning tunneling microscope has made possible the fabrication of metallic wires of atomic widths. We investigate one-dimensional wires consisting of aluminum atoms, to be specific. Using the first-principles density functional calculations, we obtain the optimal structures and report the bonding as deduced from the charge density analysis. With the calculated electronic structure in hand, we discussed the quantum ballistic transport using channel capacity arguments motivated by the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. By comparing our results with the detailed pioneering calculations by Lang, we inferred an average value for channel transmitivity and touched upon material specific contact resistance. Finally, the validity of the Wiedemann–Franz law in the quantum domain is established by studying thermal conductance in nanowires. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Spatially selective single-grain silicon films induced by hydrogen plasma seeding

    Page(s): 818 - 821
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    The enhancement of a hydrogen plasma treatment on the solid-phase crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been applied to form single crystalline silicon islands at designed locations. Holes with diameters from 0.4 to 1.8 μm were opened in silicon nitride, and then amorphous silicon films within the holes were exposed to a hydrogen plasma to create microcrystalline seeds. After furnace annealing, the relationship between the size of holes and number of grains in the holes has been investigated. It is found that a single nucleus cannot be induced until the diameter of holes decreases below 0.6 μm. Further annealing enlarges the grain size by lateral growth but does not increase the number of grains in the hole. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Atomic force microscopy using single-wall C nanotube probes

    Page(s): 822 - 827
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    We examine the factors that govern the stability and resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) using single-wall C nanotubes as imaging probes. Nonvertical alignment of the nanotubes with respect to the sample surface causes such probes to bend in response to the surface–nanotube interaction forces during imaging. For long nanotubes this bending response causes the nanotube tip to jump into contact with the surface and renders it unsuitable for imaging. For short nanotubes, stable noncontact-mode imaging can be achieved using a small cantilever vibration amplitude. In such cases it is possible to achieve lateral resolution that is comparable to the diameter of the nanotube. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of methyl-doped silicon oxide film deposited using Flowfill™ chemical vapor deposition technology

    Page(s): 828 - 833
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    In this article, methyl-doped silicon oxide films deposited using Flowfill™ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have been chracterized for use in inter-layer dielectrics application. Films with different methyl concentrations were deposited and characterized in order to study the effect of methyl concentration on film properties. Material properties including chemical composition and bonding structure, density, dielectric constant (κ), refractive index, thermal stability, resistance to moisture absorption, leakage current, and hardness were investigated. The films have a κ as low as 2.7 and were found to be thermally stable up to 550 °C. They show excellent resistance to moisture absorption. Low-leakage current and breakdown voltage higher than 3 MV/cm were obtained. Their hardness is lower than silicon oxide deposited using plasma-enhanced CVD but is higher than most polymer and nanoporous low-dielectric constant (low-κ) materials. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) characteristics of these films and their stability under plasma treatments were also studied. Film’s CMP removal rate decreases as the methyl concentration in film increases. An atomically smooth surface with root mean square surface roughness ≪1 nm over a 10×10 μm area was obtained after CMP. This film remains stable under nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma but is damaged by oxygen (O2) plasma. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative study on alloy cluster formation in Co-Al and Co-Pt systems

    Page(s): 834 - 842
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    The formation of alloy clusters using a plasma-gas-aggregation technique is described for Co-Al and Co-Pt systems. This method employs two separate elemental sputtering sources and a growth chamber. Metallic vapors generated were cooled rapidly in an Ar atmosphere, and grown into alloy clusters. The composition of the clusters was controlled by adjusting the ratio of the applied sputtering power. We found that B2-CoAl clusters of about 12 nm in diameter were formed for a composition range wider than that predicted by the Co-Al phase diagram, and that high-temperature fcc-CoPt clusters were formed in the Co-Pt system. These findings suggest the nonequilibrium nature of the cluster formation. The size distribution of the clusters is highly monodispersive and does not follow commonly observed log-normal distribution. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of simple gas dynamics. We concluded that monomer absorption with discrete residence time is the dominant mechanism for monodispersive alloy cluster formation, and that the contrasting thermodynamical features between the Co-Al and Co-Pt systems are at the cause of the observed difference in average cluster size. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Selective etching of Al/AlN structures for metallization of surface acoustic wave devices

    Page(s): 843 - 848
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    Metallization is a critical step in the fabrication of high frequency AlN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices. Both state-of-the-art lithography as well as high selectivity and anisotropy during etching of Al with respect to AlN are required for low loss and high performance devices. In this work, the etch rates of reactively sputtered AlN, sputtered Al, thermal SiO2, and Shipley 1813 photoresist as well as the selectivity among Al/AlN, Al/SiO2, and resist/Al have been systematically studied during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Emphasis is focused on obtaining high Al etch rates, while at the same time keeping the etch rate of AlN and that of the resist sufficiently low. High anisotropy is obtained by passivating the sidewalls by the addition of oxygen. The recipe developed is based on a modified Al etch using a mixture of BCl3, Cl2, O2. The parameters varied were gas composition, and substrate bias. Generally it is found that the Al etch rate exhibits a maximum with the O2 flow, while the AlN etch rate decreases monotonically. Substrate bias is found also to be an important parameter with respect to both etch rate and selectivity. At optimized conditions with respect to process selectivity (500 W ICP power, 83 V bias, 50 sccm BCl3, 25 sccm Cl2, 10 sccm O2, pressure 10 mTorr) the Al etch rate is 1000 nm/min with a selectivity of 1000 toward AlN and 9 toward the resist. The same recipe, slightly modified, has also shown similar Al etch rates when etching Al over SiO2 with a selectivity of up to 200. High- - anisotropy of the Al etch rate is observed with increasing O2 flow. The former has been determined from cross-sectional scanning electron microscope observations. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Electron-beam double resist process to enhance bright field pattern resolution

    Page(s): 849 - 854
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    Electron-beam direct write is a promising technique for deep submicron lithography. One of the common methods to define a bright field pattern for the gate electrode masking uses negative resist. However, the resolution of many popular negative resists is low compared to that of positive resists. A technique is demonstrated that takes advantage of positive resist, such as polymethylmethacrylate and converts it to a bright field masking step. The technique involves (1) using a negative resist coating on a positive resist pattern, (2) plasma etching the negative resist down to the top of the positive resist, (3) exposing large area with electrons or deep ultraviolet photons, and (4) developing the result with a ratio of methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropanol. The resulting bright field masking provides high-resolution dense line patterns, which are difficult to achieve using the common negative resists alone. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation and dielectric characterization of reactive dc magnetron cosputtered (Ta2O5)1-x(TiO2)x thin films

    Page(s): 855 - 861
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    New capacitor material with high dielectric constant is needed for future integrated capacitor structures. Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) is considered as one of the most promising candidates. In this article, thin films of (Ta2O5)1-x(TiO2)x were grown utilizing reactive dc magnetron cosputtering of tantalum and titanium in an argon/oxygen atmosphere. By varying the input power at the targets, the composition of the thin film is easily controlled. The composition of the films was analyzed with elastic recoil detection analysis revealing the titanium oxide content (x ranging from 0 to 0.40). The presented results indicate that reactive sputter deposited tantalum pentoxide, with or without the addition of titanium, exhibits the properties required to meet the demands for future dielectric materials in integrated capacitors. The dielectric constant for metal-insulator-semiconductor structures is about 20 and the leakage current density is below 10 nA/cm2 at 0.5 MV/cm, if the annealing temperature does not exceed 600 °C. Annealing at 800 °C leads to ∼50% increase in dielectric constant with a cost of a severe increase in leakage current. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon nanowires with sub 10 nm lateral dimensions: From atomic force microscope lithography based fabrication to electrical measurements

    Page(s): 862 - 870
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    The ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to realize lithography patterns on silicon surfaces is widely known and leads to the formation of silicon nanostructures after an etching step. In this article, we aim at improving the fabrication process to yield silicon nanowires with minimum lateral dimensions for the realization of Coulomb blockade based devices. First, we focus on the AFM lithography step: using pulsed voltages for the anodic oxidation of the silicon surface instead of the commonly employed continuous polarization, we obtain an improvement of both AFM lithography resolution and tip reliability. Second, after the wet etching step, we present a technique of oxidation/deoxidation cycles, which allows a controlled thinning of the silicon wires. Combining these two techniques, we obtain silicon nanowires the widths of which are lower than 10 nm. Finally, as the wires are made on a silicon on insulator substrate, it opens the way to electrical characterization and we present some realizations and results. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Thin-film resistor fabrication for InP technology applications

    Page(s): 871 - 875
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    In this study we evaluated both NiCr and TaN thin-film resistor material for use with our InP technology. Thermal stability, sensitivity to oxidation, temperature coefficients, and patterning techniques were compared for the two materials. The film stoichiometry was determined using Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis. Electron-beam evaporation of NiCr (80:20) resulted in films that were rich in Cr (30%), due to a higher vapor pressure of Cr. Thus, it was preferentially evaporated from the source. The TaN, on the other hand, was stoichiometric to within a few atomic %. This was due to better composition control with sputter deposition as opposed to electron (e)-beam evaporation from an alloy source. The NiCr showed a 5% increase in Rs when exposed to O2 plasma, and was stable for anneal temperatures of up to 300 °C. Alternatively, the TaN was stable for O2 plasma exposure, but had an increase in Rs of 5% or 10% when annealed at 300 °C in N2 or air ambients, respectively. From a fabrication point of view, the NiCr was more stable during bake cycles. However, it must be encapsulated to protect it from O2 plasma exposure. It can, therefore, be used earlier on in the process. On the other hand, TaN was more stable during plasma exposure, however, it must not be baked at high temperatures. It can thus be used at the back end of the process. The NiCr thickness required to obtain an Rs of 50 Ω/◻ was around 250 Å, as opposed to 800 Å for the TaN. This may have an effect on electromigration issues for high current density applications. In addition, the TaN wo- - uld be better in applications where resistors with higher Rs are required, such as 200 Ω/◻. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Protection of In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs structures during lateral oxidation using an amorphous InGaP layer

    Page(s): 876 - 879
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    Using very-low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth techniques, an amorphous InGaP layer was deposited to protect the surface during lateral oxidation of an underlying AlGaAs layer. For comparison, other oxidation protection layers such as SiNx and SiO2 were also studied. The oxidized structure consisted of single crystal In0.25Ga0.75As grown on the underlying AlGaAs layer, and then capped with an oxidation protection layer. The oxidation rate of the amorphous InGaP was investigated and compared to the oxidation rates of both single crystal InGaP and GaAs. In addition, the effects of the InGaP layer thickness on the threading dislocation density of the In0.25Ga0.75As layers were investigated. It was found that the amorphous InGaP layers allowed for threading dislocation reduction in the underlying In0.25Ga0.75As layers, while the dielectric protection layers caused an increase in dislocation densities. Atomic force microscopy was also used to investigate the surface after removal of the InGaP protection layers. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal stability of SiO2/CoSi2/polysilicon multilayer structures improved by cavity formation

    Page(s): 880 - 884
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    The electrical and structural stabilities of SiO2/CoSi2/polysilicon multilayer structures have been improved by 75 °C using 40 keV nitrogen atoms implanted in silicon before silicidation at a dose of 5×1015/cm2. During the reaction process, small cavities have been created within the polysilicon layer and simultaneously pushed ahead by the poly/amorphous silicon interface created by the implant and moving toward the surface. The process has ended up with a band of big cavities located at the silicide/silicon interface. They have an average diameter of 35 nm and are preferentially located at the silicide grain boundaries. Sheet resistance measurements (Rs), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses have shown that these interfacial cavities have prevented the agglomeration process to occur up to 1025 °C 30 s annealing process and have reduced the driving force for silicide boundary grooving. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Inverse electronic scattering from shifted projections within the Fresnel-Kirchhoff formalism

    Page(s): 885 - 890
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    The inverse scattering technique we presented previously to achieve a sample reconstruction from the diffraction patterns obtained by electronic projection microscopy is extended to cope with the problem of automatically finding the characteristics of the incident wave (i.e., its amplitude and the source-sample distance). The underlying formalism is that of Fresnel-Kirchhoff, which describes the sample as a two-dimensional mask. By processing simultaneously the projections associated with a given sample translation, the accuracy of the reconstruction is improved and the evaluation of the source-sample distance is more efficient. The technique is applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional nanometric sample that is observed in Fresnel conditions with an electron energy of 40 eV. The parameters of the incident state are recovered precisely and reconstructions with a mean relative error around 1% are achieved. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a data-driven dynamic model for a plasma etching reactor

    Page(s): 891 - 901
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    We compare several parameter identification methods for data-driven identification and validation of an empirical linear dynamic model for a helicon plasma reactor. The model relates easily measurable process variables to ellipsometry measurements from which the etch depth can be determined in real time. The potential use of such a model for process control is obvious. The model developed shows improvement over a neural network model developed in a previous study based upon the same data. © 2002 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles.

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Editor
Gary E. McGuire
International Technology Center