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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

Issue 3 • Date May 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 86
  • Issue Cover

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Issue Table of Contents

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  • Alignment with exposed resist in photolithography

    Page(s): 905 - 907
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    We have developed a method for producing alignment marks on a wafer using exposed photoresist. Alignment to the exposed pattern is possible without having to develop out the pattern, provided that there is enough contrast between the exposed and unexposed areas. The exposed pattern was easily found for alignment using the He–Ne laser alignment system in our stepper. Although the contrast between the exposed and unexposed resist was rather faint to the human eye, the contrast was greatly improved using a commercially available contrast enhancement layer, so this method can be used in contact lithography where multiple mask levels must be exposed prior to development. The ability to align to the exposed pattern prior to development is especially useful in stepper-based lithography. For example, wafers may be aligned using the stepper for multiple mask exposures or for multilevel resist schemes prior to pattern development. In addition, very thick resist can be exposed using multiple exposures and changing the depth of focus. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental comparison of off-axis illumination and imaging interferometric lithography

    Page(s): 921 - 929
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    Imaging interferometric lithography (IIL) has been proposed recently to extend optical lithography (OL) to the linear systems resolution limit of optics. In this work, a comparison of IIL and OL with off-axis illumination (OAI) is presented with both numerical simulations and experimental verification. In OAI, the optical modulation transfer function decreases at higher spatial frequencies as a result of the inclusion of the same low frequencies in more than one of the incoherently related offset exposures. Pupil plane filters avoid this multiple counting of the low frequency components and improve the pattern fidelity. Different filters provide different tiling of spatial frequency space and result in significant differences in the final patterns. Results of different tiling schemes for both OAI and IIL approaches are discussed. Overall, IIL provides the most robust imaging results. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Amorphous carbon films for use as both variable-transmission apertures and attenuated phase shift masks for deep ultraviolet lithography

    Page(s): 930 - 932
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    We describe the development of amorphous carbon (a-C) films grown by magnetron sputtering for use in optical elements for sub-0.25-μm deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. We have measured the transmittance of a-C films deposited onto quartz substrates as a function of film thickness, and find that the films are ideally suited for use in variable-transmission apertures that can be used to improve DUV process latitude: we can achieve essentially any transmittance (T) desired in the range 0≪T≪100% by controlling the film thickness (t) in the range 200≫t≫0 nm with subnanometer precision. We also find that the transmittance remains stable after prolonged exposure to high intensity DUV radiation. We describe a masked deposition technique to produce variable-transmission apertures using a-C films of various thicknesses, and also discuss the use of these films in attenuated phase shift masks, given that we can simultaneously achieve ∼6%–8% transmittance and a phase shift of 180° at either λ=248 nm or 193 nm. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • High resolution organic resists for charged particle lithography

    Page(s): 933 - 938
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    Exposure of resist with electron or ion beams is a common nanolithography technology which is used to fabricate electronic devices and microstructures. The resolution mainly depends on the beam size and the resolution of the resist. We have developed two new high resolution organic resists, which are calixarene derivatives. 50 keV electron beams and 260 keV Be2+ ion beams were used to expose the resist, and 10 nm resolution was achieved with the Gaussian electron beam. The electron beam sensitivities of the two resists were 7 and 0.7 mC/cm2. By using them, we produced 10-nm-order resolution patterns, which we exposed with a Gaussian electron beam. We also achieved 10-nm-level resolution by using a low molecular weight (Mw=1100) polystyrene resist, almost the same Mw as that of the calixarene. The resolution of the polystyrene resist improved as lower molecular weights were used. Therefore, the resist resolution depends on the molecular weight or molecular size. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Formation and growth of CoSi2 on (001)Si inside 0.2–2 μm oxide openings prepared by electron-beam lithography

    Page(s): 939 - 944
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    The formation and growth of CoSi2 inside 0.2–2 μm linear oxide openings and contact holes prepared by electron-beam lithography have been investigated. A thin, uniform epitaxial CoSi2 was grown inside 0.5 μm or smaller linear openings and 0.7 μm or smaller contact holes by both one- and two-step rapid thermal annealing processes. On the other hand, epitaxial and polycrystalline CoSi2 were found to form on silicon near the edge and central region, respectively, inside 0.6 μm or larger linear openings. The size effect of the oxide openings is correlated to the distribution of local stress induced at the oxide edge. The formation of CoSi at low temperature appeared to be retarded by the local compressive stress near the edge of the linear oxide openings. The relative ease in the epitaxial growth of CoSi2 near the oxide edge of the linear openings and of 0.7 μm and smaller contact holes is attributed to the thinness of the CoSi layer. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Focused ion-beam structuring of Si and Si/CoSi2 heterostructures using adsorbed hydrogen as a resist

    Page(s): 945 - 948
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    A focused ion-beam system was used for structuring of silicon by local desorption of hydrogen from the HF-passivated surface. The native oxide which was formed on the depassivated regions was used as an etch mask for KOH. The etch contrast for Ga and Si ions was studied as a function of ion energy and fluence. With a fluence on the order of 1013cm2, a feature height of 15 nm was obtained. The method was applied to produce 160 nm wide CoSi2 wires on a Si/CoSi2 heterostructure. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Formation and micromachining of Teflon (fluorocarbon polymer) film by a completely dry process using synchrotron radiation

    Page(s): 949 - 956
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    The development of a new fabrication technique of Teflon microparts using synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation, the SR ablation process, was described. The anisotropic micromachining and thin film formation of polytetrafluoroethylene, fluorinated ethylene propylene, and perfluoroalkoxy were demonstrated using the SR ablation process. The anisotropic micromachining of Teflon with hole pattern of 2 μm diam was successfully performed, and the micromachining of Teflon with a high aspect ratio of 50 was achieved. Moreover, Teflon films with flat surface were formed at a high rate by the SR ablation of Teflon at the substrate temperature above 200 °C. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Novel process for SiO2/Si selective etching using a novel gas source for preventing global warming

    Page(s): 957 - 960
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    A novel gas source replacing fluorocarbon feed gases has been developed for preventing global warming. The novel gas source was designed to generate fluorocarbon species from polytetrafluoroethylene by CO2 laser ablation. The species generated from the gas source were introduced into an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma employing Ar gases. To characterize the gas source, CFx (x=1–3) radical densities with and without plasmas were measured by infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy. In the ECR plasma employing the novel gas source, CFx (x=1–3) radical densities were estimated to be of the order of 1012–1013cm-3. The gas source has been applied to the selective etching of SiO2 to Si using the ECR plasma. As a result, the etching characteristics by ECR plasma employing the novel gas source were equivalent to those by a conventional ECR plasma employing C4F8 gas. Therefore, this novel gas source is applicable to etching processes for preventing global warming. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Model for etch depth dependence on GaAs via hole diameter

    Page(s): 961 - 964
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    Reactive ion etching of via holes for grounding of monolithic microwave integrated circuits has become the industry standard. It is well known that the via etch rate decreases as a function of decreasing via mask diameter as well as increasing etch depth. A model has been developed which relates the experimental etch rates in Cl2/BCl3/Ar plasmas to the ion and neutral fluxes incident on the wafer. This model provides a useful tool for designers and process engineers to predict etch depths and average etch rates as functions of via diameter and total etch time. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V antimonides in BCl3/Ar and Cl2/Ar

    Page(s): 965 - 969
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    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching characteristics of GaSb and AlGaAsSb have been investigated in BCl3/Ar and Cl2/Ar plasmas. The etch rates and selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb are reported as functions of plasma chemistry, ICP power, rf self-bias, and chamber pressure. It is found that physical sputtering desorption of the etch products plays a dominant role in BCl3/Ar ICP etching, while in Cl2/Ar plasma, the chemical reaction dominates the etching. GaSb etch rates exceeding 2 μm/min are achieved in Cl2/Ar plasmas with smooth surfaces and anisotropic profiles. In BCl3/Ar plasmas, etch rates of 5100 and 4200 Å/min are obtained for GaSb and AlGaAsSb, respectively. The surfaces of both GaSb and AlGaAsSb etched in BCl3/Ar plasmas remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. This result is attributed to effective removal of etch products by physical sputtering. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb is close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based midinfrared laser diodes. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Dry oxidation resistance of ultrathin nitride films: Ordered and amorphous silicon nitride on Si(111)

    Page(s): 970 - 977
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    The integration of high-κ dielectrics, such as Ta2O5, in metal–insulator–semiconductor structures requires the careful control of interfacial silicon-oxide growth to preserve electrical properties such as capacitance. This has led to the introduction of silicon nitride films as oxidation resistant barriers between the dielectric and silicon. In this study, we examine the oxidation resistance of ultrathin (≪2 nm) nitride films produced from NH3 exposure in ultrahigh vacuum are examined with in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that ordered nitrides, grown at 950–1000 °C, are resistant to oxidation up to 600 °C for subatmospheric oxygen exposures. Amorphous nitrides, grown at 600 °C, exhibit similar oxidation resistance behavior. © 1999 American Vacuum Society.   View full abstract»

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  • Nanometer-scale Si-selective epitaxial growth using an ultrathin SiO2 mask

    Page(s): 978 - 982
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    Si-selective epitaxial growth (Si-SEG) with Si2H6 gas is performed on clean Si(001)-2×1 open linear windows in an ultrathin SiO2 mask formed by electron-beam-induced selective thermal decomposition (EB-STD) to fabricate a Si nanowire. We demonstrate that Si-SEG is possible in a 15-nm-wide Si(001)-2×1 open linear window formed by EB-STD. However, the width of the Si wire increases with Si growth, because the oxide mask decomposes thermally at the oxide/Si(001)2×1 boundary. An ultrathin oxide layer grown at higher temperature is effective to suppress the widening of the Si wire, even if the oxide thickness is not changed. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Adsorption of atomic hydrogen on the Si(001) 4×3-In surface studied by coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Page(s): 983 - 988
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    Using coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and low-energy electron diffraction techniques, we have investigated the interaction of atomic hydrogen with the Si(001) 4×3-In surface phase. During this interaction, Si–In bonds are broken and replaced by Si–H bonds. As a result, the 4×3 reconstruction is destroyed and In atoms form small clusters on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001) surface. The indium clusters are found to be not monocrystalline but, rather, polycrystalline. This is in contrast with other metal adsorbate/Si systems such as H/Ag/Si(111), H/Pb/Si(111), and H/In/Si(111) where metal atoms are known to form epitaxial monocrystalline islands. The size of the In clusters increases with increasing substrate temperature during hydrogen exposure of the 4×3-In phase. Using STM, we have confirmed that, as a result of atomic hydrogen interaction, the Si substrate becomes bare and forms the Si(001) 4×1-H phase, indicating that the underlying Si layer in the Si(001) 4×3-In surface phase is reconstructed with 4×1 periodicity. A structural model of the Si(001) 4×1-H surface has been proposed. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Microstructure characterization of oxidized nanocrystalline Si:H film by transmission electron microscopy

    Page(s): 989 - 993
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    Oxidized nanocrystalline (nc) Si:H film has been produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with a high hydrogen diluted silane and followed by thermal oxidization in a conventional furnace at a relatively low temperature of 800 °C. The resulting films were studied using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that nc-Si dots embedded in an a-SiO2 matrix can be formed by the above method and some of them exhibit the columnar growth morphology. Both the nc-Si:H deposition and the later thermal treatment are revealed to contribute to the film microstructures. It is further suggested that by choosing optimum oxidation time, the size of Si nanoparticles can be well controlled. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator for nanostructure devices

    Page(s): 994 - 998
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    A new method for silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is presented that has very few stacking fault defects and produces multiple layers of single crystal silicon surrounded by thermal SiO2. The technique requires selective epitaxial growth, epitaxial lateral overgrowth, and chemical mechanical planarization to form SOI islands stacked in multiple layers. Islands of silicon as small as 150×150×40 nm thick were fabricated. Larger SOI islands in two SOI layers, with grown vertical interconnections between layers, were 5×500×0.1 μm. Only one stacking fault was observed in 85 000 μm2 of the first layer and none in the second layer. P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors with gate lengths of less than ∼100 nm were fabricated in the thin SOI islands. They had normal current–voltage plot characteristics with less than 0.2 pA/μm of leakage current, illustrating the quality of the material in both SOI layers and at the silicon to thermal-oxide interfaces. The devices had measured subthreshold slopes of 76 mV/decade and good saturated current drives. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Role of film conformality in charging damage during plasma-assisted interlevel dielectric deposition

    Page(s): 999 - 1002
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    While observations of charging damage during plasma-assisted deposition have been erratic thus far, concern abounds that it may worsen as aspect ratios increase and high-density plasmas are used more frequently. Simulations of pattern-dependent charging during interlevel dielectric deposition reveal that the initial conformality of the dielectric film plays a crucial role in metal line charge up and the subsequent degradation to the buried gate oxide, to which the metal line is connected. For moderate aspect ratios, significant charging damage occurs for nonconformal step coverage. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Growth, optical, and electron transport studies across isotype n-GaAs/n-Ge heterojunctions

    Page(s): 1003 - 1010
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    A diode structure consisting of a polar epilayer on a nonpolar substrate grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy often faces problems of antiphase domain formation in the polar semiconductor and cross diffusion across the heterointerface. Ge outdiffusion into GaAs epilayers was studied by low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy after etching the film from the surface. The absence of p-n junction formation inside the Ge substrate from interdiffusion of Ga and As has been studied by current-voltage characteristics using mesa diodes. These observations were confirmed by electrochemical capacitance voltage polaron profiler and secondary ion mass spectroscopy techniques. To understand the material quality and current conduction mechanism across the GaAs/Ge heterojunction, I-V characteristics of Si-doped n-GaAs/n-Ge isotype heterojunctions using Au Schottky diodes have been studied for different doping densities. A plethora of growth conditions appear in the literature concerning the attempt to grow antiphase domain (APD)-free GaAs on Ge. In the present case, even though the growth temperature regime is close to reported values, the main difference in minimizing APD formation may arise from the growth rates (∼3 μm/h) and the V/III ratio (∼88). © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Multiwafer gas source molecular beam epitaxial system for production technology

    Page(s): 1011 - 1016
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    High throughput epitaxial wafer production is demonstrated by using a newly designed multiwafer gas source molecular beam epitaxy apparatus. The actual application data show excellent results of uniformity, cost performance, and material performance through practical mass production operation. Electron mobility as high as 124 000 cm2/V s is obtained at 77 K for a 7-μm-thick GaAs layer with a carrier concentration of 7.7×1013 cm-3. A typical surface defect density of 25 cm-2 is achieved for continuously grown 1.7-μm-thick metal–semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) structures. The uniformity of sheet resistance in n-GaAs and AlAs mole fractions in AlGaAs is less than 2.0% (1.5% and 0.27%, respectively) over a 27 cm diameter area. A quantitative throughput number for a typical growth of a MESFET structure is four 4 in. or seven 3 in. diameter wafers per 2.5 h in a continuous process flow. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of properties of dynamic random access memories capacitors by PH3 plasma doping process after the formation of hemispherical-grained silicon

    Page(s): 1017 - 1021
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    A novel technology PH3 plasma doping process” is used to improve the reduction of Cmin/Cmax ratio due to the depletion layer generation on the surface of storage electrode. The storage electrode with hemispherical-grained silicon (HSG–Si) made from amorphous silicon (a-Si) with low concentration of phosphorus has no bald defect but low Cmin/Cmax ratio. In PH3 plasma doping process, phosphorus diffuses in Si by interacting with vacancies. Using the storage electrode with HSG–Si doped in PH3 plasma, the capacitor has 96% of Cmin/Cmax ratio and no degradation of capacitor properties caused by excess phosphorus incorporation into dielectrics. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Ohmic contacts in AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistors for low-voltage operation

    Page(s): 1022 - 1027
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    We report on the fabrication and characteristics of Pd/Pt/Au ohmic contacts that have been used in AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with low access resistance. The metalization exhibits minimal in-diffusion and a contact resistance of 0.08 Ω mm after a 175 °C hot-plate heat treatment. By comparison, AuGe/Ni/Pt/Au ohmic contact metalizations formed using a 300 °C rapid thermal anneal exhibit a contact resistance of 0.11 Ω mm, but with considerable Au in-diffusion. Using the Pd/Pt/Au contact, 0.6 μm gate-length AlSb/InAs HEMTs exhibit a low-field source-drain resistance of 0.47 Ω mm and a transconductance above 1 S/mm. After removal of the gate bonding pad capacitance from an equivalent circuit, an fTLg product of 38 GHz μm is obtained at VDS=0.4 V. HEMTs with a 60 nm gate length exhibit a low-field source-drain resistance of 0.35 Ω mm and a measured fT of 90 GHz at a drain voltage of only 100 mV. These fTLg and fT values are the highest reported for any field effect transistor at these drain voltages. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Formation of W underlayer by switching bias sputtering to plug 0.25 μm contact holes

    Page(s): 1028 - 1033
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    Physical vapor deposion by a newly developed switching bias sputtering method for the formation of both adhesion and barrier metal underlayers on 0.25 μm contact/via holes with sufficient step coverage has been investigated as a hole filling process. The method features alternating operation of sputtering to deposit and resputtering of the film to enhance step coverages of the side walls by resputtering of the bottom. It was found that W films formed for holes with aspect ratios of 3.0–3.5 gave step coverages of 17%–23% for the side wall and 30%–33% for the bottom. The resistivity of W films deposited on planar surfaces was 10.5 μΩ cm, similar to values for W films deposited by conventional direct current (dc) sputtering. The deposition rate of the sputtering was 50%–80% of the rate of conventional dc sputtering. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • Au/Ge-based Ohmic contact to an AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor with an undoped cap layer

    Page(s): 1034 - 1039
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    The effect of existence of undoped GaAs/AlGaAs cap layers on Ohmic contact resistivity in an AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor was investigated. The Au/Ge/Ni/Au Ohmic contact formed on the undoped GaAs cap layer yields the lowest contact resistivity of 3.8×10-6 Ω cm2. Meanwhile, the contact resistivity increases a little to 5.0×10-6 Ω cm2 for the contacts formed on an n-Al0.23Ga0.77As layer exposed by removing the undoped cap layer. Both contact resistivities are comparable to those obtained using the n+-GaAs cap layer. The good Ohmic contacts obtained independent of removal of the undoped cap layer are due to the formation of the interfacial compounds, Au2Al and Au2Ga, during annealing. The interfacial compounds penetrate deep into the buried InGaAs channel, resulting in direct contacts to the channel. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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  • B implantation in 6H–SiC: Lattice damage recovery and implant activation upon high-temperature annealing

    Page(s): 1040 - 1044
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    Implantation of B into n-type 6H–SiC has been investigated. B ion implantation was performed in n-type 6H–SiC single crystals at room temperature and 500 °C. The implanted specimens were annealed at 1700 °C in SiH4 atmosphere. Lattice damage induced by implantation and its recovery was characterized by Raman scattering. The net boron concentration and the amount of damage created were predicted by TRIM simulations. The redistribution of the implanted atoms during high-temperature annealing was obtained by simulation of the diffusion process. Capacitance–voltage characteristics of Ni/6H–SiC Schottky barrier were numerically simulated assuming different boron incorporation lattice sites. The degree of p-type activation of B ions after annealing at 1700 °C was estimated to be in the range of 8%–15%. A compensation ratio of about 48% was determined. The conductivity type was not converted from n to p type. The comparison between the experimentally obtained dopant concentrations and those predicted by simulations shows that the concentration of the electrically active acceptors is affected by outdiffusion of B due to the high annealing temperature of 1700 °C. Reduced damage compared with other ions implantation was observed. Recrystallization of the implanted material and absence of amorphous phases were detected after high-temperature annealing. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles.

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Editor
Gary E. McGuire
International Technology Center