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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

Issue 2 • Date Mar 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 62
  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Fabrication technologies for advanced 5X reticles for 16M‐bit dynamic random access memory

    Page(s): 117 - 121
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    Fabrication technologies for advanced photomasks with a molybdenum silicide (MoSi) film have been developed by using a variable‐shaped electron‐beam (e‐beam) system. These technologies were applied to the fabrication of 5X reticles for 16M‐bit DRAMs. The variable‐shaped e‐beam system is very effective in increasing the throughput for writing reticles which have a great number of figures, such as 16M‐bit DRAMs. The average writing time was 100 min, which was ∼ (1)/(3) of the time when using a conventional raster‐scan e‐beam system. Photomasks with the MoSi film have advantages in comparison with those with conventional chromium (Cr) film. Pattern defects did not appear during the photomask cleaning because of strong adhesion of the MoSi film to the quartz substrate. Moreover, an accurate feature size on the photomasks was obtained, because the MoSi film was easily dry etched. The feature size accuracy obtained was 0.03 μm in 3σ all over the 5 in. blanks. View full abstract»

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  • Sample geometry effects in rapid thermal annealing

    Page(s): 122 - 127
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    Sample geometry has been shown to be a significant factor in determining the actual temperature of samples annealed in thermocouple controlled rapid thermal processing systems. Temperature differences of nearly 25 °C have been observed between full 4 in. wafers and quarter wafers under identical annealing conditions. Some of the geometry effects observed can affect the validity of temperature measurements in pyrometer controlled systems as well. The changes in sample temperature can be measured directly via thermocouples, and indirectly via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and resistivity mesurements of ion implanted samples. Smaller samples are observed to heat up faster, and obtain a slightly higher maximum temperature than larger samples. Based on computer modeling this effect is attributed to the absorption of reflected/scattered radiation in addition to that directly incident on the sample. Small samples placed on top of full wafers during annealing are observed to heat up more slowly than the underlying wafer. This effect is likely due to imperfect thermal contact between the samples during the anneal. Small boron implanted samples annealed on top of whole wafers such that the implanted side is in contact with the whole wafer appear to experience a slight reduction in boron outdiffusion, similar to the reduced As outdiffusion observed for comparable anneals of GaAs wafers. In order to correctly compare reported temperature data from the literature, these geometry effects must be taken into consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Laser induced fluorescence study of CF radicals in CF4/O2 plasmas

    Page(s): 128 - 130
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    Laser induced fluorescence is used to monitor CF radicals in both a 13.56 MHz CF4 processing plasma and a pulsed dc discharge. The axial spatial variation of CF shows a drop near added silver and copper substrates, a local maximum at polymer surfaces, and a flat approach to aluminum, SiO2 , and silicon. The same behavior was previously observed with CF2 and it is argued that the CF profile reflects its formation by electron impact on CF2 rather than its heterogeneous reactivity. As oxygen is added to a CF4 discharge, [CF] drops off faster than [CF2 ]. The voltage dependence of the CF decay rate in a pulsed discharge suggests CF oxidation involves molecular rather than atomic oxygen. View full abstract»

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  • A novel method for the growth of good quality GaAs at extremely low substrate temperatures (as low as 120 °C)

    Page(s): 131 - 133
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    In this work, a novel method for the growth of good quality GaAs at extremely low substrate temperatures (as low as 120 °C) is introduced. This novel method is based on three different methods: The migration‐enhanced epitaxy method, the indium doping method, and the low growth rate method. The good quality of the GaAs layers are confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, 4 K photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy. This novel growth method results in the best GaAs material ever grown at 120 °C by any growth method using a molecular beam epitaxy machine. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and index guided injection lasers over nonplanar substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 145 - 148
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    Strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells were grown on nonplanar substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and studied by scanning electron microscopy and low temperature spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. For (100) ridges and grooves formed with (311)A sidewalls, almost complete removal of In from the strained quantum wells on the (311)A facet is observed. Corresponding increases of In content in the quantum wells grown on the (100) facets indicate that most if not all of the In is displaced from the (311)A facet via interplanar adatom migration. Ga adatom migration is also observed under our growth conditions such that quantum wells grown nominally near the critical layer thickness on structures less than ≂2.5 μm wide are no longer pseudomorphically strained, as detected by luminescence linewidth analysis. We present the first results of strained InGaAs/GaAs index guided injection lasers grown by single‐step molecular beam epitaxy over nonplanar substrates and show that differences greater than 50 meV in the effective band gap of a 70 Å quantum well can be achieved between the gain region and the nonabsorbing waveguide without relaxing the strain. Room temperature threshold currents as low as 6 mA for 4 μm×750 μm uncoated devices lasing continuously at a wavelength of 1.01 μm have been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of InxGa1-xAs on patterned GaAs(100) substrates

    Page(s): 149 - 153
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    The influence of finite substrate size on misfit dislocation densities in strained systems is examined through the growth of InxGa1-xAs on nonplanar patterned (100) GaAs substrates consisting of parallel mesas of widths between 6500 Å and 1.3 μm and of macroscopic length. Cross‐sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) studies on In0.11Ga0.89As films reveal that while the mean misfit dislocation spacing for the growth in the nonpatterned region was ∼1500 Å, for the growth on the mesas no misfit dislocations running parallel to the mesa length were observed. This is likely due to strain relief at the mesa edges, possibly brought about by the ability to transfer strain energy from cluster coalescence boundaries to the mesa edges and/or reduced cluster coalescence boundaries when the mesa size becomes comparable to or less than the effective migration length. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of Be diffusion in molecular‐beam epitaxy AlGaAs by the incorporation of In for heterojunction bipolar transistor applications

    Page(s): 154 - 156
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    We report for the first time on the suppression of Be diffusion in molecular‐beam epitaxy Al0.1Ga0.9As by incorporating In into the epilayer. The minimum diffusion coefficient of Be‐doped Iny(Al0.1Ga0.9)1-yAs layers with a carrier concentration of 7×1019 cm-3 and an InAs mole fraction of 0.07 grown at 600 °C was about 2×10-15 cm2/s, which is five times smaller than that without In incorporation. The photoluminescence intensity of the layers drastically decreased above a value of y of 0.05, probably due to crystal degradation resulting from misfit dislocations. A heterojunction bipolar transistor with a 100 nm‐thick p+In0.055 (AlxGa1-x)0.945As base layer (Al graded composition x: 0 to 0.1, emitter area: 4×5 μm2) yielded a dc current gain of 27 at a collector current of 8 mA. View full abstract»

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  • Atomic diffusion and surface segregation of Si in δ‐doped GaAs grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 157 - 159
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    We report on results that compare the planar confinement, diffusion, and surface segregation of Si δ‐doped in GaAs for growth by gas source molecular‐beam epitaxy and conventional molecular‐beam epitaxy. For gas source molecular‐beam epitaxy growth, Si diffusion versus inverse anneal temperature shows a unique two component Arrhenius form in which activation energies for diffusion differ by the fundamental GaAs band gap energy, 1.5 eV. Capacitance–voltage profiles of as‐grown δ‐doped Be and Si layers in GaAs produce record full width at half‐maximum, 1.9 and 2.4 nm, respectively, for the gas source molecular‐beam epitaxy case. View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of gallium‐source related oval defects in molecular‐beam epitaxy of GaAs

    Page(s): 160 - 162
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    By evaporating gallium from a pBN crucible which was previously used for evaporation of Al, ‘‘Ga‐spitting’’ and formation of Ga‐cell related oval defects have been eliminated in molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) of GaAs. MGE‐GaAs layers as thick as 20 μm were totally free from the Ga‐cell related oval defects. Remaining oval defects were those related to particulates and substrate contamination and their densities were 100 and 500 cm-2 on 5 and 20‐μm thick layers of GaAs on GaAs substrates. However, these particulates related oval defects were hardly seen on up to 4‐μm thick GaAs layers grown on Si substrates. Aluminum wets and reacts with the pBN crucible when heated up to 1300 °C during evaporation of Al. Condensed gallium near the orifice wets the such aluminum treated pBN surface and is not expected to spontaneously flow to the Ga charge in the form of droplets. As a result, Ga spitting does not occur and related oval defects do not form. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of high purity GaAs films grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy from a solid As cracker

    Page(s): 163 - 167
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    Two series of high‐quality, unintentionally doped GaAs films were grown to evaluate a solid As cracker source with a graphite crucible. In the first series, material properties comparisons were made between a film grown with the As cracker in the dimer mode, a film from the same cracker source but in the tetramer mode, and lastly, a film from a conventional As cell. The film grown with the dimers had a n‐type unintentional background doping level of 5×1014 cm-3 and a 104 000 cm2/V s mobility at 77 K. The films grown with As tetramers gave low p‐type unintentional background doping levels of less than 1.1×1014 cm-3, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra taken of these films at 4 K showed various excitonic transitions and comparable C incorporation. In the second series, films grown at As2/Ga incorporation rate ratios of 1.1, 1.5, and 2.0 had layers that were p‐type, resistive, and n type, respectively. Samples taken from the film grown at the 2.0 ratio had 77 K mobilities as high as 195 000 cm2/V s, with a corresponding net carrier concentration of 3.8×1014 cm-3. These mobility values are the highest reported for GaAs grown with a solid As dimer source. Results from a variable temperature van der Pauw measurements of another sample cut from this film gave a donor ionization energy of 2.6 meV. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of a new high capacity, all‐tantalum molecular‐beam‐epitaxy arsenic cracker furnace

    Page(s): 168 - 171
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    A novel effusion furnace for the production of As2 from As4 by combined thermal and catalytic cracking has been evaluated in a Varian GEN II molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) system. The furnace consists of two temperature zones with a one‐piece all‐tantalum combined crucible, delivery tube, and cracking zone. Ta baffles are inserted into the cracking zone. Thermal isolation of the ‘‘warm’’ sublimation zone and the ‘‘hot’’ cracking zone is achieved by water or liquid nitrogen cooling of the sublimation zone. With the cracking zone at 1500 °C and no power to the 200 cc capacity sublimator, the sublimation zone rises to only 75 °C. Cracking of As4 begins at about 750 °C and saturates at about 900 °C. The As flux stabilizes in about 1.25 h. Installation of the cracker furnace in a position previously used for the old As effusion furnace resulted in considerable outgassing due to the previous condensation of As and trapped impurities on the cryoshroud around the mouth of the old furnace. Soon after installation, growth of nominally undoped GaAs in the As4 mode (by holding the cracking zone at 400 °C) gave background doping concentrations of p=2×1014/cm3, but the first attempts at growth of nominally undoped GaAs with As2 gave high n‐type background doping levels due to the outgassing mentioned above. A combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and photoluminescence analysis showed decreased C and increased S in the As2 grown layers. Following mechanical scraping and extended thermal cleaning of the shroud area around the cracking zone, the residual As2 background doping dropped dramatically (to high 1013/cm3) while still remaining n type. Material and de- - vice benefits we have observed for As2 grown GaAs and (Al,Ga)As are: slightly improved surface morphology, decreased C incorporation, increased doping efficiency in (Al,Ga)As:Si, greatly improved low‐temperature photoluminescence, and excellent heterojunction acoustic charge transport (HACT) device results. View full abstract»

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  • Description and applications of a graded‐thickness growth technique for molecular‐beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 172 - 175
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    The technique and some applications of a graded‐thickness sample deposition method for molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) are described. We discuss the use of this method for the growth of GaAs on Si and related materials systems. In this method the substrate is translated during growth relative to a fixed, near‐sample‐plane shutter so that a wedge shaped growth thickness profile is obtained. We have found this method to be especially useful in conjunction with both ex situ and in situ analytical techniques for probing the continuous evolution of thin film growth. The technique offers several advantages over the traditional method of preparing a series of samples of different thicknesses. We have also found it useful for the direct comparison of the evolution of growth of two different surface preparations. We describe the use of Auger for in situ measurement of the composition and structure of the film at various stages of the growth with near monolayer resolution. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) has been used as an ex situ probe of the evolution of the deposited film. In an attempt to understand and control the atomic scale processes during the initiation of growth at the GaAs–Si interface we have used this method to grow graded‐thickness samples with total thickness 3.5–10 nm. Analysis of these films has led us to develop a model for the nucleation and initial stages of growth of GaAs‐on‐Si. We also report on possible device applications of this technique. View full abstract»

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  • Epitaxy of III–V diluted magnetic semiconductor materials

    Page(s): 176 - 180
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    A new class of III–V based diluted magnetic semiconductors, specifically In1-xMnxAs (x≲0.2) and InAs/InMnAs multilayer structures, has been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. The x‐ray diffraction measurements reveal that the incorporation of Mn can be predominantly either homogeneous (200 °C) or inhomogeneous (300 °C), depending on the growth temperature. Semiconducting properties of the films have been examined by optical absorption and Hall effect measurements, and it has been found the films of homogeneous alloy are n‐type and have a band gap which decreases with increasing Mn composition. Magnetization measurements indicate that the homogeneous alloy exhibits paramagnetic behavior, whereas ferromagnetic behavior dominates for the inhomogeneous case. The growth of GaMnAs has also been examined. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular‐beam epitaxy growth of ZnSe using a cracked selenium source

    Page(s): 181 - 186
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    A double‐oven cracking furnace has been used to produce a flux composed of smaller selenium molecular species for the molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of ZnSe on (100) GaAs substrates. Mass spectrometric analysis of fluxes from a conventional effusion cell and the cracking oven showed a significant difference in the number of large selenium molecules Sen (n≫2) in their mass spectra. This new selenium source was found to be reactive with GaAs and its oxides, therefore its reaction with the substrate reduced the effectiveness in desorbing the oxide layer by heat treatment. Using the cracked selenium source, unintentionally doped ZnSe films have been grown on GaAs substrates desorbed in a separate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber linked to the MBE system. These undoped layers were highly resistive at room temperature and had low‐temperature photoluminescence spectra dominated by emission from the recombination of free excitons, comparable to the best layers grown using an uncracked selenium source. View full abstract»

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  • Arsenic doped ZnSe grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 187 - 191
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    We have been able to incorporate As into molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) grown ZnSe in the range of 1017–1021 atoms/cm3 using Zn3As2 as the As source. This contrasts with very low As levels we obtained using an As cracker cell. The As incorporation is highly nonlinear with Zn3As2 flux and depends on the excess Se used. Several samples doped with Zn3As2 show low temperature photoluminescence with near band edge emission dominated by shallow acceptor levels. We will describe the details of several growth variations studied and their influence on As incorporation. View full abstract»

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  • In situ calibration of growth surface temperature for molecular‐beam epitaxy of CdTe

    Page(s): 192 - 195
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    A new in situ technique has been developed to measure the growth surface temperature of a substrate, and to calibrate the temperature of substrate holders. The technique has been demonstrated to be accurate to better than 5 °C and was verified for calibrating substrate temperatures between 160–220 °C. Condensation of an incident Te2 flux occurred on CdTe surfaces when the flux of the incident Te2 dimers exceeded the flux desorbing from the surface. The surface temperature at the onset of condensation was calculated by equating the expressions for the incident Te2 flux and the desorbing Te2 flux. Experimentally, the onset of condensation was determined by a change in the reflection high‐energy electron diffraction pattern of the substrate. View full abstract»

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  • A two‐zone molecular‐beam epitaxy furnace for evaporation of II–VI materials

    Page(s): 196 - 199
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    The design and operation of a two‐zone furnace and crucible for the evaporation of II–VI semiconducting materials is described. The furnace contains separate heating elements and temperature sensors for each of the zones. The second zone is located at the open end of the furnace. The use of two independently‐controlled temperature zones allows for the elimination of clogging problems that often occur with the evaporation of materials such as tellurium. The pyrolytic boron nitride (PBN) crucible contains a cap with a 2 mm inside diameter and 16 mm long orifice, which is designed to yield higher operating temperatures and better flux stability. A special PBN crucible retainer has also been designed to minimize contact of evaporated material with the tantalum structure of the furnace. View full abstract»

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  • PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure lasers grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 200 - 204
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    The successful preparation of lattice matched buried heterostructure (BH)PbEuSeTe lasers grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) is reported here for the first time. Lasers with 2–8 μm wide and 0.5 μm thick buried Pb1-xEuxSeyTe1-y active layers, in the composition range of 0≤x≤0.015 and cavity lengths between 200 and 300 μm, were fabricated. Single mode operation was realized in most devices for injection currents 1.2 to 4.5 times the threshold current. A maximum continuous wave (cw) operation temperature of 180 and 176 K was measured for BH diode lasers with PbTe and PbEuSeTe (0.22 at. % Eu) active layer compositions, respectively. Using a high‐resolution scanning electron microscope, growth discontinuities were found in the nonplanar regions of the second cladding and capping layers. In most cases, lower threshold current densities were measured for BH lasers in comparison to double heterostructure (DH) lasers with the same active layer composition. It is believed that improvement of growth morphology, and optimizing layer thicknesses and doping profiles will lead to lower threshold currents and higher operation temperatures in BH lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Modulation‐doped HgCdTe quantum well structures and superlattices

    Page(s): 205 - 209
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    Photoassisted molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) has been employed to successfully prepare p‐type and n‐type modulation HgCdTe. In this paper, we report details of the MBE growth experiments and describe the structural, optical, and electrical properties that these new quantum well structures and superlattices of HgCdTe possess. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant tunneling of holes through silicon barriers

    Page(s): 210 - 213
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    We have investigated molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE) grown Si/SiGe hole resonant tunneling devices (RTDs) consisting of an unstrained Si0.5Ge0.5 quantum well between two strained Si barriers. A peak current density of 104 A/cm2 and a peak‐to‐valley current ratio of 1.5:1 at 77 K and 2:1 at 4 K has been obtained. Using magnetotunneling measurements at 4 K, two resonances, corresponding to tunneling through the heavy hole and light hole states, have been identified with a light hole‐to‐heavy hole effective mass ratio of 3.2, suggesting that the hole band structure in the Si/Si0.5Ge0.5 double barrier system is silicon‐like. We have examined devices with the same quantum well structure, but with different spacer thicknesses (90–360 Å) to study the influence of doping profile on the peak‐to‐valley current ratio and peak voltage position. Using these measurements, we have extracted the electric field across the quantum well for the different devices. These electric field values suggest that holes are exiting the quantum well at their saturation velocity of ∼107 cm/s. View full abstract»

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  • Photoluminescence characterization of SimGen superlattices

    Page(s): 214 - 216
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    SimGen strained monolayer superlattices (SMS) have been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and characterized using photoluminescence. Symmetrically strained structures with different periodicities have been grown on top of Si1-xGex alloy buffer layers. Luminescence peaks below the Si energy bandgap have been observed. Superlattices on top of Si buffers with different substrate orientations have been prepared with thicknesses below the critical values in order to avoid generation of misfit dilocations. Energy band diagrams constructed based on the deformation potential and the envelope function approximation are used to explain the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of large Stark shift in GexSi1-x/Si multiple quantum wells

    Page(s): 217 - 220
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    Large quantum‐confined Stark shift is observed in a type II GeSi/Si multiple quantum well structure for the first time. In this experiment, we have employed the photocurrent measurement using reverse biased p‐i‐n diodes with multiple quantum wells in the i‐region. The photocurrent as a function of bias is carried out at 77 and 300 K. The results show large red shift of the absorption edge which is about 0.75 meV kV-1 cm. This suggests the application of GeSi/Si type II structure for nonlinear electro‐optics devices near the 1.3 μm range. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular‐beam epitaxial growth of metastable Ge1-xSnx alloys

    Page(s): 221 - 226
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    Substrate‐stabilized, metastable, single‐crystal Ge1-xSnx films can be grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy (MBE). We have grown for the first time single crystal Ge1-xSnx alloys on lattice matched GaSb (with x=0.5) and InP (with x=0.26) substrates up to a thickness of 0.3 μm. Reflection high‐energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observations and x‐ray measurements show that even at very small lattice mismatch (less than 0.05%), single crystal Ge1-xSnx films cannot be grown thicker than 0.3 μm. Our x‐ray results suggest that the critical thickness of α‐Sn and Ge1-xSnx single crystal films is mainly determined by a phase transition mechanism, and the dislocation generation equivalent critical thickness is an overestimate. Under practical MBE growth conditions, it is very difficult to grow thick films, due to the sensitivity of the critical thickness to composition fluctuations. We have shown that even under an exact lattice match between substrate and film, the critical film thickness is limited. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles.

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Editor
Gary E. McGuire
International Technology Center