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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 10 • Date Nov 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 93
  • Issue Cover

    Page(s): c1
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  • Issue Table of Contents

    Page(s): toc1
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  • Photonic crystal all-polymer slab resonators

    Page(s): 103101 - 103101-5
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    Moderate air-hole-fraction photonic crystal square lattice structures defining small cavity resonators were created by etching air holes of 0.15 μm radius to a depth of 3 μm in an all-polymer slab waveguide. Transmission measurements with subnanometer resolution resolved the complete transmission spectra and highly resonant defect peaks with quality factors Q larger than 400. Simulations demonstrate the importance of high-aspect-ratio etching depths for maintaining vertical index-confinement and vertically quasisymmetric field distributions despite the material index asymmetry. Experimental spectra are shown to match the three-dimensional finite-integration simulations. Enhanced quality factors of up to 20 000 were found in the simulations for cavities bounded by modified radius air holes. In this manner resonators with very low out-of-cavity losses and high defect state transmission may be created in moderate index contrast polymer waveguide slabs. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab laser

    Page(s): 103102 - 103102-7
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    We recently reported on the realization of ultraviolet photonic crystal laser based on zinc oxide [Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3657 (2004)]. Here we present the details of structural design and its optimization. We develop a computational supercell technique that allows a straightforward calculation of the photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab on sapphire substrate. We find that despite the small index contrast between the substrate and the photonic layer, the low-order eigenmodes have predominantly transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic polarization. Because emission from ZnO thin film shows a strong TE preference, we are able to limit our consideration to TE bands, spectrum of which can possess a complete photonic band gap with an appropriate choice of structure parameters. We demonstrate that the geometry of the system may be optimized so that a sizable band gap is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of the layered semiconductors GaSe, GaS, and GaSe1-xSx by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Page(s): 103103 - 103103-5
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    The room-temperature Raman spectra of single crystals of GaSe, GaS, and mixed compounds GaSe1-xSx with 0.02≤x≤0.8 were measured with a HeNe laser in confocal configuration. The changes in the spectra indicate changes of the crystal structure. The spectra of pure GaSe and of the mixed compound with x=0.02 show pronounced photoluminescence signals blueshifted from the laser line, whereas these signals do not appear for higher sulfur content. Their origin is interpreted as second-harmonic generation in the laser focus causing the formation and radiative decay of Wannier excitons. Two-photon absorption is ruled out, since the effect is absent in the centrosymmetric crystals with x≫0.02. With a green laser whose photon energy is larger than the band gap, strong photoluminescence is also observed in crystals with higher sulfur content. View full abstract»

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  • Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser

    Page(s): 103104 - 103104-5
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    The improvement of the laser performances of an unprocessed 5.6 at. % Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip has been reported. Pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser at 871 nm, quasi-cw output laser power up to 395 mW around 1060 nm wavelength with slope efficiency near 52% has been obtained in an end-pumped plano-plano resonator. The influence of the ratio between the cavity mode and pump beam area on the laser performances and laser spectra at various output powers has been investigated. The experimental results have shown that the cleavage technique can become a practical and effective method to obtain the microchip laser medium easily and directly. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray imaging of cryogenic deuterium-tritium layers in a beryllium shell

    Page(s): 103105 - 103105-5
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    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers inside copper-doped beryllium shells are robust inertial confinement fusion fuel pellets. This paper describes the first characterization of such layers using phase-contrast x-ray imaging. Good agreement is found between calculation and experimental contrast at the layer interfaces. Uniform solid D-T layers and their response to thermal asymmetries were measured in the Be(Cu) shell. The solid D-T redistribution time constant was measured to be 28 min in the Be(Cu) shell. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanism of discharge development in SF6 with and without spacers under fast oscillating impulse condition

    Page(s): 103301 - 103301-5
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    This paper describes the mechanism of leader discharge inception in SF6 gas with and without spacers exposed to fast oscillating impulse. A photomultiplier and a current probe are employed for the investigation of discharge development. The results show that the back discharge plays an important role in the initiation and the further development of the leader discharge along the spacer surface in the presence of fast oscillating impulses. In the case of SF6 gap, the steepness of impulse plays a notable role in the extension of the streamer from which the leader discharge is triggered. View full abstract»

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  • Production efficiencies of Kr*(1s5,1s4) atoms leading to vacuum-ultraviolet emissions in ac plasma display panels with Kr–Ne binary mixtures measured by laser-absorption spectroscopy

    Page(s): 103302 - 103302-10
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    Ne–Kr gas mixtures with high Kr concentrations were applied to ac plasma display panels. Spatiotemporal behaviors of excited Kr atoms in the 1s5 metastable state and the 1s4 resonance state were measured by microscopic laser-absorption spectroscopy in the binary mixtures with Kr concentrations of 20% and 40%. A systematic comparison was done between the characteristics of Ne–Kr-filled panels and those of conventional Ne–Xe panels with the same structure but with lower Xe concentrations of 5% and 10%. For example, the total number of Kr*(1s5) atoms in a unit cell ranged from 7.4×107 to 2.0×108, at the peak was apparently smaller than the value of Xe*(1s5) atoms. However, when the difference in the decay rate of the excited atoms by three-body collision processes is taken into account, the production efficiency of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) emission from Kr2* excimers is as large as that from Xe2* excimers in a usual panel since these processes lead directly to the formation of excimers. From the measured density of Kr*(1s4) atoms, it is estimated that the contribution of the atomic resonance line is smaller than the excimer band at those high Kr concentrations. In any case, by summing up those two contributions to the VUV emission, the overall efficiency in the Ne–Kr(40%) panel is estimated to be comparable to that in the Ne–Xe(10%) one. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of nitrogen plasma by trace rare-gas–optical emission spectroscopy

    Page(s): 103303 - 103303-9
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    Trace rare-gas–optical emission spectroscopy is carried out to characterize the nitrogen plasma as a function of discharge parameters. The functional dependence of N2(C 3Πu) and N2+(B 2Σu+) excited states is monitored by measuring the emission intensities of the bandheads of second positive and first negative systems. The excited-state population density of N atoms and N2 molecules, extracted from their optical emission, is related to the ground-state population density after normalizing the changes for excitation cross section and electron energy distribution function by optical actinometry. The electron temperature is determined from the plasma-induced optical emission of trace rare gas by the line-to-line method. The obtained data may help us to adjust the optimum discharge conditions for the production of active species, which are considered to be important for the desired treatment of the samples. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of hydrogen plasma with in situ optical emission and silicon probes

    Page(s): 103304 - 103304-8
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    In this work, an approach has been adopted to explore plasma properties by combining an in situ optical emission technique with a contact angle measurement. Hydrogen plasma was generated with a radio-frequency power source. The plasma parameters such as number densities and temperatures were derived from the optical emission spectroscopic data. Small silicon chips were placed at various positions inside a discharge tube as probes for the plasma conditions. The hydrogen-plasma-treated silicon chip surfaces were characterized with the contact angle measurement method. The change of wettability on the silicon surface was observed with various plasma treatment times. The spectroscopic information about the plasma is correlated with the results of the surface characterization. It is found that the rate of the increasing hydrophilicity is sensitive to the amount of helium added and the location in the discharge tube. A simple model describing the relation between the surface coverage area of water droplet and the variation of contact angle has been established. We have proposed plasma excitation and reaction mechanisms for the observed correlation between plasma temperatures and the wettability of the silicon surface. It shows that small silicon chips can serve as “litmus tests” for the plasma conditions without introducing too much perturbation. View full abstract»

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  • A general solution for space-charge limiting in one dimension

    Page(s): 103305 - 103305-6
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    Computation of space-charge current-limiting effects across a vacuum cavity between parallel electrodes has previously been carried out only for thermionic emission spectra. In some applications, where the current arises from an injected electron beam or photo-Compton emission from electrode walls, the electron energy spectra may deviate significantly from Maxwellian. Considering the space charge as a collisionless plasma, we derive an implicit equation for the peak cavity potential assuming steady-state currents. For the examples of graphite, nickel, and gold electrodes exposed to x rays, we find that cavity photoemission currents are typically more severely space-charge limited than they would be with the assumption of a purely Maxwellian energy distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy for properties measurements of delaminating thermal barrier coatings

    Page(s): 103501 - 103501-8
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    Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy is developed for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coating (TBC) in the presence of thermal contact resistance between the coating and the substrate. In this method, a TBC sample is heated using a periodically modulated laser and the thermal emission from the coating is collected using an infrared detector. The phase difference between the heating signal and the emission signal is measured experimentally. A mathematical model is developed to predict the phase difference between the laser and the measured emission, which considers the coating properties and the thermal contact resistance of the interface. An electron-beam physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coating with local regions delaminated by laser shock is characterized using this technique. The measurements are made on two regions of the coating, one where good thermal contact between the coating and substrate exists and the other where the interface has been damaged by laser shock. The results for the thermal properties and thermal contact resistance of the interface are presented and compared. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of buried cylinders and spheres by pulsed infrared thermography

    Page(s): 103502 - 103502-5
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    A theoretical model to calculate the time evolution of the surface temperature of an opaque sample containing buried cylinders or spheres, after the absorption of a short light pulse, has been developed. To do this we first calculate the temperature of the material when it is illuminated by a modulated light beam. Then, based on the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the Laplace transform of the heat diffusion equation we obtain the Laplace transform of the solution. Finally, using the inverse Laplace transform we find the time evolution of the surface temperature heated by a short light pulse. Measurements performed by an infrared camera on a calibrated sample confirm the validity of the model. View full abstract»

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  • Raman spectroscopic study of (Pb1-xBax)(Yb1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics

    Page(s): 103503 - 103503-6
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    The ordered complex perovskite lead ytterbium tantalate undergoes a change in structural and dielectric properties as the concentration of Ba increases. The x-ray diffraction patterns show a decrease in the intensity of superlattice reflections due to Pb-antiparallel displacement as well as to B-site ordering. The structure approaches cubic symmetry with increase in Ba content. The dielectric response shows a gradual change from antiferroelectric to relaxor ferroelectric and then the relaxor behavior starts decreasing as Ba content increases. Raman-scattering study of the samples shows that some of the modes seen for Pb(Yb0.5Ta0.5)O3 disappear and an additional mode appears at 420 cm-1 with increase in Ba concentration. A qualitative analysis of various modes suggests that the substitution of Ba for Pb leads to a decrease in the degree of ordering and occurrence of local distortions in the lattice as evidenced by the broadening of certain peaks in the Raman spectra. View full abstract»

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  • Role of interfacial roughness on bias-dependent magnetoresistance and transport properties in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Page(s): 103504 - 103504-3
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    The effects of metal-insulator interfacial roughness, modulated by Ar+ irradiation, on bias dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and electrical transport of CoFeAlOxCoFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have been studied. Reduction of TMR ratio and asymmetric TMR falloff curves as a function of dc bias have been observed for Ar+-irradiated MTJs. The results are analyzed by x-ray reflectivity together with complex impedance techniques, indicating interfacial roughness which likely results in a proportional rising trap state density (TSD). Increasing TSD for Ar+-irradiated MTJs increases an unpolarized current which decreases TMR ratio. The asymmetric TMR falloff curves are attributed to the different TSDs of bottom and top CoFeAlOx interfaces in tunneling process. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogen softening and optical transparency in Si-incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon films

    Page(s): 103505 - 103505-6
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    High-resolution x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and heavy-ion elastic recoil detection were employed to study the role of hydrogen on the softening behavior observed in Si-incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Si-a-C:H) films synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using tetramethylsilane (TMS) precursor in C2H2/Ar plasma. An enhancement of the optical band gap and a massive reduction in the density of the films prepared at high TMS flow rate were revealed, respectively, by spectroscopic ellipsometry and XRR analysis with the development of a double critical angle. A hydrogenation process was responsible for a rise in the density of voids and an associated reduction in the connectivity of the carbon network and the release of its residual stress. View full abstract»

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  • Copper nitride thin film prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    Page(s): 103506 - 103506-7
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    Copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure copper target in a nitrogen/argon atmosphere. The deposition rate of the films gradually decreased with increasing nitrogen flow rate. The color of the deposited films was a reddish dark brown. The Cu3N films obtained by this method were strongly textured with crystal direction [100]. The grain size of the polycrystalline films ranged from 16 to 26 nm. The Hall effect of the copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films was investigated. The optical energy gap of the films was obtained from the Hall coefficient and found to vary with the nitrogen content. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The copper nitride thin films are unstable and decompose into nitrogen and copper upon heat treatment when annealed in vacuum with argon protected at 200 °C for 1 h. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrafast shift and injection currents observed in wurtzite semiconductors via emitted terahertz radiation

    Page(s): 103507 - 103507-8
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    Shift and injection currents are generated in the wurtzite semiconductors CdSe and CdS at 295 K using above-band-gap (ℏω≫Eg) femtosecond pulses and detected via the emitted terahertz radiation; the optical beams are normally incident on samples with the optic axis in the plane of the surface. For optical intensities up to 75 MWcm-2 (or carrier density ≪1018cm-3) the terahertz radiation amplitude shows the expected linear dependence and also varies with optical polarization and sample orientation consistent with the third-rank tensors that govern the current generation processes in the wurtzite structure. The largest shift currents are generated along the optical axis for light polarized along that axis. In CdSe with ℏω=1.80 eV (690 nm), the electron shift distance is ∼40% of the 0.25 nm bond length and the peak current density is 5 kAcm-2 for an optical intensity of 10 MWcm-2; for CdS the corresponding experiment at ℏω=3.0 eV (410 nm) gives a shift distance ∼80% of the 0.26 nm bond length with a peak current density of 50 kAcm-2 for an - incident intensity of 75 MWcm-2. For injection current produced in CdSe with circularly polarized 690 nm excitation, electrons are injected with an average speed of 9 kms-1; this is ∼3% of the group velocity for electrons excited with the same energy. The corresponding values for CdS excited at 410 nm are 20 kms-1 and 2%. From the temporal characteristics of the terahertz emission for injection currents in CdS we deduce that the electron momentum scattering time is ≪100 fs, consistent with mobility studies. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional simulation of void migration at the interface between thin metallic film and dielectric under electromigration

    Page(s): 103508 - 103508-10
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    A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the electromigration-induced void migration behavior of three-dimensional nanovoids at the interface between a metal conductor and its dielectric overlayer is presented. Major stages of the recently observed failure mode of surface void migration and accumulation at the cathode via of Cu damascene interconnects were simulated, including the trapping at and detachment from grain boundaries (GBs) and GB triple junctions. The migration and shape evolution of voids along the interface and along the grain boundaries intersecting this interface have also been investigated in detail. The main results of the simulation correlate well with in situ observations as well as with simple analytical models of void trapping and detachment from GBs and their junctions. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation

    Page(s): 103509 - 103509-4
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    The fundamental material parameters associated with GaN, which are important for the design of devices such as light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, were investigated using large high-quality GaN single crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy using the void-assisted separation method. The thermal-expansion coefficients (298–573 K) along the C[0001], A[1120], and M[1010] axes (αC, αA, and αM) were measured. Thermal expansion in each direction, approximately proportional to the temperature, was observed throughout the measured temperature range. Although the thermal-expansion coefficients in the high-temperature range, i.e., αC(573 K)=7.2±0.02×10-6 /K, αA(573 K)=5.7±0.2×10-6 /K, and αM(573 K)=5.8±0.2×10-6 /K,were relatively close to the reported values, the thermal-expansion coefficients along the C axis in the low-temperature range, i.e., αC(298 K)=5.3±0.02×10-6 /K, was significantly larger than the reported values. Thermal conductivities parallel and perpendicular to the C axis were almost the same, i.e., 2.0±0.1 W cm-1 K-1. This value is close to the values r- eported on the low-dislocation density part of epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN. This could indicate that the defect density of our crystals is very low and that the defects are distributed uniformly throughout the volume. The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and the optical-absorption coefficient was also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Morphology-dependent exciton emission and energy transfer in fluorene-polymer-related fluorescent and phosphorescent composite films spin cast from a mixture of two dissimilar organic solvents

    Page(s): 103510 - 103510-6
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    We report morphology-dependent exciton emission and energy transfer in fluorene-conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-related fluorescent and phosphorescent materials by using a mixture of two dissimilar organic solvents for spin-cast film formation. The electron microscopic characterizations revealed that the mixture of a high-boiling-point orthodichlorobenzene and a low-boiling-point chloroform results in a formation of both crystalline and amorphous morphological structures in fluorene-conjugated polymers. The UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies indicated that the low-energy crystalline phase domains, randomly distributed in the continuous high-energy amorphous phase, function as potential quantum wells. As a consequence, the mixture of two dissimilar organic solvents significantly affects the exciton emission from fluorescent fluorene-conjugated polymer and the energy transfer in phosphorescent composite of fluorene polymer and iridium complex molecules, presenting a pathway to control fluorescent and phosphorescent processes in polymer light-emitting materials. View full abstract»

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  • The effects of uniaxial compressive stress on the terahertz emission from phosphorus-doped silicon devices

    Page(s): 103511 - 103511-3
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    The effects of uniaxial compressive stress on the terahertz electroluminescence from P-doped silicon devices have been studied. A shift by ∼0.5 THz in the emission peaks of donor state transitions: 2p0→1s(E) and 3p+/-→1s(E) has been observed for a stress of ∼0.1 GPa along the [100] direction. Transitions from excited states to the strain split states of 1s(E) showed a pronounced polarization effect. Transitions involving the 1s(T1) ground state, however, showed no polarization effect. These results suggest that it may be possible to realize a tunable impurity-doped silicon terahertz emitter by externally applied stress. View full abstract»

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  • 6-H single-crystal silicon carbide thermo-optic coefficient measurements for ultrahigh temperatures up to 1273 K in the telecommunications infrared band

    Page(s): 103512 - 103512-5
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    6H single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) is an excellent optical material for extremely high temperature applications. Furthermore, the telecommunication infrared band (e.g., 1500–1600 nm) is an eye safe and high commercial maturity optical technology. With this motivation, the thermo-optic coefficient ∂n/∂T for 6H single-crystal SiC is experimentally measured and analyzed from near room temperature to a high temperature of 1273 K with data taken at the 1550 nm wavelength. Specifically, the natural étalon behavior of 6-H single-crystal SiC is exploited within a simple polarization-insensitive hybrid fiber-free-space optical interferometric system to take accurate and rapid optical power measurements leading to ∂n/∂T data. The reported results are in agreement with the previously reported research at the lower ≪600 K temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting ionic conductivity of solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte from first principles

    Page(s): 103513 - 103513-8
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    First-principles quantum simulations complemented with kinetic Monte Carlo calculations were performed to gain insight into the oxygen vacancy diffusion mechanism and to explain the effect of dopant composition on ionic conductivity in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Density-functional theory (DFT) within the local-density approximation with gradient correction was used to calculate a set of energy barriers that oxygen ions encounter during migration in YSZ by a vacancy mechanism. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were then performed using Boltzmann probabilities based on the calculated DFT barriers to determine the dopant concentration dependence of the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in (Y2O3)x(ZrO2)(1-2x) with x increasing from 6% to 15%. The results from the simulations suggest that the maximum conductivity occurs at 7–9 mol % Y2O3 at 600–1500 K and that the effective activation energy increases at higher Y doping concentrations in good agreement with previously reported literature data. The increase in the effective activation energy for migration arises from the higher-energy barrier for oxygen vacancy diffusion across an Y–Y common edge relative to diffusion across one with a Zr–Y common edge of two adjacent tetrahedra. The binding energies between oxygen vacancies and dopants were extracted up to the fourth nearest-neighbor interaction. Our results reveal that the binding energy is the strongest when the vacancy is in the second nearest-neighbor position relative to the Y dopant atom. The methodology was also applied to scandium-doped zirconia (SDZ). Preliminary results from quantum simulations of SDZ suggest that - the effective activation energy for vacancy diffusion in SDZ is lower than that of YSZ, in agreement with experimental observations. The agreement with experimental studies on the two systems analyzed in this paper supports the use of this technique as a predictive tool on electrolyte systems not yet characterized experimentally. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory