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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 949 - 950
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  • Orbital Debris Mitigation Using Minimum Uncertainty Optical States [Point of View]

    Page(s): 951 - 953
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  • Optics and Photonics for Security and Defense [Scanning the Issue]

    Page(s): 954 - 956
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  • Technologies for Photonic Sensor Systems

    Page(s): 957 - 970
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensor systems provide a critical capability for maintaining situational awareness for defense and security applications. Advances in sensor system technology over the last fifty years have created sophisticated systems to collect, detect, process, and respond to radiation over much of the electromagnetic spectrum.In this article, we discuss the physical processes important to the design of photonic sensing, review programs advancing sensor technologies at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and provide some insight to future capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Techniques for Detecting and Identifying Biological-Warfare Agents

    Page(s): 971 - 989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid and accurate detection and identification of biological agents is an objective of various national security programs. Detection in general is difficult owing to natural clutter and anticipated low concentrations of subject material. Typical detection architectures comprise a nonspecific trigger, a rapid identifier, and a confirming step, often in a laboratory. High-confidence identification must be made prior to taking action, though this must be traded against regrets stemming from delay. Sensing requirements are best established by positing plausible scenarios, two of which are suggested herein. Modern technologies include the use of elastic scatter and ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence for triggering and standoff detection. Optical and nonoptical techniques are used routinely in analyzing clinical samples used to confirm infection and illness resulting from a biological attack. Today, environmental sensing serves at best as an alert to medical authorities for possible action, which would include sample collection and detailed analysis. This paper surveys the state of the art of sensing at all levels. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Three-Dimensional Identification and Tracking of Micro/Nanobiological Organisms by Computational Holographic Microscopy

    Page(s): 990 - 1010
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ability to sense, track, identify, and monitor biological micro/nanoorganisms in a real-time, automated, and integrated system is of great importance from both scientific and technological standpoints. Such a system and its possible variants would have numerous applications in a wide spectrum of fields, including defense against biological warfare, disease control, environmental health and safety, and medical treatments. In this paper, we review a comprehensive mixture of optical and computational tools developed in our group aiming at real-time sensing and recognition of biological microorganisms. Digital in-line holographic microscopy is used with both coherent and partially coherent illumination to probe the specimen interferometrically. The interference pattern is then recorded on an optoelectronic image sensor and transferred to a computer where special statistical algorithms are performed to segment, recognize, and track the microorganisms within the field of view of the microscope. The advantages of proposed holographic sensing are described compared to conventional two-dimensional imaging systems. In addition, the theoretical aspects and fundamental limitations of digital in-line holographic microscopy are discussed, which determine the relationship between system parameters and achievable performance. The proposed optical-digital integrated system for automated, real-time sensing and recognition of biological microorganisms has been deemed promising with the potential of widespread application. We demonstrate how the proposed techniques function together in a series of experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Ultrafast Focal-Point Optics for Microscopic Imaging, Manipulation, and Machining

    Page(s): 1011 - 1030
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When ultrafast laser pulses are tightly focused inside a transparent medium, various nonlinear optical phenomena readily occur at the focal point. These phenomena at the focal point can be utilized for nonlinear-optical microscopy, nanosurgery inside biological samples, device fabrication inside transparent materials, and welding of transparent materials. We review these new techniques from a unified viewpoint. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Hyperspectral Cueing for Civilian Search and Rescue

    Page(s): 1031 - 1055
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3036 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hyperspectral remote sensing provides information related to surface material characteristics that can be exploited to perform automated detection of targets of interest and has been applied to a variety of remote sensing applications. This paper explores the application to civilian search and rescue, using the airborne real-time cueing hyperspectral enhanced reconnaissance (ARCHER) system developed for the civil air patrol as a key example of how evolving hyperspectral technology can be employed to support these operations. ARCHER combines a visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system, a high-resolution visible panchromatic imaging sensor, and an integrated geopositioning and inertial navigation unit with onboard real-time processing for data acquisition and correction, precision image georegistration, and target detection and cueing. Processing for detecting downed aircraft wreckage and other related objects employs real-time adaptive anomaly detection and matched filtering algorithms, and a non-real-time change detection mode to provide further false alarm reduction in some instances. This paper describes the system technology, with an emphasis on the current and evolving automated target detection methods, and summarizes the operational experience in the airborne employment against civilian search and rescue missions. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances in LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices

    Page(s): 1056 - 1066
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    In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A-product LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high-quality LWIR focal plane arrays that were 100% fabricated in-house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in 3-D Multiperspective Display by Integral Imaging

    Page(s): 1067 - 1077
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture and display true 3-D color images, has been seen as the right technology for 3-D viewing for audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of its development, InI technology could be ready for massive commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed over the past few years. In this sense, this paper is devoted to reviewing some recent advances in InI, which have allowed improvement in the response of InI systems to the problems of the limited depth of field, poor axial and lateral resolution, pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, production of 3-D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems

    Page(s): 1078 - 1096
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonmechanical steering of optical beams will enable revolutionary systems with random access pointing, similar to microwave radar phased arrays. An early approach was birefringent liquid crystals writing a sawtooth phase profile in one polarization, using 2pi resets. Liquid crystals were used because of high birefringence. Fringing fields associated with voltage control required to implement the 2pi resets have limited the efficiency and steering angle of this beam steering approach. Because of steering angle limitations, this conventional liquid crystal steering approach is usually combined with a large angle step-steering approach. Volume holograms, birefringent prisms or sawtooth-profile birefringent phase gratings, and circular-type polarization gratings are the large angle step steering approaches that will be reviewed in this paper. Alternate steering approaches to the combined liquid crystal and step-steering approach exist. Microelectromechanical system mirrors, lenslet arrays, electrowetting, and a variable birefringent grating approach will be reviewed and compared against the conventional liquid crystal and step-steering approaches. Step-steering approaches can also be combined with these approaches. Multiple nonmechanical steering approaches are developing that will allow high-efficiency steering, excellent steering accuracy, and wide fields of view. View full abstract»

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  • A Characterization of Shannon Entropy and Bhattacharyya Measure of Contrast in Polarimetric and Interferometric SAR Image

    Page(s): 1097 - 1108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1212 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the application of Shannon entropy and Bhattacharyya distance for the characterization of polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images. We discuss the relevance of the decomposition of the Shannon entropy of a homogeneous region into the sum of three physically meaningful terms that depend respectively on intensity, polarimetry, and interferometry. We also discuss an analogous decomposition property for the Bhattacharyya distance, which is an efficient measure of the contrast between two regions. We illustrate the application of this approach for analyzing different contributions in the information content of PolInSAR images. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications

    Page(s): 1109 - 1127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) links to provide robust, high-throughput communications, fixed infrastructure links, and their associated networks have been thoroughly investigated for both commercial and military applications. The extension of this paradigm to mobile, long-range networks has long been a desire by the military communications community for multigigabit mobile backbone networks. The FSO communications subsystem has historically been the primary limitation. The challenge has been addressing the compensation of propagation effects and dynamic range of the received optical signal. This paper will address the various technologies required to compensate for the effects referenced above. We will outline the effects FSO and RF links experience and how we overcome these degradations. Results from field experiments conducted, including those from the Air Force Research Laboratory Integrated RF/Optical Networked Tactical Targeting Networking Technologies (IRON-T2) program, will be presented. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Techniques for Information Security

    Page(s): 1128 - 1148
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an overview of the potential of free space optical technology in information security, encryption, and authentication. Optical waveform posses many degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, spectral content, and multiplexing which can be combined in different ways to make the information encoding more secure. This paper reviews optical techniques for encryption and security of two-dimensional and three-dimensional data. Interferometric methods are used to record and retrieve data by either optical or digital holography for security applications. Digital holograms are widely used in recording and processing three dimensional data, and are attractive for securing three dimensional data. Also, we review optical authentication techniques applied to ID tags with visible and near infrared imaging. A variety of images and signatures, including biometrics, random codes, and primary images can be combined in an optical ID tag for security and authentication. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Karl B. McEachron [Scanning Our Past]

    Page(s): 1149 - 1151
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    In 1949, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) selected Karl B. McEachron as the recipient of the Edison Medal. He was cited "for his contributions to the advancement of electrical science in the field of lightning and other high voltage phenomena and for the application of his knowledge to the design and protection of electric apparatus system." Lightning has been a subject of great interest to scientists, engineers, and the public at least since Benjamin Franklin's pioneering research and his invention of protective lightning rods in the eighteenth century. During his professional career, McEachron employed innovative ways to collect data on lightning. Also, he discovered more effective devices and techniques to reduce or prevent damage from lightning. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 1152 - 1153
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Page(s): 1154
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 1155 - 1156
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  • IEEE Potentials is looking for article submissions

    Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University