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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 277 - 278
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 279 - 280
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  • The Inductance Enhancement Study of Spiral Inductor Using Ni–AAO Nanocomposite Core

    Page(s): 281 - 285
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The letter presents the fabrication and characterization of on-chip spiral inductors with Ni-anodic alumina oxide (Ni-AAO) nanocomposite core. Ni nanorods with 70 nm diameter are deposited and isolated in an AAO matrix to form a layer of nanocomposite on silicon substrate. About 3% inductance enhancement to the inductor with the nanocomposite core has been observed and the enhancement can be kept up more than 6 GHz. Because the proposed inductance enhancement scheme using ferromagnetic-AAO-based nanocomposite as inductor core employs a CMOS-compatible fabrication process with the characteristics that can be further improved, it is our belief that the scheme has a great potential application for future radio frequency integrated circuitry (RFIC) manufacture. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Nanotube Growth Studies Using an Atmospheric, Microplasma Reactor

    Page(s): 286 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of carbon nanotube arrays at substrate temperatures lower than 100degC and growth rates greater than 50 mum/h using atmospheric plasma discharges inside microcapillary reactors. Thermal CVD using the same reactor required temperatures in excess of 900degC. At temperatures greater than 1100degC, the thermal CVD yielded an unusual, diverging conical morphology. The microreactor studies suggest no new micrometer scale effects for thermal CVD. On the other hand, the microplasma discharges show beneficial effects on nanotube growth due to high plasma densities achieved at submillimeter reactor dimensions. The results suggest that the nanotube growth rates are proportional to plasma radical density. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive Evaluation and Study of Pattern Dependency Behavior in Selective Epitaxial Growth of B-Doped SiGe Layers

    Page(s): 291 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (563 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of chip layout and architecture on the pattern dependency of selective epitaxy of B-doped SiGe layers has been studied. The variations of Ge-, B-content, and growth rate have been investigated locally within a wafer and globally from wafer to wafer. The results are described by the gas depletion theory. Methods to control the variation of layer profile are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent Circuits and Nanoplasmonics

    Page(s): 298 - 302
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    We show how a circuit analysis, used widely in electrical engineering, finds application to problems of light wave injection and transport in subwavelength structures in the optical frequency range. Lumped circuit and transmission-line analysis may prove helpful in the design of plasmonic devices with standard, functional properties. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Optical Absorption in Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaic Device by Electromagnetic Theory

    Page(s): 303 - 314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electromagnetic (EM) scattering model is built for a kind of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) photovoltaic device excited by light. In this model, the exciting light is treated as classical EM wave with a very high frequency, and the SWCNTs in the device were treated as a lossy dielectric cylinder with frequency-dependent complex permittivity. Based on the EM scattering model, the Foldy-Lax multiple-scattering equation for the SWCNT cylinders can be derived, and then, the absorbed power of SWCNTs can be estimated. We also use EM simulation software - high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) - to extract the optical absorption of SWCNTs, and then the property of optical absorption of the device is studied more carefully; and the EM scattering model is also validated through HFSS simulation. From the results, some advices are given for the design of such kind of device. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient CMOL Gate Designs for Cryptography Applications

    Page(s): 315 - 321
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    This paper introduces new hybrid complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-nano (CMOL) circuits for efficient implementation of cryptographic algorithms. The novelty of this study is to utilize two types of nanojunction devices with CMOS to build the crypto IC. In particular, efficient XOR gate with resistive junctions and XOR/AND gates with diode-like junctions are develop to be used as building blocks of the corresponding modules of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) crypto IC. They allow a reduction of 79%, 43%, and 53% in power dissipation, area, and time delay compared to the existing CMOL implementation of AES system. When compared to field-programmable nanowire interconnect (FPNI) design of AES, a 56% increase in power dissipation was recorded in order to achieve a 92% and 15% reduction in area and time delay. This proposed circuit study also leverages the recent fabrication results, which is a feasible CMOS-nano hybrid solution for future crypto IC development. View full abstract»

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  • A Theoretical Investigation on CMOL FPGA Cell Assignment Problem

    Page(s): 322 - 329
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The hybrid CMOS/nano circuits (CMOL) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a promising nanotechnology that has the potential to be accepted by industry in the future. However, a primary question to be addressed is whether or not all circuits can be mapped on CMOL architecture. In contrast to traditional placement and routing problems, CMOL cell assignment has the constraint that each gate can only be wired to a limited number of gates in its neighborhood. Under such a restriction, not all circuits are directly placeable. This paper presents two theoretical results concerning whether a combinatorial circuit is placeable in CMOL FPGA. For any finite connection domain, we prove the existence of a few nonplaceable circuits under certain conditions. Given a reasonable connection domain size, we show that any combinatorial circuit can be transformed to an equivalent circuit which is placeable. These results conclude that the CMOL cell assignment problem is solvable but circuit modification has to be part of the placement procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Moving Toward Nano-TCAD Through Multimillion-Atom Quantum-Dot Simulations Matching Experimental Data

    Page(s): 330 - 344
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    Low-loss optical communication requires light sources at 1.5 mum wavelengths. Experiments showed, without much theoretical guidance, that InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) may be tuned to such wavelengths by adjusting the In fraction in an InxGa1- xAs strain-reducing capping layer. In this paper, systematic multimillion-atom electronic structure calculations explain, qualitatively and quantitatively, for the first time, available experimental data. The nanoelectronic modeling NEMO 3-D simulations treat strain in a 15-million-atom system and electronic structure in a subset of ~ 9 million atoms using the experimentally given nominal geometries, and without any further parameter adjustments, the simulations match the nonlinear behavior of experimental data very closely. With the match to experimental data and the availability of internal model quantities, significant insight can be gained through mapping to reduced-order models and their relative importance. We can also demonstrate that starting from simple models has, in the past, led to the wrong conclusions. The critical new insight presented here is that the QD changes its shape. The quantitative simulation agreement with experiment, without any material or geometry parameter adjustment in a general atomistic tool, leads us to believe that the era of nanotechnology computer-aided design is approaching. NEMO 3-D will be released on nanoHUB.org, where the community can duplicate and expand on the results presented here through interactive simulations. View full abstract»

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  • A New Circuit Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects With Diameter-Dependent Parameters

    Page(s): 345 - 354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new circuit model for the propagation of electric signals along carbon nanotube interconnects is derived from a fluid model description of the nanotube electrodynamics. The conduction electrons are regarded as a 2-D charged fluid, interacting with the electromagnetic field produced by the ion lattice, the conduction electron themselves, and the external sources. This interaction may be assumed to be governed by a linearized Euler's equation, which provides the nanotube constitutive equation to be coupled to Maxwell equations. A derivation of a circuit model is then possible within the frame of the classical multiconductor transmission-line (TL) theory. The elementary cell of this TL model differs from those proposed in literature, due to the definition of the circuit variable corresponding to the voltage. When considering small nanotube radius, we obtain values for the kinetic inductance and quantum capacitance that are consistent with literature. These values are corrected here to take into account the influence of larger values of radius properly. Conversely, the value of the per unit length resistance is roughly half of the value usually adopted in literature. The multiconductor TL model is used to study the scaling law of the parameters with the number of carbon nanotubes in a bundle. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Experimental Analysis of Schottky Barriers and Poole–Frenkel Emission in Carbon Nanotube Devices

    Page(s): 355 - 360
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigated carbon nanotube FETs (CNT FETs) utilizing semiconducting single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Multiple devices, each of different metal source and drain contacts, were fabricated on a single SWCNT. Over specific temperature regimes, transport properties of the devices were found to be consistent with the Bethe theory of thermionic emission for Schottky contacts, and the Poole-Frenkel emission was dependent on the device position. As was expected, transport from thermionic emission over the barrier was found to be the dominant mechanism. Barriers of 25-41 meV were present, as found by activation energy analysis for temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K for the devices. A Schottky diode was also fabricated on a separate nanotube using an ohmic contact at the Pd source and a Schottky contact for the Ag drain electrode. Assuming the same physical assumptions for an Si semiconductor device, the results indicate an ideality factor greater than 2, Schottky barrier of ~0.37 eV, and image charge lowering of ~0.1 eV. View full abstract»

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  • Precise Simulation Model for DNA Tile Self-Assembly

    Page(s): 361 - 368
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (810 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Self-assembling DNA complexes have been intensively studied in recent years aiming to achieve bottom-up construction of nanoscale objects. Among them a DNA complex called the DNA tile is known for its high programmability. DNA tiles can form 2-D crystals with programmable patterns via self-assembly. In order to create a wide range of complex objects by algorithmic self-assembly, we need a methodology to predict its behavior. To estimate the behavior, we can use thermodynamic simulations based on the Monte Carlo method. However, the previous simulation model assumed some simplified conditions and was not able to adequately explain the results of crystal growth experiments. Here, we propose the realistic tile assembly model, in which we are able to simulate the detailed conditions of the experimental protocols. By this model, the results of experiments (e.g., error rates, growth rate, and the formation and melting temperatures) are reproduced with high reliability. We think this model is useful to predict the behavior of DNA self-assembly and to design various types of DNA complexes. View full abstract»

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  • Read-Out Design Rules for Molecular Crossbar Architectures

    Page(s): 369 - 374
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    This paper investigates the behavior of large-scale crossbar memory arrays, built from molecular switches. We construct SPICE models based on experimental I(V) curves and investigate how critical circuit parameters (read-out margin, power dissipation, and speed) scale with circuit size. We concentrate on the read-out process. We explore the effect of nonlinear/rectifying elements placed at the junctions and conclude that scalable crossbar memories could be built using molecules with nonlinear, nonrectifying behavior in the molecular I(V) curve. The ultimate achievable storage capacity of these arrays is estimated and prescriptions for optimized molecular switches are provided. View full abstract»

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  • FinFET Design for Tolerance to Statistical Dopant Fluctuations

    Page(s): 375 - 378
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Variations in highly scaled (L G = 9 nm), undoped-channel FinFET performance, caused by statistical dopant fluctuations (SDFs) in the source/drain (S/D) gradient regions, are systematically investigated using 3-D atomistic device simulations. The impact of SDF on device design optimization is examined and simple design strategies are identified. Variation-tolerant design imposes stringent specifications for S/D lateral abruptness and gate-sidewall spacer thickness, and it poses a tradeoff between performance and variability for body thickness. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of the Averaging Reliability Technique Using Low Redundancy Factors for Nanoscale Technologies

    Page(s): 379 - 390
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    This paper presents a method enabling the evaluation of the averaging fault-tolerant technique, using the output probability density functions of unreliable units that are acquired from Monte Carlo simulations. The method has been verified by comparing numerical simulations and analytical developments. A fault-tolerant four-layer architecture using averaging and with both fixed and adaptable threshold is compared with triple and R-fold modular redundancy (RMR) techniques, at gate level and using fault-free decision gates, showing that the redundancy factor can be reduced by a factor of two to three using the proposed four-layer architecture, in replacement of RMR, thus enabling significant savings in the area, and power dissipation. The analysis of the reliability of averaging techniques together with the redundancy optimization has been performed for the first time in the context of a large-scale system, showing that a target reliability can be achieved with low redundancy factors (R < 8) for moderate defect densities (device failure rate up to 10-5). The performed analysis of the optimal size of the reliable islands (clusters) supports the assumption that clustering needs to be applied at the lower levels of design abstraction hierarchy, especially for fabrication technologies with increased defect density. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility Assessment and Analysis of a Forward Injected Photonic Crystal Device

    Page(s): 391 - 401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A forward injected photonic crystal device design has been proposed for the purpose of injecting a high carrier concentration across the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode formed across the waveguide of a photonic crystal in order to modulate the refractive index of the waveguide and generate a highly compact optical device. A numerical model was developed and evaluated both to assess the feasibility of this particular approach and to optimize the design. Carrier concentrations as high as 5.5 times1017 cm-3 were injected across the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode formed across the waveguide of an InP photonic crystal slab by highly forward biasing the device. This level of injection was capable of causing a negative shift in the refractive index of approximately -0.004 with response times of around 1 ns. The refractive indexes and absorption coefficients generated during this analysis were then applied to a photonic crystal waveguide in order to assess the feasibility of developing a compact optical device using a strongly forward injected p-i-n diode. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Transport in a Semimetal–Semiconductor Nanocomposite

    Page(s): 402 - 407
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    Measurements are presented on the low-field electrical conductivity and moderate-field current-voltage characteristics in a nanocomposite structure of ErAs particles in an In0.53Ga0.47As host with Be compensation. The electrical conductivity displays strong temperature dependence with two types of transport mechanisms. At ~ 205 K and above, the low-field conductivity appears to be dominated by free electrons in In0.53Ga0.47As. Between 55 and 205 K, the conductivity is well explained by variable-range hopping, sigma = A exp(-B/T1/4), via Mott's law. The transport displays a soft breakdown effect at moderate bias fields that grows in threshold field with decreasing temperature. This is attributed to impact ionization of the Be dopants. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant Enhanced Wave Filter and Waveguide via Surface Plasmons

    Page(s): 408 - 411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors present an analysis of plasmonic wave filter and curved waveguide, simulated using a 2-D finite-difference time-domain technique. With different dielectric materials or surface structures located on the interface of the metal/dielectric, the resonant enhanced wave filter can divide light waves of different wavelengths and guide them with low losses. And the straight or curved waveguide can confine and guide light waves in a subwavelength scale. Within the 20 mum simulation region, it is found that the intensity of the guided light at the interface is roughly four times the peak intensity of the incident light. View full abstract»

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  • An Equivalent Circuit Modeling of an Equispaced Metallic Nanoparticles (MNPs) Plasmon Wire

    Page(s): 412 - 418
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    Based on the electric dipole moment (EDM) model of free oscillating electrons inside a single metallic nanoparticle (MNP), a comprehensive methodology is presented in the paper for calculating the equivalent circuit elements associated with an MNP. To find out the passive circuit elements for the MNP, the electromagnetic (EM) power flows are calculated by deriving the relaxation damping, radiation outflow, host matrix EM coupling, and applied signal interaction. The law of conservation of energy is then used to compute the extended oscillatory equation motion of a spherical MNP. The resonant behavior of a single MNP is represented by a lumped resonant circuit model, where the circuit parameters RLC are derived from the equation of motion of the EDM and EM near-field energy outside the MNP. Finally, equivalent circuit of a linearly equispaced MNPs plasmon wire is modeled as a voltage-controlled voltage source by using the nearest surface plasmon interactions. View full abstract»

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  • Reviewers

    Page(s): 419 - 421
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 422
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 423 - 424
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Kang L. Wang
University of California, Los Angeles
420 Westwood Plaza
Rm 66-147C, Engineering IV
Los Angeles, CA  90095-1594  90095-1594  USA
eic@tnano.org