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Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial Note on Health Informatics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 281 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (60 KB)  

    Using the development of the Cardiovascular Health Informatics and Multimodal E-record (CHIME) as an example, the authors have discussed in this editorial note four goals, each with a corresponding technical challenge in health informatics that needs to be overcome in order to better prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). With collaborative efforts, it is hoped that these barriers and all those unmentioned can be removed such that the problem of CVD can be relieved. Since CVD and common chronic diseases share a number of risk factors, the experience in the development of CHIME will definitely be valuable in formulating solutions to the crisis created by the ageing population and the prevalence of chronic disease on our health care system. Thus we are looking forward to receiving original contributions to T-ITB in the area of health informatics to expediate progress in this area. View full abstract»

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  • New Decision Support Tool for Treatment Intensity Choice in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 284 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in childhood, has its treatment modulated by the risk of relapse. An appropriate estimation of this risk is the most important factor for the definition of treatment strategy. In this paper, we build up a new decision support tool to improve treatment intensity choice in childhood ALL. Our procedure was applied to a significant cohort of Brazilian children with ALL, the majority of the cases treated in the last decade in the two main University Hospitals of Rio de Janeiro. Some intrinsically difficulties of this dataset introduce an assortment of challenges, among those the need of a proper selection of features, clinical and laboratorial data. We apply a mutual information-based methodology for this purpose and a Neural Network to estimate the risk. Among the relapsed patients, 98.2% would have been identified as high-risk by the proposed methodology. The proposed procedure showed significantly better results when compared to the BFM95, a widely used classification protocol. View full abstract»

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  • PathMiner: A Web-Based Tool for Computer-Assisted Diagnostics in Pathology

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 291 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large-scale, multisite collaboration has become indispensable for a wide range of research and clinical activities that rely on the capacity of individuals to dynamically acquire, share, and assess images and correlated data. In this paper, we report the development of a Web-based system, PathMiner , for interactive telemedicine, intelligent archiving, and automated decision support in pathology. The PathMiner system supports network-based submission of queries and can automatically locate and retrieve digitized pathology specimens along with correlated molecular studies of cases from ldquoground-truthrdquo databases that exhibit spectral and spatial profiles consistent with a given query image. The statistically most probable diagnosis is provided to the individual who is seeking decision support. To test the system under real-case scenarios, a pipeline infrastructure was developed and a network-based test laboratory was established at strategic sites at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Rutgers University. The average five-class classification accuracy of the system was 93.18% based on a tenfold cross validation on a close dataset containing 3691 imaged specimens. We also conducted prospective performance studies with the PathMiner system in real applications in which the specimens exhibited large variations in staining characters compared with the training data. The average five-class classification accuracy in this open-set experiment was 87.22%. We also provide the comparative results with the previous literature and the PathMiner system shows superior performance. View full abstract»

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  • Indexes for Three-Class Classification Performance Assessment—An Empirical Comparison

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 300 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Assessment of classifier performance is critical for fair comparison of methods, including considering alternative models or parameters during system design. The assessment must not only provide meaningful data on the classifier efficacy, but it must do so in a concise and clear manner. For two-class classification problems, receiver operating characteristic analysis provides a clear and concise assessment methodology for reporting performance and comparing competing systems. However, many other important biomedical questions cannot be posed as ldquotwo-classrdquo classification tasks and more than two classes are often necessary. While several methods have been proposed for assessing the performance of classifiers for such multiclass problems, none has been widely accepted. The purpose of this paper is to critically review methods that have been proposed for assessing multiclass classifiers. A number of these methods provide a classifier performance index called the volume under surface (VUS). Empirical comparisons are carried out using 4 three-class case studies, in which three popular classification techniques are evaluated with these methods. Since the same classifier was assessed using multiple performance indexes, it is possible to gain insight into the relative strengths and weakness of the measures. We conclude that: 1) the method proposed by Scurfield provides the most detailed description of classifier performance and insight about the sources of error in a given classification task and 2) the methods proposed by He and Nakas also have great practical utility as they provide both the VUS and an estimate of the variance of the VUS. These estimates can be used to statistically compare two classification algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Analysis of Physiological Data to Support Medical Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 313 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a flexible framework that performs real-time analysis of physiological data to monitor people's health conditions in any context (e.g., during daily activities, in hospital environments). Given historical physiological data, different behavioral models tailored to specific conditions (e.g., a particular disease, a specific patient) are automatically learnt. A suitable model for the currently monitored patient is exploited in the real-time stream classification phase. The framework has been designed to perform both instantaneous evaluation and stream analysis over a sliding time window. To allow ubiquitous monitoring, real-time analysis could also be executed on mobile devices. As a case study, the framework has been validated in the intensive care scenario. Experimental validation, performed on 64 patients affected by different critical illnesses, demonstrates the effectiveness and the flexibility of the proposed framework in detecting different severity levels of monitored people's clinical situations. View full abstract»

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  • Aggregation of Classifiers for Staining Pattern Recognition in Antinuclear Autoantibodies Analysis

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 322 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Indirect immunofluorescence is currently the recommended method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). The diagnosis consists of both estimating the fluorescence intensity and reporting the staining pattern for positive wells only. Since resources and adequately trained personnel are not always available for these tasks, an evident medical demand is the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools that can support the physician decisions. In this paper, we present a system that classifies the staining pattern of positive wells on the strength of the recognition of their cells. The core of the CAD is a multiple expert system (MES) based on the one-per-class approach devised to label the pattern of single cells. It employs a hybrid approach since each composing binary module is constituted by an ensemble of classifiers combined by a fusion rule. Each expert uses a set of stable and effective features selected from a wide pool of statistical and spectral measurements. In this framework, we present a novel parameter that measures the reliability of the final classification provided by the MES. This feature is used to introduce a reject option that allows to reduce the error rate in the recognition of the staining pattern of the whole well. The approach has been evaluated on 37 wells, for a total of 573 cells. The measured performance shows a low overall error rate (2.7%-5.8%), which is below the observed intralaboratory variability. View full abstract»

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  • How Many Leads Are Necessary for a Reliable Reconstruction of Surface Potentials During Atrial Fibrillation?

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 330 - 340
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we aimed at determining how many leads are necessary for accurately reconstructing ECG potentials during atrial fibrillation (AF) on the body surface. Although the standard ECG is appropriate for the detection of this arrhythmia, its accuracy for extracting other diagnostic features or constructing surface potential maps may not be optimal. We evaluated the suitability of the standard ECG in AF and proposed a new lead system for improving the information content of AF signals in limited lead systems. We made use of 64-lead body surface potential mapping recordings of 17 patients during AF and 18 healthy subjects. Lead selection was performed by making use of a lead selection algorithm proposed by Lux, and error curves were calculated for increasing number of selected leads for QRS complexes and P waves from healthy subjects and AF signals. From our results, at least 23 leads are needed in order to have the same degree of accuracy in the derivation of AF waves as the 12-lead ECG for a normal QRS complex (25% error). The 12-lead ECG allows a reconstruction of surface potentials with 53% error. If a limited lead set is to be chosen, a repositioning of only four electrodes from the standard ECG reduces reconstruction error in 11%. This repositioning of electrodes may include more right anterior electrodes and one posterior electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Microarray Analysis of Autoimmune Diseases by Machine Learning Procedures

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 341 - 350
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microarray-based global gene expression profiling, with the use of sophisticated statistical algorithms is providing new insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We have applied a novel statistical technique for gene selection based on machine learning approaches to analyze microarray expression data gathered from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), two autoimmune diseases of unknown genetic origin that share many common features. The methodology included a combination of three data discretization policies, a consensus gene selection method, and a multivariate correlation measurement. A set of 150 genes was found to discriminate SLE and PAPS patients from healthy individuals. Statistical validations demonstrate the relevance of this gene set from an univariate and multivariate perspective. Moreover, functional characterization of these genes identified an interferon-regulated gene signature, consistent with previous reports. It also revealed the existence of other regulatory pathways, including those regulated by PTEN, TNF, and BCL-2, which are altered in SLE and PAPS. Remarkably, a significant number of these genes carry E2F binding motifs in their promoters, projecting a role for E2F in the regulation of autoimmunity. View full abstract»

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  • A Telehealth Architecture for Networked Embedded Systems: A Case Study in In Vivo Health Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 351 - 359
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The improvement in processor performance through continuous breakthroughs in transistor technology has resulted in the proliferation of lightweight embedded systems. Advances in wireless technology and embedded systems have enabled remote healthcare and telemedicine. While medical examinations could previously extract only localized symptoms through snapshots, now continuous monitoring can discretely analyze how a patient's lifestyle affects his/her physiological conditions and if additional symptoms occur under various stimuli. We demonstrate how medical applications in particular benefit from a hierarchical networking scheme that will improve the quantity and quality of ubiquitous data collection. Our Telehealth networking infrastructure provides flexibility in terms of functionality and the type of applications that it supports. We specifically present a case study that demonstrates the effectiveness of our networked embedded infrastructure in an in vivo pressure application. Experimental results of the in vivo system demonstrate how it can wirelessly transmit pressure readings measuring from 0 to 1.5 lbf/in2 with an accuracy of 0.02 lbf/in2. The challenges in biocompatible packaging, transducer drift, power management, and in vivo signal transmission are also discussed. This research brings researchers a step closer to continuous, real-time systemic monitoring that will allow one to analyze the dynamic human physiology. View full abstract»

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  • Microvascular Flow Estimation by Contrast-Assisted Ultrasound B-Scan and Statistical Parametric Images

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 360 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The microbubbles destruction/replenishment technique has been previously applied to estimating blood flow in the microcirculation. The rate of increase of the time-intensity curve (TIC) due to microbubbles flowing into the region of interest (ROI), as measured from B-mode images, closely reflects the flow velocity. In previous studies, we proposed a new approach called the time-Nakagami-parameter curve (TNC) obtained from Nakagami images to monitor microbubble replenishment for quantifying the microvascular flow velocity. This study aimed to further explore some effects that may affect the TNC to estimate the microflow, including microbubble concentration, ultrasound transmitting energy, attenuation, intrinsic noise, and tissue clutter. In order to well control each effect production, we applied a typical simulation method to investigate the TIC and TNC. The rates of increase of the TIC and TNC were expressed by the rate constants betaI and betaN, respectively, of a monoexponential model. The results show that betaN quantifies the microvascular flow velocity similarly to the conventional betaI. Moreover, the measures of betaI and betaN are not influenced by microbubble concentration, transducer excitation energy, and attenuation effect. Although the effect of intrinsic signals contributed by noise and blood would influence the TNC behavior, the TNC method has a better tolerance of tissue clutter than the TIC does, allowing the presence of some clutter components in the ROI. The results suggest that the TNC method can be used as a complementary tool for the conventional TIC to reduce the wall filter requirements for blood flow measurement in the microcirculation. View full abstract»

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  • A Context-Aware Fitness Guide System for Exercise Optimization in U-Health

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 370 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1162 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, exercise management systems have been introduced, which are generally used to optimize exercise. They create a proper exercise program via an exercise prescription based on the personal physical status of the user. However, exercise programs, generally created at intervals of two weeks to three months, are static and cannot reflect the user's exercise goals, which change dynamically. This paper proposes context-aware exercise architecture (CAEA), which provides an exercise program via a dynamic exercise prescription based on awareness of the user's status. We use sensors of a U-health environment and implement CAEA as an intelligent fitness guide (IFG) system. The IFG system selectively receives necessary parameters as input according to the user's exercise goals. Based on the changes in the user's exercise type, frequency, and intensity, the system creates an exercise program via an exercise optimization algorithm. In this paper, to show the exercise efficiency using the IFG system, we compared a noncontrol group to a control group. An eight-week study was performed comparing the changes of body weight in the two study groups. The study showed that the control group using the IFG system approached the desired body weight 2.57% more closely than the noncontrol group. Since IFG provides a real-time exercise program for users via an exercise optimization algorithm, it enables the user to perform effective and stable exercise according to the user's physical status. View full abstract»

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  • Short-Term Forecasting of Emergency Inpatient Flow

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 380 - 388
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hospital managers have to manage resources effectively, while maintaining a high quality of care. For hospitals where admissions from the emergency department to the wards represent a large proportion of admissions, the ability to forecast these admissions and the resultant ward occupancy is especially useful for resource planning purposes. Since emergency admissions often compete with planned elective admissions, modeling emergency demand may result in improved elective planning as well. We compare several models for forecasting daily emergency inpatient admissions and occupancy. The models are applied to three years of daily data. By measuring their mean square error in a cross-validation framework, we find that emergency admissions are largely random, and hence, unpredictable, whereas emergency occupancy can be forecasted using a model combining regression and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, or a seasonal ARIMA model, for up to one week ahead. Faced with variable admissions and occupancy, hospitals must prepare a reserve capacity of beds and staff. Our approach allows estimation of the required reserve capacity. View full abstract»

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  • An Interoperability Test Framework for HL7-Based Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 389 - 399
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Health Level Seven (HL7) is a prominent messaging standard in the eHealth domain, and with HL7 v2, it addresses only the messaging layer. However, HL7 implementations also deal with the other layers of interoperability, namely the business process layer and the communication layer. This need is addressed in HL7 v3 by providing a number of normative transport specification profiles. Furthermore, there are storyboards describing HL7 v3 message choreographies between specific roles in specific events. Having alternative transport protocols and descriptive message choreographies introduces great flexibility in implementing HL7 standards, yet, this brings in the need for test frameworks that can accommodate different protocols and permit the dynamic definition of test scenarios. In this paper, we describe a complete test execution framework for HL7-based systems that provides high-level constructs allowing dynamic set up of test scenarios involving all the layers in the interoperability stack. The computer-interpretable test description language developed offers a configurable system with pluggable adaptors. The Web-based GUIs make it possible to test systems over the Web anytime, anywhere, and with any party willing to do so. View full abstract»

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  • Noninvasive Biosignal Detection Radar System Using Circular Polarization

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 400 - 404
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an integrated hypersensitive Doppler radar system through a circular polarization characteristic. Through the idea of a reverse sense of rotation when the reflecting surface is perfectly conducting, it is shown that the detecting property of the system can be effectively improved by using antennas that have a reverse polarization. This bistatic radar system can be used in noninvasively sensing biosignals such as respiration and heart rates with the periodic movement of skin and muscle near the heart. The operating frequency of the system is in the X-band and the radar size is 95 times 50 times 13 mm3. View full abstract»

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  • Characterizing the Complexity of Spontaneous Electrical Signals in Cultured Neuronal Networks Using Approximate Entropy

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 405 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, neurons were cultured on a substrate above a multielectrode array, so the changes of electrophysiological activity patterns during development of the neuronal network or in response to environmental perturbations were monitored. But the complexity of these spontaneous activity patterns is not well understood. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive method (approximate entropy (ApEn) in combination with a ldquosliding windowrdquo over the data) is introduced to quantify the complexity of four spontaneous activity patterns (sporadic spikes, tonic spikes, pseudobursts, and typical bursts) in cultured hippocampal neuronal networks. The results show that the dynamic curves of ApEn illustrate vivid differences between the four patterns and the values of ApEn fall into different ranges. Among these patterns, the complexity of tonic spikes is the highest while that of pseudobursts is the lowest. This suggests that the proposed method is a valid procedure for tracking the dynamic variation in neuronal signals and can distinguish the different firing patterns of neuronal networks in terms of their complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Explore IEL IEEE's most comprehensive resource [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (353 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (85 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine publishes basic and applied papers of information technology applications in health, healthcare and biomedicine.

 

This Transaction ceased publication in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuan-ting Zhang
427, Ho Sin Hang Engineering Building, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
ytzhang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk
Phone:+852 2609-8458
Fax:+852 2609-5558