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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 69
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1270
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editor-in-Chief's Note—I ^{2} MTC 2008 Special Issue

    Page(s): 1271 - 1272
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Novel Near-Field Millimeter-Wave Differential Probe Using a Loaded Modulated Aperture

    Page(s): 1273 - 1282
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Near-field millimeter-wave techniques have effectively been used for nondestructive testing (NDT) and imaging applications for over a decade. The interaction of the fields and a structure under test (SUT) in the near field of a probe is more complex than that of the far-field interaction. In the near field, the distance between the probe and the SUT, which is referred to as the standoff distance, is an important measurement parameter, and when optimally chosen, it can significantly improve detection sensitivity. However, undesired changes in this parameter can adversely influence the detection outcome to the extent that a target may be totally masked. Consequently, in the past, several different methods and remedies have been proposed to eliminate or drastically reduce this adverse influence, each with its own limitations. In this paper, a novel method involving a probing waveguide aperture loaded with two small modulated antennas is introduced, which operates in a differential mode and is capable of automatically eliminating undesired changes in the standoff distance during testing. In addition, this differential probe efficiently overcomes the limitations of the previously developed methods. The proposed probe is based on electronic modulation of the dominant aperture field of the rectangular waveguide using p-i-n diode-loaded dipoles symmetrically placed in the aperture. This paper presents the design of this unique probe, and the results show that the adverse effect of the standoff distance variation can be eliminated or otherwise significantly reduced by noncoherently subtracting the signals measured at two different aperture modulation states. View full abstract»

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  • A Floorprint-Based Defect Tolerance for Nano-Scale Application-Specific IC

    Page(s): 1283 - 1290
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    A floorprint-based yield modeling, assurance and optimization method for the defect tolerant NASIC system under broken nanowire (NW) defects has been proposed in a short version of this paper, and the proposed models and methods are further validated and demonstrated through extensive parametric simulations in this paper. A yield model for each defect tolerant NASIC technique is developed based on the nature of the defects of concern in a floorprint-based analysis, thereby establishing an adequate foundation to evaluate and optimize the manufacturing process and defect tolerance by providing a capability to take into account the effect of each individual defect tolerance technique or synergetic effect of various combinations of the techniques on the overall expected yield of the product. According to the simulation results given in this paper, the defect tolerant NASIC system with 15 row and column NWs, respectively, each with length = 0.000034 on horizontal and vertical core nanoarray in a nanotile can achieve a yield higher than 99.8%. Ultimately, intelligent exploitation of the proposed yield modeling and simulation methods will make possible to realize a reliable NASIC-based computing system. View full abstract»

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  • A New Calibration Procedure for 3-D Shape Measurement System Based on Phase-Shifting Projected Fringe Profilometry

    Page(s): 1291 - 1298
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    An original procedure is presented for the calibration of fringe-projection-based 3-D vision systems. The proposed approach estimates both the phase-to-depth and transverse relationships by directly measuring the phase maps for only three planes placed within the calibration volume and then estimating the phase maps for a number of other ldquovirtual planes.rdquo Experimental tests conducted on a fringe projection system show the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring I/Q Impairments in WiMAX Transmitters

    Page(s): 1299 - 1306
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    This paper presents a new method for measuring the I /Q impairments affecting the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMax) transmitters through the analysis of the signal acquired through a general-purpose I /Q receiver. Based on a model of the effects of the I /Q impairments on the output signal that is suitable for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems like WiMax, the method is designed to correctly take into account the peculiarities of systems compliant with the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard, such as the potentially noxious effects of the impairments on signal normalization and threshold decisions. The results of the experiments carried out on the standard-compliant signals are given. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Comparison of Different Standards for Dynamic Characterization of ADCs

    Page(s): 1307 - 1315
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    This paper reports the first results of an experimental comparison of the test procedures described in the IEC and IEEE standards for the measurement of the analog-digital converter (ADC) dynamic performance in the frequency domain. The comparison has been carried out by setting up the standard test benches and applying the standard test procedures for measuring the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR), total harmonic distortion (THD), signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SINAD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and effective number of bits (ENOBs) of the three actual ADCs. The achieved results show a good degree of harmonization, even if the procedures and formulas are different. View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude Estimation by a Multipoint Interpolated DFT Approach

    Page(s): 1316 - 1323
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the amplitude estimation by a multipoint interpolated discrete Fourier transform (DFT) method. Accurate results are obtained using the weighted multipoint interpolated DFT (WMIpDFT) method with maximum sidelobe decay windows. In addition, using the WMIpDFT method with maximum sidelobe decay windows, it is mathematically proven that the systematic errors affecting the amplitude estimation decrease as the number of interpolation points and/or the window order increases. Computer simulations confirm the accuracy of the derived expressions. Moreover, the influence of white Gaussian noise on the amplitude estimations has been analyzed by means of computer simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Model and Experimental Characterization of the Dynamic Behavior of Low-Power Carbon Monoxide MOX Sensors Operated With Pulsed Temperature Profiles

    Page(s): 1324 - 1332
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    Wireless sensor networks for home automation or environment monitoring require low-cost low-power sensors. Carbon monoxide (CO) metal-oxide (MOX) sensors could be suitable in terms of device cost, but they show some severe limits, such as the need to be heated, which means large power consumption and the need for complex and frequent calibration procedures, which increases the overall cost. This paper investigates the possibility to partially overcome these limits by a low-cost detection system based on a suitable commercial sensor (TGS 2442, Figaro, Inc.) and an ad hoc measurement technique exploiting specifically tailored temperature profiles. To this aim, the authors study the dynamic behavior of low-power CO MOX sensors operated with pulsed temperature profiles by means of two approaches: 1) sensor modeling and 2) experimental evaluation. To analyze how the sensor dynamic response changes as a function of the CO concentration, the authors individuate a temperature profile, which ensures satisfactory sensitivity to the target gas and very low power consumption. Moreover, some parameters describing the sensor response shape are selected, which prove to be significant in terms of both robustness to environmental conditions and calibration simplicity. View full abstract»

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  • A Configurable Mixed-Signal Architecture for Label-Free Smart Biosensor Applications

    Page(s): 1333 - 1344
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors present a novel approach to perform the readout of a genetic sensor by using a low-frequency impedance-sensing technique based on phase-shift measurements. The proposed architecture is sufficiently simple to be fit into an off-the-shelf programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) and yet has been demonstrated to be powerful enough to measure a wide range of capacitance values (100 pF-10 muF ) with a relative error smaller than 2% compared with a high-cost laboratory instrumentation. Field measurements on real sensing structures demonstrated the functionality of the system in saline solutions characterized by different molarities. In this case, the sensor model could not be reduced to a simple capacitance, and the acquired phase shifts were fitted by exploiting a constant-phase element (CPE) model of the sensor. The worst-case relative error on the extracted capacitance for a given molar concentration is 16% for the 0.1-M solution and 11% for the 0.5-M solution. Since DNA hybridization should cause a capacitance change on the order of 25%, our conclusion is that, in principle, the proposed measurement procedure is able to discriminate between single-stranded and hybridized DNAs. The measured phase shifts as a function of frequency allowed us to extract the parameters of the CPE model with an error on the phase that is smaller than 0.4deg . View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Method for the Calibration of Traditional and Electronic Measurement Current and Voltage Transformers

    Page(s): 1345 - 1353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The calibration of measurement transformers represents a classical task in the practice of electrical measurements. Most commercial instruments that are expressly designed for this purpose found their working principle on a scheme that is based on the idea of Kusters and Moore. Although they can assure very high accuracy, the need to employ a high-performance electromagnetic circuit makes them very expensive and usually not suitable for measurements at frequencies that are higher than 50 or 60 Hz. For this reason, these kinds of instruments cannot be employed for the calibration of the new generation of current and voltage transducers, such as electronic measurement transformers, whose employment is growing in all the applications where wide bandwidth is required. In this paper, a new method for the calibration of electromagnetic voltage and current measurement transformers (VTs and CTs) and electronic voltage and current measurement transformers (EVTs and ECTs) is discussed, and a deep metrological characterization is carried out. The novelty of the proposed method is represented by a completely different approach to the measurement of the ratio and phase errors of the measurement transformers. The method is based on the proper digital signal processing of the signals that are collected at the secondaries of the transformer under test and of a reference transformer when the same signal is applied to their primary. Since no auxiliary electromagnetic circuits are required, this solution can be easily implemented in a simple and cost-effective way. In spite of its simplicity, the tests that are developed on a prototype clearly point out that the proposed system is suitable for the calibration of measurement transformers with precision class up to 0.1 in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Finite-Sample Bias Propagation in Autoregressive Estimation With the Yule–Walker Method

    Page(s): 1354 - 1360
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Yule-Walker (YW) method for autoregressive (AR) estimation uses lagged-product (LP) autocorrelation estimates to compute an AR parametric spectral model. The LP estimates only have a small triangular bias in the estimated autocorrelation function and are asymptotically unbiased. However, using them in finite samples with the YW method for AR estimation can give a strong distortion in the weak parts of the power spectral density. The distortion is shown to be influential in an example without strong spectral peaks. The true biased AR model, which is computed by applying the triangular bias to the true autocorrelation function, has an infinite order. A new objective measure is introduced to determine the smallest sample size for which the unbiased asymptotic theory can be considered as a fair approximation. View full abstract»

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  • Modified Durbin Method for Accurate Estimation of Moving-Average Models

    Page(s): 1361 - 1369
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spectra with narrow valleys can accurately be described with moving-average (MA) models by using only a small number of parameters. Durbin's MA method uses the estimated parameters of a long autoregressive (AR) model to calculate the MA parameters. Probably all the pejorative remarks on the quality of Durbin's method in the literature are based on suboptimal or wrong choices for the method of AR estimation or for the order of the intermediate AR model. Generally, the AR order should considerably be higher than the order of the best predicting AR model, and it should grow with the sample size. Furthermore, the Burg estimates for the AR parameters give the best results because they have the smallest variance of all the AR methods with a small bias. A modified Durbin MA method uses a properly defined number of AR parameters, which was estimated with Burg's method, and outperforms all the other known MA estimation methods, asymptotically as well as in finite samples. The accuracy is generally close to the Cramer-Rao bound. View full abstract»

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  • Five Separate Bias Contributions in Time Series Models for Equidistantly Resampled Irregular Data

    Page(s): 1370 - 1379
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of time series models for irregular data requires resampling of the data on an equidistant grid. Slotted resampling transforms an irregular randomly sampled process into an equidistant signal where data are missing. An approximate maximum-likelihood time series estimator has been developed to estimate the power spectral density and the autocorrelation function of multishift slotted nearest-neighbor (NN) resampled data sets. Resampling always causes bias in spectral estimates due to aliasing in the frequency domain and to shifting the observation times to an equidistant grid. Furthermore, orders of the time series models that are too low can cause a significant truncation bias and, probably, an additional missing-data bias, both of which disappear if the model orders are taken high enough. Finally, a special bias is present if the probability of making an observation at a certain time depends on the instantaneous amplitude of the observed signal. All five bias types are independent of the sample size and will not diminish if more data can be used for the estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Aspects of the Spectral Analysis of Irregularly Sampled Data With Time-Series Models

    Page(s): 1380 - 1388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several algorithms for the spectral analysis of irregularly sampled random processes can estimate the spectral density for a low frequency range. A new time-series method extended that frequency range with a factor of thousand or more. The new algorithm has two requirements to give useful results. First, at least ten closest pairs of neighboring irregular observations should have a distance less than the minimum resampling distance for the chosen discrete-time frequency range. Second, a low-order time-series model should be appropriate to describe the global character of the data. The consequences and importance of this second demand are studied for irregular turbulence observations with narrow spectral details. Models of low orders are estimated from equidistant hot-wire observations and from irregularly sampled laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) data, which are obtained from the same turbulence process. The irregular data are resampled with the nearest neighbor method, both with and without slotting. Apart from the usual bias contributions of resampling irregular data, LDA data can give an additional spectral bias if the instantaneous sampling rate is correlated to the actual magnitude of the turbulent velocity. Making histograms of the amplitudes and the interarrival times provides useful information about irregularly sampled data. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear System Identification Using a Subband Adaptive Volterra Filter

    Page(s): 1389 - 1397
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a flexible and efficient subband adaptive second-order Volterra filter (SBVF) structure for nonlinear system identification. The structure is first described in detail, where the underlying filter-bank scheme and adaptive filtering algorithms are explained, followed by a computational complexity analysis. Simulation results are then presented, showing that the proposed structure can achieve equal system-identification performance compared with that of a fullband second-order Volterra structure at a much-reduced complexity. In addition, the structure provides a more precise system model compared with that of a linear-only structure at a potentially similar computational expense. The results also demonstrate the suggested structure's ability to exploit a priori knowledge of the nature of the system nonlinearity through selectable nonlinear subband filtering, resulting in further complexity savings. The simulation results are experimentally verified under a practical acoustic-echo-cancellation scenario. It is shown that the SBVF structure can achieve up to a 10-dB lower mean-square error than that of a linear-only model at a comparable complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement Procedures for the Electrical Characterization of Oxide Thin Films

    Page(s): 1398 - 1404
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a measurement system for the electrical characterization of oxide thin films. Such films can be produced using plasma-sputtering processes and permit the realization of a large set of high-performance components, such as capacitors, active devices, sensors, and protective coatings. The electrical properties of the oxide films, which have a thickness of less than 1 mum, are difficult to measure since very high resistances (on the order of giga ohms) and small capacitances (on the order of picofarads) are expected for contact areas smaller than 1 mm2 . The measurement system and the procedures described in this paper represent an alternative solution to the commercial devices, which usually employ a mercury probe for performing the contact with the specimen under characterization. Furthermore, the proposed system can be used not only to estimate the electrical properties of a single point but to evaluate the uniformity of oxide films on large specimens as well. The experimental results reported refer to valve-metal-based oxide films deposited in a lab-scale capacitively coupled parallel-plate reactor and show the effectiveness of the proposed procedures. View full abstract»

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  • A Wireless Sensor Network for Cold-Chain Monitoring

    Page(s): 1405 - 1411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a wireless sensor network that was specifically designed to monitor temperature-sensitive products during their distribution with the aim of conforming to the cold-chain assurance requirements. The measurement problems and the constraints that have been encountered in this application are initially highlighted, and then, an architecture that takes such problems into account is proposed. The proposed architecture is based on specifically designed measuring nodes that are inserted into the products to identify their behavior under real operating conditions, e.g., during a typical distribution. Such product nodes communicate through a wireless channel with a base station, which collects and processes the data sent by all the nodes. A peculiarity of the product nodes is the low cost, which allows the information on the cold-chain integrity to be provided to the final customer. The results that refer to the functional tests of the proposed system and to the experimental tests performed on a refrigerated vehicle during a distribution are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of a TD-Based Method for Characterization of Antennas

    Page(s): 1412 - 1419
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Antenna-characterization measurements are traditionally performed in the frequency domain (FD) through a vector network analyzer (VNA) in an anechoic chamber. Nevertheless, the high cost of the required setup strongly limits the possibility of using this approach. Starting from these considerations, a time-domain (TD)-based approach for characterizing antennas without using an anechoic chamber is assessed. As a matter of fact, instruments operating in TD are usually less expensive than VNAs; nevertheless, with appropriate data processing, they provide as much information. Particularly, it is demonstrated that the selection of an optimal time windowing is the main factor that guarantees a high accuracy level in the corresponding FD. The proposed approach leads to the accurate evaluation of the reflection scattering parameter S 11(f) from time-domain reflectometry (TDR) data. The experimental validation is tested on a commercial radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader antenna, and the results are compared with reference VNA measurements performed in an anechoic chamber. The ultimate goal of this paper is to demonstrate that, through calibrated TDR measurements, along with an optimal time windowing, an accurate antenna characterization can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A Noninvasive Resonance-Based Method for Moisture Content Evaluation Through Microstrip Antennas

    Page(s): 1420 - 1426
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several techniques for measuring the moisture levels of materials, particularly in the soil science area, are available. Nevertheless, the state of the art is rather lacking in moisture-sensing methods that are both inexpensive and noninvasive. The time-domain reflectometry (TDR)-based method, despite being a well-established low-cost technique for sensing moisture content, is intrinsically invasive due to the configuration of the probes that are commonly used. These considerations motivated the authors to investigate the adoption of simple inexpensive microstrip antennas as sensing elements for TDR-based moisture content measurements. For this purpose, the water content of the monitored material is sensed through the changes in the reflection scattering parameter S 11(f) of the antenna. In particular, the change in the resonant frequency of the antenna, which is evaluated through an appropriate processing of the TDR waveforms, is correlated with the water content of the material under investigation. The ultimate goal is to assess a sensing method that can be implemented for inexpensive real-time noninvasive monitoring applications. View full abstract»

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  • Metrological Characterization and Operating Principle Identification of Static Meters for Reactive Energy: An Experimental Approach Under Nonsinusoidal Test Conditions

    Page(s): 1427 - 1435
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an experimental approach is proposed for the metrological characterization of the static meters for reactive energy and for the individuation of their operating principle in nonsinusoidal conditions. The proposed approach was developed by starting from the only available accuracy test condition in the presence of the harmonics introduced by the standards for active static meters. In this paper, the proposed approach is described, and some experimental tests are presented, which were performed on some meters of different accuracy classes and with both known and unknown operating principles. View full abstract»

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  • Disturbing Load Identification in Power Systems: A Single-Point Time-Domain Method Based on IEEE 1459-2000

    Page(s): 1436 - 1445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single-point method for the identification of prevailing disturbing loads in power systems for both single-phase and three-phase applications downstream or upstream from the metering section. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of three nonactive power quantities, which are based on the IEEE Std. 1459-2000 approach. The proposed method is only based on the separation of the fundamental components from the harmonic content of voltage and current; thus, it does not require any spectral analysis of the voltages and current. In this paper, the formulation of the proposed method and its time-domain implementation are described; moreover, some simulation results are presented and discussed, showing the effectiveness of the method both in the absence and in the presence of the measurement transducers. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Approach to Current Transformer Characterization in the Presence of Harmonic Distortion

    Page(s): 1446 - 1453
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The current transformer (CT) performance under distorted waveform conditions is usually characterized by means of the frequency-response test. In this paper, a new way to characterize CTs, closer to real operation conditions, is proposed. The harmonic phase-angle and ratio errors are measured using a nonsinusoidal current composed of fundamental and one harmonic with adjustable phase shift. The new method was tested by determining the performance of two metering class CTs commonly used by the Italian power company. The errors measured using the proposed approach are larger than the ones obtained with the frequency response. This result suggests that the frequency-response approach for the evaluation of CT performance under distorted waveform conditions is not a reliable method. View full abstract»

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  • An Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Diagnostic Tool Based on Time-Domain Current Analysis

    Page(s): 1454 - 1461
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel virtual-instrument-based monitoring and diagnosis technique that permits the identification of rotor faults in small inverter-fed induction motors is presented and discussed. Since it allows the continuous monitoring of the machine, it is a useful tool for the implementation of advanced maintenance strategies. Through a proper experimental setup, the performance, repeatability, and portability of the proposed algorithm have been evaluated. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703