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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Perceptual Optimization for Scalable Video Compression Based on Visual Masking Principles

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 309 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a visual optimization strategy for scalable video compression. The challenge scalable coding presents is that truncation of an embedded codestream may induce variable and highly visible distortion. To overcome the deficiencies of visually lossless coding schemes, we propose using an adaptive masking slope to model the perceptual impact of suprathreshold distortion arising from resolution and bit-rate scaling. This allows important scene structures to be better preserved. Following visual masking principles, local sensitivity to distortion is assessed within each frame. To keep the perceptual response uniform against spatiotemporal errors, we mitigate errors compounded by the motion field during temporal synthesis. Visual sensitivity weights are projected into the subband domain along motion trajectories via a process called perceptual mapping. This uses error propagation paths to capture some of the noise-shaping effects attributed to the motion-compensated transform. A key observation is that low contrast regions in the video are generally more susceptible to unmasking of quantization errors. The proposed approach raises the distortion-length slope associated with these critical regions, altering the bitstream embedding order so that visually sensitive sites may be encoded with higher fidelity. Subjective evaluation demonstrates perceptual improvement with respect to bit-rate, spatial and temporal scalability. View full abstract»

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  • On Rate-Distortion Modeling and Extraction of H.264/SVC Fine-Granular Scalable Video

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 323 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fine-granular scalable (FGS) technologies in H.264/AVC-based scalable video coding (SVC) provide a flexible foundation to accommodate different network capacities. To support efficient quality extraction, it is important to obtain the rate-distortion (R-D) or Distortion-Rate (D-R) function of each individual picture or a group of pictures (GOP). In this paper, firstly, the R-D function of SVC FGS pictures is analyzed with generalized Gaussian model and the D-R curve is proved to be a concave function overall. Considering the current sub-bitplane technology, the D-R function is revisited and inferred to be linear under MSE criterion within an FGS level, which also explains why the observed D-R curve with PSNR criterion is a piece-wise convex function. Secondly, the drift issue of SVC is analyzed, and a simple and effective distortion model is proposed to estimate the reconstruction distortion with drift error. Thirdly, with the above analysis and models, a virtual GOP concept is introduced, and a new priority setting algorithm is designed to achieve the optimal R-D performance in a virtual GOP. The D-R slope of each FGS packet and the D-R function of each virtual GOP are also obtained during the process. Finally, the D-R slopes of FGS levels are used in quality layer assignment to achieve equivalent coding efficiency to the SVC test model but with significantly reduced complexity. The D-R functions of virtual GOPs are utilized to design a practical method for smooth quality reconstruction. Compared to the prior methods, the smoothed video quality is improved not only objectively but also subjectively. View full abstract»

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  • Spatio-Temporal Just Noticeable Distortion Profile for Grey Scale Image/Video in DCT Domain

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 337 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In image and video processing field, an effective compression algorithm should remove not only the statistical redundancy information but also the perceptually insignificant component from the pictures. Just-noticeable distortion (JND) profile is an efficient model to represent those perceptual redundancies. Human eyes are usually not sensitive to the distortion below the JND threshold. In this paper, a DCT based JND model for monochrome pictures is proposed. This model incorporates the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF), the luminance adaptation effect, and the contrast masking effect based on block classification. Gamma correction is also considered to compensate the original luminance adaptation effect which gives more accurate results. In order to extend the proposed JND profile to video images, the temporal modulation factor is included by incorporating the temporal CSF and the eye movement compensation. Moreover, a psychophysical experiment was designed to parameterize the proposed model. Experimental results show that the proposed model is consistent with the human visual system (HVS). Compared with the other JND profiles, the proposed model can tolerate more distortion and has much better perceptual quality. This model can be easily applied in many related areas, such as compression, watermarking, error protection, perceptual distortion metric, and so on. View full abstract»

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  • Exemplar-Based Video Inpainting Without Ghost Shadow Artifacts by Maintaining Temporal Continuity

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 347 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image inpainting or image completion is the technique that automatically restores/completes removed areas in an image. When dealing with a similar problem in video, not only should a robust tracking algorithm be used, but the temporal continuity among video frames also needs to be taken into account, especially when the video has camera motions such as zooming and tilting. In this paper, we extend an exemplar-based image inpainting algorithm by incorporating an improved patch matching strategy for video inpainting. In our proposed algorithm, different motion segments with different temporal continuity call for different candidate patches, which are used to inpaint holes after a selected video object is tracked and removed. The proposed new video inpainting algorithm produces very few ldquoghost shadows,rdquo which were produced by most image inpainting algorithms directly applied on video. Our experiments use different types of videos, including cartoon, video from games, and video from digital camera with different camera motions. Our demonstration at http://member.mine.tku.edu.tw/www/T_CSVT/web/shows the promising results. View full abstract»

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  • Video-on-Demand Systems With Cooperative Clients in Multicast Environment

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 361 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) and multicast approaches are two common transmission strategies to provide scalable and cost efficient solutions for video-on-demand (VoD) services. The former approach requires small server resources and provides a negligible delay to users, but the bandwidth requirement inside the network will be rapidly increased when more customers join the video session. On the other hand, if the system simply uses a multicast scheme to deliver a video, customers will experience a noticeable delay before watching the video whereas the overall bandwidth requirement will not be significantly increased. In this paper, a new transmission policy denoted peer-to-peer batching (PPB) policy is proposed to efficiently deliver video data in a large scale VoD system by exploiting the multicast capability of the network and P2P paradigm. To avoid the disruption of services, the fault tolerance and recovery mechanism is also developed for PPB. In addition, in order to further improve the scalability of the system, a distributed PPB (DPPP) is also proposed. We then develop a mathematical model to evaluate the performance of each of our proposed policies analytically. Based on this model, system designers are able to study various design options as well as perform system dimensioning. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better system performance compared with existing schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Optimization of Video Server Resource and Streaming Quality Over Best-Effort Network

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 374 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A video streaming server needs to adapt its source/channel encoding parameters (or configurations) to changes in network conditions and to differences in users' connection profiles. The adaptation can be achieved by adjusting parameters such as frame rate, error protection ratio, and resolution. Ideally, the server should adapt the serving configurations with respect to the current network and user conditions to improve received video quality. However, adaptations that optimize playable frame rate require intensive computation, and storing all possible configurations requires a tremendous amount of storage. This brings forth the issues of how to obtain good video quality and reduce server resources usage at the same time. We address this issue in this paper. Our approach is based on the observation that transcoding between certain configurations can be performed very efficiently. We propose a framework to compute a set of configurations to store on the server by considering two opposing goals: (a) maximizing expected received quality of the video, and (b) minimizing server resource usage by lowering transcoding cost and expected number of switches between configurations. The second objective also reduces the number of configurations, and therefore reduces the total storage required. Our framework models the relationship among different configurations in a partial order, formulates the search of a good set of configurations as an energy minimization problem, and we use techniques in image segmentation to solve the problem. Experimental results show that our framework relieves the server load and increases the number of clients served, while only slightly reducing the expected frame rate. View full abstract»

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  • Workload-Aware Resource Sharing and Cache Management for Scalable Video Streaming

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 386 - 396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The required real-time and high-rate transfers for multimedia data severely limit the number of video streams that can be delivered concurrently. Resource-sharing techniques address this problem and can be classified into two main classes: stream merging and periodic broadcasting. We evaluate through extensive simulation major resource-sharing techniques from the two classes, considering different service models and video workloads. We utilize this extensive analysis in developing a workload-aware hybrid solution (WAHS) that combines the advantages of the best performers among resource-sharing techniques. Moreover, we propose a statistical cache management (SCM) approach and derive analytical models for optimal cache allocation to reduce further the demands on the disk I/O when various resource sharing techniques are used. View full abstract»

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  • Event Analysis Based on Multiple Interactive Motion Trajectories

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 397 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Motion information is regarded as one of the most important cues for developing semantics in video data. Yet it is extremely challenging to build semantics of video clips particularly when it involves interactive motion of multiple objects. Most of the existing research has focused on capturing and modelling the motion of each object individually thus loosing interaction information. Such approaches yield low precision-recall ratios and limited indexing and retrieval performances. This paper presents a novel framework for compact representation of multi-object motion trajectories. Three efficient multi-trajectory indexing and retrieval algorithms based on multilinear algebraic representations are proposed. These include: (i) geometrical multiple-trajectory indexing and retrieval (GMIR), (ii) unfolded multiple-trajectory indexing and retrieval (UMIR), and (iii) concentrated multiple-trajectory indexing and retrieval (CMIR). The proposed tensor-based representations not only remarkably reduce the dimensionality of the indexing space but also enable the realization of fast retrieval systems. The proposed representations and algorithms can be robustly applied to both full and partial (segmented) multiple motion trajectories with varying number of objects, trajectory lengths, and sampling rates. The proposed algorithms have been implemented and evaluated using real video datasets. Simulation results demonstrate that the CMIR algorithm provides superior precision-recall metrics, and smaller query processing time compared to the other approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Pointwise Motion Image (PMI): A Novel Motion Representation and Its Applications to Abnormality Detection and Behavior Recognition

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 407 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel motion representation and apply it to abnormality detection and behavior recognition. At first, pointwise correspondences for the foreground in two consecutive video frames are established by performing a salient-region-based pointwise matching algorithm. Then, based on the established pointwise correspondences, a pointwise motion image (PMI) for each frame is built up to represent the motion status of the foreground. The PMI is more suitable for video analysis as it encapsulates a variety of motion information such as pointwise motion speed, pointwise motion orientation, pointwise motion duration, as well as the global shape of the foreground. In addition, it represents all of these pieces of information by a color image in the HSV space, by which many popular techniques in the image processing field can be straightforwardly adopted. By combining the PMI and AdaBoost, a method for abnormality detection and behavior recognition is proposed. The proposed method is shown to possess a high discriminative ability and is capable of dealing with local motion, global motion, and similar motions with different speeds. Experiments including a comparison with two existing methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed representation in abnormality detection and behavior recognition. View full abstract»

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  • Combined Wavelet-Domain and Motion-Compensated Video Denoising Based on Video Codec Motion Estimation Methods

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 417 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrating video coding and denoising is a novel processing paradigm, bringing mutual benefits to both video processing tools. In this paper, we propose a novel video denoising approach of which the main idea is reusing motion estimation resources from the video coding module for video denoising. In most cases, the motion fields produced by real-time video codecs cannot be directly employed in video denoising, since they, as opposed to noise filters, tolerate errors in the motion field. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel motion-field filtering step that refines the accuracy of the motion estimates to a degree that is required for denoising. Additionally, a novel temporal filter is proposed that is robust against errors in the estimated motion field. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed denoising scheme is of low-complexity and compares favorably to the state-of-the-art video denoising methods. View full abstract»

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  • A Temporal Approach for Improving Intra-Frame Concealment Performance in H.264/AVC

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 422 - 426
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (834 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The highly error-prone nature of wireless environments and limited computational power of mobile devices necessitates the implementation of robust yet simple error concealment in H.264/AVC. In this paper, we propose to use data hiding to facilitate the error concealment on intra-coded frames that utilizes the temporal redundancy in a wireless video bitstream. At the encoder side, the motion vector of a macroblock (MB) is encoded and imperceptibly embedded into other MB within the same intra-frame. If an MB is found missing at the decoder, the embedded information will be retrieved from the corresponding MB for the recovery of the lost MB. In order to isolate erroneous MBs caused by packet loss, a block shuffling scheme is applied. It is shown that the proposed method is able to shift the computation burden from decoder to encoder, and reduce the computation complexity of conventional error concealment methods. In addition, due to the use of real motion vectors for temporal concealment, the proposed method provides improved picture quality over the reference methods in H.264/AVC. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Digital Image Stabilization System Using Modified Proportional Integrated Controller

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 427 - 431
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel, real-time digital image stabilization (DIS) system using a modified proportional integrated (MPI) controller to remove stably unwanted shaking from an image sequence that is captured by a hand-held video camera without affecting the deliberate panning motion of the camera. Researchers have addressed the trade-off problem between the removal of shaking and the preservation of global camera movement. This paper analyzes motion compensation, which is formulated as a control problem. A compensating motion vector (CMV) estimation method with a modified PI control system is proposed both to remove the unwanted jitter and to preserve the deliberate, panning motion of the camera. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides robust motion compensation of image sequences in various conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A 140-MHz 94 K Gates HD1080p 30-Frames/s Intra-Only Profile H.264 Encoder

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 432 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a HD1080p 30-frames/s H.264 intra encoder operated at 140 MHz with just 94 K gate count and 0.72-mm2 core area for digital video recorder or digital still camera applications. To achieve high throughput and low area cost for high-definition video, we apply the modified three-step fast intra prediction technique to reduce the cycle count while keeping the quality as close as full search. Then, in architecture scheduling, we further adopt the variable pixel parallelism instead of constant four-pixel parallelism to speed up performance on the critical intra prediction part while keeping other parts unchanged for low area cost. The achieved design only needs half of the working frequency and reduces the gate count cost by 23.5% compared with the previous design with the same HD720p 30-frames/s requirement. Besides, our design at 140 MHz can support HD1080p 30 frames/s for digital video encoder or 4096 times2304 images with 6.78 frames/s for digital still camera application. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Moving Vehicle Detection With Cast Shadow Removal in Video Based on Conditional Random Field

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 437 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach of moving vehicle detection and cast shadow removal for video based traffic monitoring. Based on conditional random field, spatial and temporal dependencies in traffic scenes are formulated under a probabilistic discriminative framework, where contextual constraints during the detection process can be adaptively adjusted in terms of data-dependent neighborhood interaction. Computationally efficient algorithm has been developed to discriminate moving cast shadows and handle nonstationary background processes for real-time vehicle detection in video streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach effectively fuses contextual dependencies and robustly detects moving vehicles under heavy shadows even in grayscale video. View full abstract»

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  • Online Selection of Tracking Features Using AdaBoost

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 442 - 446
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an online feature selection algorithm for video object tracking. Using the object and background pixels from the previous frame as training samples, we model the feature selection problem as finding a good subset of features to better classify object from background in current frame. This paper aims to improve existing methods by taking correlation between features into consideration. We propose to use AdaBoost algorithm to iteratively select one feature which best compensates the previously selected features. Using the selected features, we then construct a compound likelihood image, which shows the ability to discriminate better than the original frame, as the input for the tracking process. We also propose to use ellipse fitting to eliminate mislabeled pixels from our training process. In addition, we propose an online feature validity test to monitor the selected features and only re-select features when the previously selected features become out-of-date. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm combined with mean-shift based tracking algorithm achieves very promising results. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent Key Frames Selection Based on Iso-Content Principles

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 447 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a key frames selection algorithm based on three iso-content principles (iso-content distance, iso-content error and iso-content distortion), so that the selected key frames are equidistant in video content according to the used principle. Two automatic approaches for defining the most appropriate number of key frames are proposed by exploiting supervised and unsupervised content criteria. Experimental results and the comparisons with existing methods from literature on large dataset of real-life video sequences illustrate the high performance of the proposed schemata. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to “Enhanced MC-EZBC Scalable Video Coder” [Oct 08 1432-1436]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 452
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB)  

    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1432-1436, Oct 08), Figs. 3 and 4 were printed incorrectly. The correct figures are presented here. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to “Systematic Lossy Error Protection of Video Signals” [Oct 08 1347-1360]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 452
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB)  

    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1347-1360, Oct 08), Fig. 4 was printed incorrectly. The correct figure is presented here. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it