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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2009

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • I/Q Imbalance Compensation Using a Nonlinear Modeling Approach

    Page(s): 513 - 518
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In-phase/quadrature (I/Q) imbalance is one of the main sources of distortion in RF modulators. In this paper, a dual-input nonlinear model based on a real-valued Volterra series is proposed for compensation of the nonlinear frequency-dependent I/Q imbalance. First, different sources of distortion are identified from experimental measurements, then a dual-input nonlinear I/Q imbalance model is developed. Further, the inverse model is used for I/Q imbalance compensation. Finally, the performance of the I/Q imbalance compensator is evaluated with both simulations and experiments. In comparison with previously published results, the proposed I/Q imbalance compensator shows significantly improved performance. Thus, we prove that a complete nonlinear I/Q imbalance compensation can minimize the effects of the RF modulator in high-performance digital communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Immittance and { S} -Parameter-Based Criteria for the Unconditional Stability of Linear Two-Ports: Relations and Invariance Properties

    Page(s): 519 - 523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unconditional stability criteria for a linear two-port have been derived in the literature from the two-port immittance matrix (the Rollett approach), or from the S -parameters (as proposed by Kurokawa). In this paper, we stress some relations between the two strategies. First, we express the two- or single-condition stability criterion as a functions of immittances, and then we demonstrate that, besides being independent from the normalization immittances, they do not depend on the imaginary part of the input and output immittances. (The term immitance refers to an impedance or admittance. With input (output) immittances we refer to Z 11 or Y 11 ( Z 22 or Y 22), respectively.) Using these invariance properties, we define the stability equivalent two-port class as a set of two-ports such as the unconditional stability of one element of the set implies the unconditional stability of all other elements. We finally show that a proper choice of an element of the set allows the single-condition criterion to be expressed in a particularly simple form, which suggests a purely mathematical way to generate alternative equivalent single condition stability criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Phase-Conjugating Arrays in Multipath Environments

    Page(s): 524 - 530
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (862 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ability of a phase-conjugating array (PCA) to reduce fading in single-reflector, dual-reflector, and blocked-line-of-sight multipath environments is presented. Compared to a reference four-element antenna array, the PCA improves worst case signal fading by as much as 39 dB. Agreement between the experimental results and a ray-tracing model is observed, verifying the model as a viable method for characterizing array performance in multipath environments. View full abstract»

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  • A Planar Electronically Steerable Patch Array Using Tunable PRI/NRI Phase Shifters

    Page(s): 531 - 541
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1753 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a planar electronically steerable series-fed patch array for 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical band applications. The proposed steerable array uses 0deg tunable positive/negative-refractive-index (PRI/NRI) phase shifters to center its radiation about the broadside direction and allow scanning in both directions off the broadside. Using the PRI/NRI phase shifters also minimizes the squinting of the main beam across the operating bandwidth. The tunable PRI/NRI phase shifters employ 0.13-mum CMOS tunable active inductors, as well as varactors in order to extend their phase tuning range and maintain a low return loss across the entire phase tuning range. The feed network of the proposed array uses lambda/4 impedance transformers. This allows using identical interstage phase shifters, which share the same control voltages to tune all stages. Furthermore, using the impedance transformers in combination with the CMOS-based constant-impedance PRI/NRI phase shifters guarantees a low return loss for the antenna array across its entire scan angle range. The antenna array was fabricated, and is capable of continuously steering its main beam from -27deg to +22deg off the broadside direction with a gain of 8.4 dBi at 2.4 GHz. This is achieved by changing the varactors' control voltage from 3.5 to 15 V. Across the entire scan angle range, the array return loss is less than -10 dB across a bandwidth of 70 MHz, and the relative sidelobe level is always less than -10 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design achieves very low beam squinting of 1.3deg/100 MHz at broadside and a 1-dB compression point of 4.5 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis, Design, and X -Band Implementation of a Self-Biased Active Feedback G_{m} -Boosted Common-Gate CMOS LNA

    Page(s): 542 - 551
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the use of active feedback to boost the transconductance of a common-gate (CG) low-noise amplifier and achieve simultaneous low noise and input power match. Unlike transformer coupled topologies, the CG input stage is dc-coupled to a self-biased common-source feedback amplifier (for gm boosting), thus eliminating the need of external bias circuitry. Noise and intermodulation analysis with and without gm boosting are extensively studied yielding closed-form expressions of the noise figure (NF) and third-order input-referred intercept point (IIP3) that are useful for circuit design and optimization. A 9.6-GHz differential prototype implemented in a 0.18-mum technology using only NMOS transistors, achieves a minimum NF of 4 dB, an IIP3 of -11.3 dBm, a return loss of -17 dB, and a transducer gain of 18 dB while dissipating 10 m (excluding buffer circuit) from a 1.8-V supply voltage. The active chip area is 0.11 mum2. View full abstract»

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  • 2.4/5.7-GHz CMOS Dual-Band Low-IF Architecture Using Weaver–Hartley Image-Rejection Techniques

    Page(s): 552 - 561
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    A 2.4/5.7-GHz dual-band Weaver-Hartley architecture, using 0.18-mum CMOS technology, is demonstrated in this paper. The 2.4-GHz signal is set to be the image signal when the desired signal is at 5.7 GHz, and vice versa. Since the Weaver and Hartley systems are combined into this architecture, the demonstrated architecture rejects not only the first image signal, but also the secondary image signal. The image-rejection ratios of the first image signal and the secondary image signal are better than 40 and 46 dB, respectively. In this paper, a diagrammatic explanation is employed to obtain the image-rejection mechanisms of the Weaver-Hartley architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of a 0.8–77.5-GHz Ultra-Broadband Distributed Drain Mixer Using 0.13- \mu m CMOS Technology

    Page(s): 562 - 572
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    A compact and broadband 0.8-77.5-GHz passive distributed drain mixer using standard 0.13-mum CMOS technology is presented in this paper. To extend the operation bandwidth, a uniform distributed topology is utilized for wideband matching. This paper also analyzes the device size and number of stages for the bandwidth of the CMOS distributed drain mixer. To optimize the conversion gain performance of the CMOS drain mixer, a gate bias optimization method is proposed and successfully implemented in the mixer design. This mixer consumes zero dc power and exhibits a measured conversion loss of 5.5 plusmn1 dB from 0.8 to 77.5 GHz with a compact size of 0.67 0.58 mm2 . The output 1-dB compression point is -8.5 dBm at 20 GHz. To best of our knowledge, this monolithic microwave integrated circuit has the widest operation bandwidth among CMOS wideband mixers to date with good conversion efficiency and zero dc power consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Augmentation of RF Component Performance in Software-Defined Radio

    Page(s): 573 - 581
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two tools for feedforward correction in transmitter chains in software-defined radio. The methods presume that the radio configuration already has a gate array and a mixer juxtaposed with one another. Programming is added in the gate array to affect preconditioning of the signals presented to in-phase and quadrature channels of a hybrid mixer so as to correct and enhance the analog RF performance of the mixer. The first of the methods comprises a realization with off-the-shelf components of feedback of the RF output of the mixer. Spectrum analysis in the gate array allows separation and cancellation of the unwanted difference-frequency sideband in the mixer's output. The second tool is a feedforward correction of imperfect performance of a hybrid mixer. The correction parameters are determined through sideband reduction via the feedback scheme in the first method. It is shown that the correction scheme performs well even for very large deviations from the ideal in the mixer parameters. As a consequence, the scheme may be used to extend the operating band of the gate-array/mixer combination to extreme bandwidths-approaching 200%. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-High Power and Efficiency Space Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Power Combiner With Reduced Size and Mass for NASA Missions

    Page(s): 582 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the 2008 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society International Microwave Symposium Digest version of our paper, recent advances in high power and efficiency space traveling-wave tube amplifiers for NASA's space-to-Earth communications are presented. The RF power and efficiency of a new K-band amplifier are 40 W and 50% and that of a new K-band amplifier are 200 W and 60%. An important figure-of-merit, which is defined as the ratio of the RF power output to the mass (W/kg) of a traveling-wave tube (TWT), has improved by a factor of 10 over the previous generation Ka-band devices. In this paper, a high power high efficiency Ka -band combiner for multiple TWTs, based on a novel hybrid magic-T waveguide circuit design, is presented. The measured combiner efficiency is as high as 90%. In addition, at the design frequency of 32.05 GHz, error-free uncoded binary phase-shift keying/quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) data transmission at 8 Mb/s, which is typical for deep-space communications, is demonstrated. Furthermore, QPSK data transmission at 622 Mb/s is demonstrated with a low bit error rate of 2.4 times10-8, which exceeds the deep-space state-of-the-art data rate transmission capability by more than two orders of magnitude. A potential application of the TWT combiner is in deep-space communication systems for planetary exploration requiring transmitter power on the order of a kilowatt or higher. View full abstract»

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  • 2-D Acoustic Phase Imaging With Millimeter-Wave Radiation

    Page(s): 589 - 593
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on 2-D acoustic phase imaging with millimeter-wave radiation for locating concealed objects. Active adaptation of the imaging interferometer provides enhanced images. We demonstrate that the method allows for finding metallic as well as dielectric materials. Even objects having similar optical properties as the background can be located. View full abstract»

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  • Eigenvalue Analysis of Curved Waveguides Employing an Orthogonal Curvilinear Frequency-Domain Finite-Difference Method

    Page(s): 594 - 611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An eigenvalue analysis numerical technique for curved closed waveguiding structures loaded with inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic materials is presented. For this purpose, a frequency-domain finite-difference method is developed for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The main strength of the technique is the accurate modeling of curved transverse boundaries, as well as curved geometries along the propagation direction, under certain limitations for the latter. This feature avoids the necessity of a fine mesh, while it retains a high accuracy and it is free of any staircase effects. In general, the proposed method shares the finite-element technique capabilities in modeling complex boundaries, while it preserves the finite-difference convenience in handling inhomogeneous and anisotropic material loadings. The resulting eigenvalue-based problem is solved using the Arnoldi algorithm, which exploits the system matrix sparcity and the overall technique is robust, unconditionally stable with minimal computational and memory requirements. Numerical results are validated against analytical results and results from 3-D commercial electromagnetic simulators. Finally, novel results are also given. View full abstract»

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  • A Complete Class of Harmonic Matching Networks: Synthesis and Application

    Page(s): 612 - 619
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a class of distributed element matching networks that is able to guarantee the required impedance values at fundamental frequency and its second and third harmonics. The synthesis formulas of each considered matching network are defined and reported. By using these formulas, the synthesis capability of all proposed structures are then investigated and compared. Successively, a particular structure is selected, designed according to the proposed formulas, and realized; the performances obtained by simulation and measurements are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Passivity Enforcement of S -Parameter Macromodels by Pole Perturbation

    Page(s): 620 - 626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for passivity enforcement of large nonpassive macromodels that share a common set of poles. It is ensured that the maximum passivity violation is monotonically decreasing in each iteration step, and convergence to a passive macromodel is guaranteed. View full abstract»

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  • A Spectral Transmission-Line Method for Computing Band Diagrams and Eigenmodes of Photonic-Bandgap Structures

    Page(s): 627 - 636
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A spectral transmission-line method (TLM) is developed for computing dispersion diagrams and eigenmodes of photonic-bandgap structures. By terminating the unit cell with periodic boundary conditions and allowing complex-valued voltages on the mesh, the system's modes may be found as solutions to an eigenvalue equation describing the system at steady state. A combination of sparse matrix techniques that exploit the spectral properties of the TLM scattering matrices enable efficient calculations despite the dimensionality of the eigenvalue equation. In contrast to conventional applications of the TLM, this formulation does not require selection of arbitrary mesh points to compute band diagrams and produces eigenmodes directly from band structure calculations without requiring a time history of the entire mesh and its Fourier transform, or additional frequency-domain computation. View full abstract»

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  • A Fractional Boundary Placement Model Using the Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) Method

    Page(s): 637 - 646
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique is described to allow the placement of boundaries at noninteger space step positions within the transmission-line modeling technique without compromising the simulation time step. The development of the 2-D and 3-D modeling procedure is described where the boundary is implemented in the connection process. A previously published technique based on inductive stubs is described and the failure of this model to correctly represent field propagation along the boundary and the undesirable consequences when simulating cavity resonances are demonstrated. The method described in this paper ensures that fields incident on the boundary or traveling parallel to it are modeled with the correct delay and velocity respectively. This method presents a significant advantage over currently used approaches as no significant errors or spurious cavity resonances are produced. The accuracy of the model is presented in terms of the normally incident field delay, the velocity of propagation parallel to the boundary, and the resonances of a metallic cavity with fractionally placed boundaries. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Ridge-Waveguide Contiguous-Channel Frequency Multiplexer

    Page(s): 647 - 656
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The experimental 4-6.25-GHz contiguous-channel frequency multiplexer being presented comprises three equal-bandwidth four-pole ridge-waveguide channel filters that are series-connected through a quasi-low-pass ridge-waveguide manifold. To minimize insertion loss, the multiplexer's port impedance-matching networks are also realized in ridge-waveguide, limiting the use of strip-type transmission line segments to short uniform-width microstrip feeder lines for linking to the multiplexer's external coaxial ports. The three channel filters are stacked with their waveguide broadsides adjacent to each other, separated only by the thicknesses of the filters' walls to achieve maximum compactness. Quasi-lumped waveguide elements are employed to properly couple the filters to the manifold. The multiplexer design methodology relies on the use of commercial general-purpose software, and on equivalent-circuit models of waveguide multiplexer subcomponents derived therewith. The observed good agreement between measured and predicted multiplexer response characteristics helps to validate the approach. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact E-Shaped Patterned Ground Structure and Its Applications to Tunable Bandstop Resonator

    Page(s): 657 - 666
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an E-shaped patterned ground microstrip bandstop resonant cell is proposed. In comparison to other bandstop resonators, it provides the advantages of a high-Q factor, and a sharp transition knee within a small circuit area. This resonant cell is applied to the design of a tunable bandstop resonator. Due to the unique E-shaped pattern etched in the ground plane, the proposed resonant cell is able to provide tuning function within a small circuit area. View full abstract»

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  • An Inline Coaxial Quasi-Elliptic Filter With Controllable Mixed Electric and Magnetic Coupling

    Page(s): 667 - 673
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the concept of using controllable mixed electric and magnetic coupling to design planar filters in our earlier work, we propose a novel inline coaxial filter, in which the electric and magnetic coupling can be separately controlled. Due to this controllable mixed coupling, the filter can operate with a quasi-elliptic characteristic. By modifying resonator structure and inserting additional coupling components, the filter size is substantially reduced and the coupling becomes more easily controllable, thus being able to produce a highly selective filter with a compact size. In addition, asymmetric response can be easily achieved. For the N-order filter, a maximum of N - 1 finite transmission zeros can be realized. View full abstract»

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  • Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filter With Improved Stopband Performance for Satellite Ground Terminal

    Page(s): 674 - 683
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, patent pending substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filters with moderate fractional bandwidth and improved stopband performance are proposed and demonstrated for a Ka-band satellite ground terminal. Nonphysical cross-coupling provided by higher order modes in the oversized SIW cavities is used to generate the finite transmission zeros far away from the passband for improved stopband performance. Different input/output topologies of the filter are discussed for wide stopband applications. Design considerations including the design approach, filter configuration, and tolerance analysis are addressed. Two fourth-order filters with a passband of 19.2-21.2 GHz are fabricated on a single-layer Rogers RT/Duroid 6002 substrate using linear arrays of metallized via-holes by a standard printed circuit board process. Measured results of the two filters agree very well with simulated results, showing the in-band insertion loss is 0.9 dB or better, and the stopband attenuation in the frequency band of 29.5-30 GHz is better than 50 dB. Measurements over a temperature range of -20degC to +40degC show the passband remains almost unchanged. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis Design of Ultra-Wideband Bandpass Filters With Composite Series and Shunt Stubs

    Page(s): 684 - 692
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a direct synthesis procedure for efficient design of a class of ultra-wideband bandpass filters with composite series and shunt transmission-line stubs. The proposed single-stage bandpass prototype is formed by cascading two sets of series open-ended and shunt short-ended stubs through a multisection nonuniform transmission line. All the stubs are set with an identical electrical length, i.e., thetasc , at lower cutoff frequency fc and the middle connecting line is composed of stepped-impedance transmission line with i sections, and each section has an electrical length thetasc. The proposed filter topology aims to construct an ultra-wide bandpass filter with Chebyshev equal-ripple responses and (i + 3) in-band transmission poles. Based on the derivation of the transfer function, a synthesis approach is established and systematically described to design this type of filters according to the specifications such as lower/upper cutoff frequencies. Next, a multistage bandpass filter prototype is proposed and the synthesis design procedure is also presented. The implementation is achieved by using hybrid microstrip line and slotline sections. Compared with traditional stub filters, the proposed filters achieve higher order transmission zeros and thus provide higher selectivity. As design examples, two single-stage and one three-stage bandpass filters are designed and fabricated to confirm the theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Power-Delivery Method for the Design of the Power Distribution Networks for High-Speed Digital Systems

    Page(s): 693 - 707
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1890 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new power distribution network (PDN) design method from a power delivery viewpoint is proposed. Two new parameters, the power delivery delay and the DeltaV time constant, are introduced to characterize the effects of the lead inductors and decoupling capacitors on the timely power delivery respectively for a high-speed PDN. The decoupling time of a PDN is accurately estimated from the power delivery delay introduced by the inductance of the discontinuities, the charge delivery speed, and the charge supply capacity of the decoupling capacitors are accurately characterized by the DeltaV time constant. Based on the two parameters, a complete and systematic power-delivery method for the design of a PDN is developed. The proposed design method is verified by SPICE, full-wave simulations, and measurements. For completion, some specific design considerations are also discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Compact S -/ Ka -Band CMOS Quadrature Hybrids With High Phase Balance Based on Multilayer Transformer Over-Coupling Technique

    Page(s): 708 - 715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents compact CMOS quadrature hybrids by using the transformer over-coupling technique to eliminate significant phase error in the presence of low-Q CMOS components. The technique includes the inductive and capacitive couplings, where the former is realized by employing a tightly inductive-coupled transformer and the latter by an additional capacitor across the transformer winding. Their phase balance effects are investigated and the design methodology is presented. The measurement results show that the designed 24-GHz CMOS quadrature hybrid has excellent phase balance within plusmn0.6deg and amplitude balance less than plusmn 0.3 dB over a 16% fractional bandwidth with extremely compact size of 0.05 mm2. For the 2.4-GHz hybrid monolithic microwave integrated circuit, it has measured phase balance of plusmn0.8deg and amplitude balance of plusmn 0.3 dB over a 10% fractional bandwidth with a chip area of 0.1 mm2 . View full abstract»

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  • A Complete Noise- and Scattering-Parameters Test-Set

    Page(s): 716 - 724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an innovative test-set based on a microwave tuner, a vector network analyzer and a Y-factor receiver capable of extracting the noise and the scattering parameters of a two-port device. To the authors' knowledge, the presented test-set is the first noise system that avoids the use of any microwave switch in the noise measurement branches. A set of reflectometers and a novel calibration scheme are used to measure the tuner's loss and S-parameters in real time without any tuner precharacterization. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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