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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date February 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): C1 - C2
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - List staff

    Page(s): i
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Committee

    Page(s): ii
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - iv
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition - Table of contents

    Page(s): 231 - 235
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  • A Multimedia example

    Page(s): 236
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  • Optimal electrode shape and size of a few singly rotated quartz and langasite resonators

    Page(s): 237 - 238
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on Mindlin's early work, we calculate and plot optimal electrode shape and size of Y-cut quartz, At-cut quartz, and Y-cut langasite plate thickness-shear resonators. The electrodes obtained are optimal in that they satisfy Bechmann's number in every direction. The results are useful in the design optimization of these resonators. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature compensated cuts in LGT crystal microresonators using length extensional mode

    Page(s): 239 - 240
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    In this letter, experimental investigation of frequency-temperature effects in langatate rectangular cross-section beams are presented. It is shown that a first-order temperature compensated cut exists for the first vibrating mode of length extension. View full abstract»

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  • In situ investigation of thermally influenced phase transformations in (pb0.92sr0.08) (zr0.65ti0.35)o3 thin films using micro-raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction

    Page(s): 241 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thin films of ferroelectric strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate [PSZT, (Pb0.92Sr0.08)(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3] deposited by RF magnetron sputtering have been analyzed by in situ analysis techniques. The in situ techniques employed for this study include micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and variations in thin film structure and orientations for temperatures up to 350degC and 750degC for the respective techniques have been studied. The samples analyzed were PSZT thin films deposited on platinum-coated silicon substrates at either room temperature or at 750degC. In situ measurements using micro-Raman spectroscopy and XRD techniques have been used to identify the Curie point for poly-crystalline PSZT thin films and to determine the temperature-activating significant grain growth for room-temperature-deposited PSZT thin films. To study the presence of hysteresis, analysis was carried out during both temperature ramp-up and ramp-down cycles. Raman measurements showed expected bands (albeit weak), and the in situ measurements have detected variations in the crystal structure of the thin film samples, with negligible variations between the heating and cooling cycles. A combination of the Raman and XRD results has shown that the temperature activating significant grain growth for the room-temperature deposited films is about 275degC and the Curie point lies between 325 and 400degC. This relatively high Curie point makes these films suitable for wide temperature range applications. View full abstract»

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  • Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock

    Page(s): 246 - 253
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    We investigated the influence of some critical parameters and operating conditions such as cell temperature, laser intensity, and interrogation technique affecting the performances of a gas cell Cs frequency standard based on coherent population trapping (CPT). Thanks to an original experimental setup, the atoms can be trapped in the dark state and interrogated using continuous wave (CW) or pulsed coherent optical radiations. Using a double-lambda scheme, a signal contrast as high as 52% has been measured in the continuous regime for an optimum cell temperature of 35degC. Compared with the conventional continuous CPT interrogation, the pulsed interrogation technique reduces the light shift by a factor of 300 and allowed it to reach high-frequency stability for higher laser intensities. The frequency stability has been measured to be 9 x 10-13 for a 1 s integration time. Main noise contributions limiting the short-term and medium-term frequency stability are reviewed and estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Low-sensitivity, low-bounce, high-linearity current-controlled oscillator suitable for single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation system

    Page(s): 254 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1337 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-sensitivity, low-bounce, high-linearity current-controlled oscillator (CCO) suitable for a single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation system is designed and proposed in this paper. The designed CCO can be operated at low voltage (2 V). The power bounce and ground bounce generated by this CCO is less than 7 mVpp when the power-line parasitic inductance is increased to 100 nH to demonstrate the effect of power bounce and ground bounce. The power supply noise caused by the proposed CCO is less than 0.35% in reference to the 2 V supply voltage. The average conversion ratio KCCO is equal to 123.5 GHz/A. The linearity of conversion ratio is high and its tolerance is within plusmn1.2%. The sensitivity of the proposed CCO is nearly independent of the power supply voltage, which is less than a conventional current-starved oscillator. The performance of the proposed CCO has been compared with the current-starved oscillator. It is shown that the proposed CCO is suitable for single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation systems. View full abstract»

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  • Low phase-noise sapphire crystal microwave oscillators: current status

    Page(s): 263 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work demonstrates that ultra-low phase-noise oscillators with a single-sideband phase-noise spectral density approaching -160 dBc/Hz at Fourier frequency of 1 kHz can be constructed at microwave frequencies (8 to 10 GHz). Such noise performance has been achieved by frequency locking a conventional loop oscillator to a temperature-stabilized sapphire dielectric resonator operating at a relatively high level of dissipated microwave power (~0.5 W). Principles of microwave circuit interferometry have been employed to generate the error signal for the oscillator frequency control system. No cryogens were used. Two almost identical oscillators were built to perform the classical 2-oscillator phase noise measurements. The phase referencing of one oscillator to another was achieved by varying microwave power dissipated in the sapphire resonator. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic backscatter from rat blood in aggregating media under in vitro rotational flow

    Page(s): 270 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrasonic backscatter from flowing and static rat red blood cells (RBCs) in autologous plasma and in 360 kDa polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP 360) solution was measured as a function of hematocrit. The flow speed was varied by a stirring magnet in a cylindrical chamber. The radio-frequency (RF) signals backscattered by RBC samples were measured over 5 min in a pulse-echo setup with a 5 MHz focused transducer. Although the intact rat blood has poor RBC aggregability, RBC aggregation of rat blood was enhanced by replacing its plasma with a higher molecular weight polymer solution. The experimental results showed that the nonlinear relationship between hematocrit and ultrasonic backscatter from rat RBCs in plasma and aggregating media is affected by flow speed, which may provide a unified insight into hematocrit dependence of RBC aggregation under flowing and static conditions. View full abstract»

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  • SURF imaging for contrast agent detection

    Page(s): 280 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A contrast agent detection method is presented that potentially can improve the diagnostic significance of ultrasound contrast agents. Second order ultrasound field (SURF) contrast imaging is achieved by processing the received signals from transmitted dual frequency band pulse complexes with overlapping high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) pulses. The transmitted HF pulses are used for image reconstruction, whereas the transmitted LF pulses are used to manipulate the scattering properties of the contrast agent. In the present paper, we discuss how SURF contrast imaging potentially can overcome problems and limitations encountered with available contrast agent detection methods, and we give a few initial examples of in vitro measurements. With SURF contrast imaging, the resonant properties of the contrast agent may be decoupled from the HF imaging pulses. This technique is thus especially interesting for imaging contrast bubbles above their resonance frequency. However, to obtain adequate specificity, it is typically necessary to estimate and correct for accumulative nonlinear effects in the forward wave propagation. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the robustness of dual apodization with cross-correlation

    Page(s): 291 - 303
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have recently presented a new method to suppress side lobes and clutter in ultrasound imaging called dual apodization with cross-correlation (DAX). However, due to the random nature of speckle, artifactual black spots may arise with DAX-processed images. In this paper, we present one possible solution, called dynamic DAX, to reduce these black spots. We also evaluate the robustness of dynamic DAX in the presence of phase aberration and noise. Simulation results using a 5 MHz, 128-element linear array are presented using dynamic DAX with aberrator strengths ranging from 25 ns root-mean-square (RMS) to 45 ns RMS and correlation lengths of 3 mm and 5 mm. When simulating a 3 mm diameter anechoic cyst, at least 100% improvement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) compared with standard beamforming is seen using dynamic DAX, except in the most severe case. Layers of pig skin, fat, and muscle were used as experimental aberrators. Simulation and experimental results are also presented using dynamic DAX in the presence of noise. With a system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of at least 15 dB, we have a CNR improvement of more than 100% compared with standard beamforming. This work shows that dynamic DAX is able to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio reliably in the presence of phase aberration and noise. View full abstract»

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  • The acoustic field in biomedical tissue with midscale inhomogeneities

    Page(s): 304 - 313
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biomedical ultrasound is often used for investigations within and close to tissue inhomogeneities, such as lesions and plaques, that are midsized compared with the ultrasound wavelength. The scaled wavenumber is typically in the range 1 to 100. Even with small (less than 10%) sound speed variations, such objects are associated with very complicated diffractive field magnitude modulations. The corresponding phase modulations are much more regular, and this observation is the basis for the method described in this paper. The acoustic field can be expressed in terms of a scattering integral. For biomedical parameters, calculations with the widely used Born approximation give accurate results in only very limited circumstances. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of the initial phase estimate, and introduce the phase corrected scattering integral (PCSI) method. We show that remarkably accurate results for the acoustic field can be obtained from a single evaluation of the scattering integral if this incorporates an initial estimate of the phase modulation imposed by the inhomogeneity. A simple ray model can be used to find the phase correction. The PCSI method deals very effectively with scattering due to small changes in sound speed and irregular geometry, both characteristic of biomedical problems. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband minimum variance beamforming for ultrasound imaging

    Page(s): 314 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A minimum variance (MV) approach for nearfield beamforming of broadband data is proposed. The approach is implemented in the frequency domain, and it provides a set of adapted, complex apodization weights for each frequency subband. The performance of the proposed MV beamformer is tested on simulated data obtained using Field II. The method is validated using synthetic aperture data and data obtained from a plane wave emission. Data for 13 point targets and a circular cyst with a radius of 5 mm are simulated. The performance of the MV beamformer is compared with delay-and-sum (DS) using boxcar weights and Hanning weights and is quantified by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the peak-side-lobe level (PSL). Single emission {DS boxcar, DS Hanning, MV} provide a PSL of {-16, -36, -49} dB and a FWHM of {0.79, 1.33, 0.08} mm. Using all 128 emissions, {DS boxcar, DS Hanning, MV} provides a PSL of {-32, -49, -65} dB, and a FWHM of {0.63, 0.97, 0.08} mm. The contrast of the beamformed single emission responses of the circular cyst was calculated as {-18, -37, -40} dB. The simulations have shown that the frequency subband MV beamformer provides a significant increase in lateral resolution compared with DS, even when using considerably fewer emissions. An increase in resolution is seen when using only one single emission. Furthermore, the effect of steering vector errors is investigated. The steering vector errors are investigated by applying an error of the sound speed estimate to the ultrasound data. As the error increases, it is seen that the MV beamformer is not as robust compared with the DS beamformer with boxcar and Hanning weights. Nevertheless, it is noted that the DS does not outperform the MV beamformer. For errors of 2% and 4% of the correct value, the FWHM are {0.81, 1.25, 0.34} mm and {0.89, 1.44, 0.46} mm, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of including myocardial anisotropy in simulated ultrasound images of the heart

    Page(s): 326 - 333
    Multimedia
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    We have examined the effect of incorporating tissue anisotropy in simulated ultrasound images of the heart. In simulation studies, the cardiac muscle (myocardium) is usually modeled as a cloud of uncorrelated point scatterers. Although this approach successfully generates a realistic speckle pattern, it fails to reproduce any effects of image anisotropy seen in real ultrasound images. We hypothesize that some of this effect is caused by the varying orientation of anisotropic myocardial structures relative to the ultrasonic beam and that this can be taken into account in simulations by imposing an angle dependent correlation of the scatterer points. Ultrasound images of a porcine heart were obtained in vitro, and the dominating fiber directions were estimated from the insonification angles that gave rise to the highest backscatter intensities. A cylindrical sample of the myocardium was then modeled as a grid of point scatterers correlated in the principal directions of the muscle fibers, as determined experimentally. Ultrasound images of the model were simulated by using a fast k-space based convolution approach, and the results were compared with the in vitro recordings. The simulated images successfully reproduced the insonification dependent through-wall distribution of backscatter intensities in the myocardial sample, as well as a realistic speckle pattern. View full abstract»

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  • Ice detection and classification on an aircraft wing with ultrasonic shear horizontal guided waves

    Page(s): 334 - 344
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    Ice accumulation on airfoils has been identified as a primary cause of many accidents in commercial and military aircraft. To improve aviation safety as well as reduce cost and environmental threats related to aircraft icing, sensitive, reliable, and aerodynamically compatible ice detection techniques are in great demand. Ultrasonic guided-wave-based techniques have been proved reliable for "go" and "no go" types of ice detection in some systems including the HALO system, in which the second author of this paper is a primary contributor. In this paper, we propose a new model that takes the ice layer into guided-wave modeling. Using this model, the thickness and type of ice formation can be determined from guided-wave signals. Five experimental schemes are also proposed in this paper based on some unique features identified from the guided- wave dispersion curves. A sample experiment is also presented in this paper, where a 1 mm thick glaze ice on a 2 mm aluminum plate is clearly detected. Quantitative match of the experiment data to theoretical prediction serves as a strong support for future implementation of other testing schemes proposed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating particle concentration using passive ultrasonic measurement of impact vibrations

    Page(s): 345 - 352
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    A method of obtaining particle size and concentration information, from ultrasonic transducer measurements of particle-wall interactions in a particle laden fluid, is presented. A mathematical model of the flexural vibrations of the vessel wall due to the particle impact is constructed. The key component of this model is the derivation of an analytic expression for the impact force amplitude. An analytic expression for the power spectrum is then obtained that shows its explicit dependency on the system parameters. This spectrum is then integrated over a specific frequency range and a comparison with experimental results is reported. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the Q of quartz resonators

    Page(s): 353 - 360
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quartz resonator Q with aluminum electrodes was studied with respect to its fundamental thickness shear mode frequency and its viscoelastic, viscopiezoelectric, and viscopiezoelectromagnetic behaviors. The governing equations for viscoelasticity, viscopiezoelectricity, and viscopiezoelectromagnetism were implemented for an AT-cut quartz resonator. To simulate the radiation conditions at infinity for the viscopiezoelectromagnetic model, perfectly matched layers over a surface enclosing the resonator were implemented to absorb all incident electromagnetic radiation. The shape of the radiation spectrum of a 5.6 MHz AT-cut quartz resonator was found to compare relatively well the measured results by Campbell and Weber. The mesa-plate resonator was studied for a frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 3.4 GHz. The resonator Q was determined to be influenced predominantly by the quartz viscoelasticity; however at frequencies greater than 2.3 GHz, the quartz electromagnetic radiation had an increasingly significant effect on the resonator Q. At 3.4 GHz, the electromagnetic radiation accounted for about 14% of the loss in resonator Q. At frequencies less than 2 GHz, the calculated resonator Q compared well with the intrinsic Qx provided by the formula Qx = 16 times 106/f where f was in MHz. At frequencies higher than 2.3 GHz, the aluminum electrodes had significant effects on the resonator Q. At 3.4 GHz, the electromagnetic radiation loss in the electrodes was an order of magnitude greater than their viscoelastic loss; hence, the vibrating aluminum electrodes became an efficient emitter of electromagnetic waves. The effects of electrical resistance in both the electrodes and quartz were determined to be negligible. View full abstract»

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  • Band gaps of lamb waves in one- dimensional piezoelectric composite plates: effect of substrate and boundary conditions

    Page(s): 361 - 367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1003 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We theoretically study the band structures of Lamb waves in one-dimensional phononic crystal plates consisting of piezoelectric ceramics placed periodically in epoxy with epoxy or piezoelectric ceramic substrate by the virtual plane wave expansion method. The dependences of the widths and starting frequencies of first band gaps (FBG) on the substrate's thickness, the filling fraction, and the lattice spacing are calculated for different materials of substrate under different electric boundary conditions, i.e., short circuit (SC) and open circuit (OC). The FBG width decreases gradually as the substrate's thickness increases and the FBG starting frequency increases progressively as the thickness increases on the whole. The FBG widths and starting frequencies with SC are always larger than with OC. Our research shows that it is possible to control the width and starting frequency of the FBG in the engineering according to need by choosing suitable values of the substrate's thickness, the filling fraction, and the lattice spacing. View full abstract»

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  • 25 MHz ultrasonic transducers with lead- free piezoceramic, 1-3 PZT fiber-epoxy composite, and PVDF polymer active elements

    Page(s): 368 - 378
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (738 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of single-element ultrasonic transducers whose active elements are made of lead-free piezoceramic, 1-3 PZT/polymer composite and PVDF film. The lead free piezoelectric KNNLT- LS(K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.10S0.06b)O3 powders and ceramics were prepared under controlled humidity and oxygen flow rate during sintering. Due to its moderate longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient (175 pC/N) and kt of 0.50, the KNN-LT-LS composition may be a good candidate for high frequency transducer applications. PZT fibers with 25 mum diameter formed by the viscose suspension spinning process were incorporated into epoxy to fabricate 1-3 composites with the averaged kt = 0.64 and d33 = 400 pC/N. Using KNN-LS-LT ceramic, 1-3 PZT fiber composite, and PVDF film, 3 different unfocused single element transducers with center frequencies of 25 MHz were fabricated. The acoustic characterization of the transducers demonstrated that wideband and low insertion loss could be obtained employing KNN-LS-LT ceramic. The -6 dB bandwidth and insertion loss were 70% and -21 dB, respectively. In comparison, the insertion loss of the ceramic transducer was much smaller than those made with 1-3 composite and PVDF film. This was attributed to closer electrical impedance match to 50 Omega and higher thickness coupling coefficient of the ceramic transducer. View full abstract»

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  • A single-element transducer with nonuniform thickness for high-frequency broadband applications

    Page(s): 379 - 386
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (887 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of a high-frequency single-element transducer are described. The transducer has an annular geometry, with the thickness of the piezoelectric material increasing from the center to the outside. This single-element annular transducer (SEAT) can provide a broader frequency range than a conventional single-element transducer with a uniform thickness (single-element uniform transducer, or SEUT). We compared the characteristics of a SEAT and a SEUT. Both transducers used 36deg-rotated, Y-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) material. The SEAT had a diameter of 6 mm and comprised 6 subelements of equal area (electrically connected by a single electrode on each side) whose thickness ranged from 60 mum (center) to 110 mum (outside), which resulted in the center frequency of the subelements varying from 59.8 MHz to 25 MHz. The overall center frequency was 42.4 MHz. The annular pattern was constructed using an ultrasonic sculpturing machine that reduced the root-mean-square value of the surface roughness to 454.47 nm. The bandwidth of the SEAT was 19% larger than that of the SEUT. However, compared with the SEUT, the 2-way insertion loss of the SEAT was increased by 3.1 dB. The acoustic beam pattern of the SEAT was also evaluated numerically by finite-element simulations and experimentally by an ultrasound beam analyzer. At the focus (10.5 mm from the transducer surface), the -6 dB beam width was 108 mum. There was reasonable agreement between the data from simulations and experiments. The SEAT can be used for imaging applications that require a wider transducer bandwidth, such as harmonic imaging, and can be manufactured using the same techniques used to produce transducers with multiple frequency bands. View full abstract»

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  • SPICE model for lossy piezoelectric polymers

    Page(s): 387 - 395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents the transmission line equivalent model for lossy piezoelectric polymers and its SPICE implementation. The model includes the mechanical/viscoelastic, dielectric/electrical, and piezoelectric/electromechanical losses in a novel way by using complex elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants obtained from the measured impedances of PVDF and PVDF-TrFE samples by nonlinear regression technique. The equivalent circuit parameters are derived from analogies between a lossy electrical transmission line and acoustic wave propagation. The simulated impedance and phase plots of various samples, working in thickness mode, have been shown to agree well with the measured data. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk