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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1 - 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (41 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (18 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Theoretical Feasibility Study of a Source Stirring Reverberation Chamber

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (857 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel theoretical feasibility study to reverberate a large metallic chamber is proposed. The method is based on the displacement of a radiating antenna inside the chamber, and the reverberating effect is obtained by coupling the antenna current in different ways with the cavity modes. This technique eliminates mechanical rotating paddles inside the chamber and offers the advantage of a continuous-wave operation compared with the frequency stirring method. The reverberating characteristics of the proposed technique are evaluated by calculating the field statistics. The analyzed situation concerns a real antenna, and its radiation into the reverberation chamber is modeled using Green's function of cavity. The numerical problem is solved by the method of moment. The model has been tested and is able to rigorously characterize the reverberating environment for the design and optimization of antenna configurations to be addressed in future studies. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Study of Position Stirring and Frequency Stirring in a Loaded Reverberation Chamber

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 12 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerical model of a loaded reverberation chamber is used to study the effectiveness of 3-D position stirring and frequency stirring. The numerical model is based on thin wires, the moment method, and a cavity Green's function. The average power transfer level between two dipole antennas is compared to the average power transfer level between a dipole antenna and a loop antenna. The two transmission levels should ideally be the same, as both the dipole and the loop are treated as being lossless and impedance matched. The standard deviation of the level differences is a measure of the accuracy of the chamber, and this is used to estimate the stirring effectiveness. It is shown that frequency stirring must be done over a larger bandwidth than the average mode bandwidth to be effective. The 3-D position stirring is also shown to be much more efficient than expected. View full abstract»

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  • Cavity Model for the Slot Radiation of an Enclosure Excited by Printed Circuit Board Traces With Different Loads

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 18 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traces on a printed circuit board (PCB) couple to the cavity consisting of the PCB ground plane and a metallic enclosure cover. We introduce this common-mode coupling of a PCB trace to the cavity field by an analytical model that is verified with 3-D simulations using HFSS. The cavity field causes radiated emission from the slots of the cavity. For an accurate calculation of the cavity field inside the enclosure and the radiated emission, we consider the radiation loss by a multiport approach. Comparisons of the analytical results for the radiated field to measurements show good agreement. Radiated emission can be calculated for arbitrary geometric enclosure shapes as a function of frequency, position of the trace on the PCB, and trace load/driver impedances. View full abstract»

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  • Correlating Threshold Power With Free-Space Bandwidth for Low-Directivity Antennas

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 25 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1069 KB)  

    This paper develops a threshold power rationale that can be used to demonstrate inherent compliance for portable wireless devices with specific absorption rate (SAR) limits over the 300 - 6000 - MHz frequency range. This is achieved first by understanding the relationship between basic antenna parameters (bandwidth, operating frequency, and distance to the body) and SAR. From this, an upper limit is determined for the power transmitted by a portable wireless device such that the SAR will not exceed the compliance limit. Based on the presented computational and measured data, an empirical formula is developed for the threshold power as a function of the aforementioned parameters. It is demonstrated that the derived threshold power is conservative for all of the low-directivity antennas studied. Computed results are also compared against practical device data (mobile telephone data collected from the manufacturers) to show that the predicted threshold power data using the proposed formula are conservative. The limitations of the proposed formula are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient 2-D Integral Equation Approach for the Analysis of Power Bus Structures With Arbitrary Shape

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 2-D contour integral-equation method for the frequency-domain analysis of arbitrarily shaped power bus structures is presented. The numerically efficient approach allows the rapid and accurate computation of the frequency-dependent transfer parameters between an arbitrary number of ports, as required for embedding the power plane structure into network simulation. A formulation is developed for calculating the voltage distribution between the planes, as well as for determining the resulting radiated fields based on the field-equivalence principle. The method is applied for several test boards including a populated board with a surface-mount decoupling-capacitor network. The suggested approach is well confirmed by an analytical solution for the rectangular structure, by measurement and 3-D full-wave simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Methodology for Classifying Facilities With Respect to Intentional EMI

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 46 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (649 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is argued that it is the intent behind the electromagnetic interference in intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) that causes problems to large distributed systems and facilities even if they are designed by traditional zoning concept rules. Hardening such facilities against IEMI requires a correspondence between the electromagnetic zone boundary and the physical access control boundary. The three characteristics of a facility, the accessibility, susceptibility , and consequence, are discussed in the context of vulnerability to IEMI. A methodology for classification of facilities with respect to IEMI is presented. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Discontinuities in a Multiconductor Line on Lightning-Induced Voltages

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 53 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of discontinuities in a transmission line on lightning-induced voltages is studied using a new field-to-line coupling model. For a shielding wire with an isolated grounding, it is shown that the mitigation of the induced voltages is due to the actuation of the localized grounding, when it is illuminated. It protects the line at its location and behind it, reducing the induced voltages by an amount that depends on the grounding resistance and the geometry of the conductors of the line, and also protects some points in front of it, but only within a certain ldquoeffective distancerdquo that is dependent on the rise time of the induced voltages. For a periodically grounded shielding wire, it is shown that the reflection, at the grounding points, of the voltage reduction waves produced by the other groundings, produce oscillating induced overvoltages that are mainly confined in the line span in front of the strike. The effectiveness of the shielding wire can be enhanced if the insulation of the shielding wire is utilized as a protective gap. It is also shown that the effect of the ground resistivity is very important but is very different depending on the permittivity of the ground. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Model for Optimum Signal Integrity in PCB Interconnects Using Ground Tracks

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 67 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (831 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present analytical models for line impedance and the coupling coefficient in the presence of additional ground tracks. We use a variational analysis combined with the transverse transmission-line technique to model interconnect lines guarded by ground tracks. Using the proposed model, it would be possible for designers to reduce crosstalk in coupled lines and obtain desired line impedance, thereby ensuring optimum signal integrity. The results obtained are verified by full-wave simulations and measurements performed on a vector network analyzer. The proposed model may find applications in the design and analysis of high-speed interconnects. View full abstract»

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  • The Electromagnetic Compatibility of Integrated Circuits—Past, Present, and Future

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 78 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Throughout the decades of continuous advances in semiconductor technology, from the discrete devices of the late 1950s to today's billon-transistor system-on-chip, there have always been concerns about the ability of components to operate safely in an increasingly disruptive electromagnetic environment. This paper provides a nonexhaustive review of the research work conducted in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) at the IC level over the past 40 years. It also brings together a collection of information and trends in IC technology, in order to build a tentative roadmap for the EMC of ICs until the year 2020, with a focus on measurement methods and modeling approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Internal Impedance of Composite Conductors with Arbitrary Cross Section

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 101 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new way to calculate the internal inductance and resistance per unit length for an inhomogeneous conductor with arbitrary cross-sectional geometry is presented, based on the surface admittance boundary operator. The method is formulated in such a way, that the physical meaning of the internal impedance is clarified, as obtained by disregarding the external magnetic field. A comparison is made with the definitions known in literature to determine the internal impedance. In a number of numerical examples, the differences between those definitions are elucidated, and some physical properties of the internal impedance are investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Extension of the “Equivalent Cable Bundle Method” for Modeling Electromagnetic Emissions of Complex Cable Bundles

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 108 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an extension of the so-called ldquoequivalent cable bundle methodrdquo for the computation over a large frequency range of the electromagnetic radiation of complex cable bundles. The purpose of the method is to reduce the complexity of the problem by grouping together the conductors according to their terminal load configuration and their excitation to reduce the required computation time for the complete cable bundle modeling. As far as the use of the method on emission problems is concerned, a new five-step procedure is established to define the electrical and geometrical characteristics of the reduced cable bundles. After the description of the adjustments required for the application of the method to emitting cases, some numerical and experimental validations performed on simple cable bundles illustrate the efficiency and the advantages of the method. The research described in this paper is considered as a new step in the study of the modeling of complex cable bundles at ldquohigh frequenciesrdquo. View full abstract»

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  • Closed-Form Expressions for the Total Power Radiated by an Electrically Long Multiconductor Line

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 119 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two analytical solutions based on transmission-line theory for the total power radiated by a multiconductor line above a ground plane are proposed. The line is not assumed to be electrically short or close to the ground plane, thus making the proposed model suitable for assessing the emission/immunity of actual transmission lines employed in industrial contexts such as in the automotive domain, railway lines, and power-distribution lines. The model allows an imperfect ground plane to be considered through the complex-image approximation together with propagation losses. Numerical and experimental results are provided as a validation, while an empirical rule to assess the accuracy of the results is proposed. The two expressions aim at allowing fast parametric analysis of radiation during the design phase of the electrical and geometrical configuration of an unshielded multiconductor transmission line. View full abstract»

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  • Detection and Location of Multiple Wiring Faults via Time–Frequency-Domain Reflectometry

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 131 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a high-resolution time-frequency-domain reflectometry technique as a methodology of detection and estimation of faults on a wire. This method adopts the time-frequency cross-correlation characteristics of the observed signal in both the time and frequency domains simultaneously. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified with experiments using a radio-guide-type coaxial cable and comparing it with traditional time-domain as well as frequency-domain reflectometry methods. It is clearly shown here that the proposed algorithm produces excellent results compared to the conventional methods for single as well as multiple fault cables. View full abstract»

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  • A New Single-Ended I/O With Reduced Electromagnetic Emissions

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 139 - 146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper shows a new method to establish a binary data link between integrated circuits through single-ended wiring interconnects. It is based on the transmission of small (a few hundred millivolts) and short (a few hundred picoseconds) double exponential pulses from output buffers (pulse generators) to electric charge receivers. Because the power of signals handled by the new output driver and receiver is significantly lower than that of conventional input/output circuits, this new binary channel performs very well in terms of power dissipation and signal integrity, as well as electromagnetic emissions. View full abstract»

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  • Electric Field Pulse Trains Occurring Prior to the First Stroke in Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 147 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we examine the characteristics of electric field pulse trains that are attributed to preliminary breakdown in negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharges and compare them to those of similar pulse trains associated with attempted cloud-to-ground leaders. The data were acquired in 2006 in Gainesville, Florida. The largest pulses in the train can exceed in magnitude the following first return-stroke pulse. The arithmetic mean pulse duration and interpulse interval for pulse trains in negative cloud-to-ground discharges are 4.8 and 65 mus, respectively. The arithmetic mean pulse duration and interpulse interval for pulse trains in attempted cloud-to-ground leaders are 17 and 73 mus, respectively. This implies that pulse trains in ground discharges contain a larger fraction of ldquonarrowrdquo pulses (apparently disregarded in previous studies), defined here as those with durations equal to or less than 4 mus, than the pulse trains in attempted cloud-to-ground leaders. Submicrosecond-scale pulses are observed as part of pulse trains associated with cloud-to-ground discharges, but not with attempted leaders. We also examine the occurrence of pulses of different duration and amplitude in different parts of the preliminary breakdown pulse train of ground discharges. Pulses with larger durations (>4 mus) tend to occur in the initial part of pulse train. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation From Digital Wireless Telephone Frequencies on a Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 151 - 156
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the effects of electromagnetic fields from the frequency band of digital wireless telephones on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were experimentally investigated. A first-order planar gradiometer based on the double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS) was operated without low-frequency magnetic shielding, and was exposed to radiated electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 300 MHz-2 GHz. The experiments have been performed in a fully anechoic chamber to minimize reflected waves in the chamber. The flux-to-voltage transfer and the field sensitivity of the gradiometer have been observed under the irradiation of fields. Results show that the performance of the gradiometer was significantly affected at a typical power level of the digital wireless telephones for both horizontally and vertically polarized electromagnetic waves. The noise level of the DROS output voltage also increases as the strength of the external fields becomes higher. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Lightning-Induced Voltages Over a Lossy Ground by the Hybrid Electromagnetic Model

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 156 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the hybrid electromagnetic model is applied to calculate lightning-induced voltages over a lossy ground. Results provided by this model are compared with experimental data obtained from a reduced-scale model and with results simulated by the numerical electromagnetics code. Good agreement is achieved in all cases. View full abstract»

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  • Response of Grounding Electrodes to Impulsive Currents: An Experimental Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 161 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (127 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental results for the transient behavior of grounding electrodes are presented to clarify fundamental aspects of the grounding response to lightning currents. It is shown that for fast current waves, the value of impulsive grounding impedance ZP of short electrodes is smaller than its low-frequency resistance R LF while electrodes longer than the effective length have a resistance value smaller than impulsive impedance. The values found for the ratio ZP/R LF in the experiments are lower than those resulting from numerical simulation for electrodes shorter than the effective length. View full abstract»

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  • List of Reviewers for 2008

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 165 - 167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (27 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (223 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility institutional listings

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (18 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch