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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1 - 501
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Improved Analysis of Implicit RMS Detectors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 502 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the output voltage of the implicit root-mean-square (RMS) detector, which is composed of two voltage-to-current converters, a multiplier/divider, and a low-pass filter and excited by an input voltage comprising a single sinusoid, is approximated using a Fourier cosine series. Using this approximation, closed-form analytical expressions for the output voltage components of the implicit RMS detector are derived. The results obtained are compared with previously published results. This comparison shows that, using the proposed approximation, an improved estimation of the RMS value and the amplitudes of the second- and fourth-harmonic components of the implicit RMS detector can be achieved for any value of the input frequency and is not restricted to large values compared with the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Residual Spectrum in ADC Dynamic Testing

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 506 - 511
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a procedure that derives the estimation of the significant components in the residual spectrum in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) dynamic testing. The method for emulating coherent sampling by the interpolation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to estimate the frequency, amplitude, and phase of the particular residual component is described. Analysis has been done on the components below the level of the quantization resolution. The procedure for threshold estimation for distinguishing between significant components and the noise floor is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Precision of Independently Based Gain and Offset Error of an ADC Using the Histogram Method

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 512 - 521
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two of the parameters that are determined when testing an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are the gain and offset errors. One of the ways to define these two parameters is called ldquoindependently based.rdquo In this paper, we derive the precision of the gain and offset errors estimated with the histogram test method affected by additive noise. View full abstract»

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  • An Internet-Based Interactive Embedded Data-Acquisition System for Real-Time Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 522 - 529
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the principles of a low-operational-cost but flexible Internet-based data-acquisition system. The main core of the system is an embedded hardware running a scaled-down version of Linux: a popular choice of operating system for embedded applications. The embedded device communicates through general packet radio service (GPRS), which makes it accessible from anywhere in the world through a Web server built into the embedded device. In addition, GPRS provides a bidirectional real-time data transfer allowing interaction. The proposed system eliminates the need for server software and maintenance. A novel approach is introduced to minimize the operational costs while operating with a large amount of data. The system is demonstrated to be suitable for different embedded applications by attaching several real-time modules through appropriate interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • A Multihit Time-to-Digital Converter Architecture on FPGA

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 530 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a multihit time-to-digital converter (TDC) architecture implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with minimized timing overhead. The TDC circuit provides two-level fine-time interpolation. The fine interpolator is a matrix of Vernier delay cells interconnected in a topology to provide two propagation paths for the incoming data pulse. Two methods of calibration are presented to estimate the component delays. The TDC circuit achieves time measurements with a resolution of 75 ps with an average precision of ~ 300 ps and is capable of detecting incoming pulses at a distance of 7.5 ns or more from each other. View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based Compensation of SAR Nonlinearity

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 541 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion principle, sample-and-hold (S/H) nonideality, producing an input signal variation that is less than the least significant bit (LSB) during the conversion time, gives rise to intrinsic and significant dynamic nonlinearity. In this paper, a method for compensating such nonlinearity is proposed. Theoretical fundamentals of the method are reported by paying particular attention to the accuracy of the compensation. With this aim, the dynamic phase distortion that is related to the intrinsic dynamic nonlinearity is modeled first. Then, a compensation technique based on the definition of compensated output levels maximizing the signal-to-noise-and-distortion (SINAD) ratio, namely, a particular case of the Max-Lloyd conditions for minimizing distortion in nonuniform quantizers, is applied. Simulation and experimental results show the method effectiveness in compensating the intrinsic dynamic nonlinearity and in incrementing the SINAD ratio in actual working conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Sensor-Based Navigation for Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 551 - 556
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a deterministic approach for sensor-based localization and navigation of a mobile robot equipped with ultrasonic sensors using interval analysis. For localization, the map is 2-D and assumed to be known. It is shown that robot localization is achieved without the need for an interval model of the robot; instead, the physical limitations of the robot are used to predict and track the robot's position. In classical methods of robot localization such as Kalman filters, the data-association step is extremely complex and usually based on linearization. The interval analysis method proposed in this paper bypasses the data-association step and directly deals with the nonlinear problem in a global way. View full abstract»

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  • Power Quality Monitoring Controlled Through Low-Cost Modules

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 557 - 562
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a remote oscillography system applied for power quality monitoring that allows users to capture waveforms from remote modules in real time, to analyze data, and to control a remote terminal using Ethernet networks. Two protocols are presented, i.e., one for monitoring and other for controlling. We also describe a low-cost remote module using an 8-bit microcontroller. View full abstract»

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  • CMRR in Voltage-Op-Amp-Based Current-Mode Instrumentation Amplifiers (CMIA)

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 563 - 569
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a power-supply current-sensing current-mode instrumentation amplifier (CMIA) has theoretically been analyzed and formulated. The theory was further investigated by doing experiments using mu A741 and TL071 as op-amps and CA3096 transistors as the current mirrors of the CMIA. Both theoretical and practical investigations proved that both the dc and ac performances of CMRR depend on the matching status of parameters such as CMRR, open-loop gain A, gain-bandwidth product GB, and the output resistance R O of the input op-amps of the CMIA. It has also been shown that, in the CMIA, unlike the voltage-mode instrumentation amplifier, voltage gain is independent of the bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a High-Precision Calorimeter for Measuring Power Loss in Electrical Machines

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 570 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the development of a high-precision 30-kW (40-hp) calorimeter and is specifically focused on how experimental errors resulting from calorimeter design and operating procedures are eliminated or mitigated. A complete calibration for the calorimetric system using a DC heater is conducted, and two induction motors rated at 5.5 and 30 kW (7 and 40 hp, respectively) are carefully tested both within and outside of the calorimeter. Loss segregation is in accordance with the IEEE 112 method B. Experimental results for the comparison of calorimetric and input-output methods clearly confirm the effectiveness of the calorimeter in terms of accurate power loss measurement. The accuracy of the calorimeter is approximately 5.6 W in the measurement of power loss of up to 4.5 kW with a resolution of 0.1 W. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Indirect Method to Determine the Radiation Impedance of a Handheld Antenna Structure

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 578 - 585
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel indirect measurement technique is developed in which the input impedance of an unknown antenna structure is determined by measuring the change in the measured input impedance of a second probe antenna, while the unknown antenna is loaded at its input by a set of known impedances. The feasibility of the approach is explored using method-of-moment boundary element simulations of the interaction between two dipole antennas in free space. Examples of the measurement of the helical antenna of a terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) handheld radio and a small portable device with an electrically small antenna are presented. The significant advantage of the technique in the accurate measurement of electrically small antennas is confirmed. View full abstract»

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  • GPS-Based System for the Measurement of Synchronized Harmonic Phasors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 586 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A measurement system, based on high-performance Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and general-purpose acquisition (DAQ) boards, for the evaluation of the synchronized harmonic phasors in the nodes of an electric distribution network, is presented. To meet the requirements of different fields of application, two measurement procedures have been implemented: One is based on a fixed observation window, whereas, in the other one, the observation interval is a function of the actual power system frequency. Experimental tests are presented to characterize the measurement system: The results show that the proposed procedures allow the accuracy that is usually required in power quality monitoring of distribution systems to be reached. View full abstract»

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  • Yarn Hairiness Characterization Using Two Orthogonal Directions

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 594 - 601
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate that one can adequately characterize yarn hairiness by imaging the yarn along a single projection direction using coherent optical processing. A system that simultaneously characterizes the yarn hairiness along two orthogonal projection directions was constructed. Provided that a sufficiently high number of yarn segments are sampled, a strong statistical correlation is obtained between the results in each direction. The resulting images are generated using coherent optical signal processing with a Fourier high-pass spatial filter. This filter blocks the yarn core and produces a signal that highlights the sharp transitions in the transmission of the yarn. Essentially, only the small fibers responsible for the hairiness and the yarn core contours are present. Experimental results are presented for a 62-g/km yarn possessing a high degree of hairiness. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Classifier Fusion Approaches for Fault Diagnosis in Automotive Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 602 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1057 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Faulty automotive systems significantly degrade the performance and efficiency of vehicles and are often major contributors of vehicle breakdown; they result in large expenditures for repair and maintenance. Therefore, intelligent vehicle health-monitoring schemes are needed for effective fault diagnosis in automotive systems. Previously, we developed a data-driven approach using a data-reduction technique, coupled with a variety of classifiers, for fault diagnosis in automotive systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of fusing classifier decisions to reduce diagnostic errors. Specifically, we develop three novel classifier fusion approaches: 1. class-specific Bayesian fusion; 2. joint optimization of the fusion center and individual classifiers; and 3. dynamic fusion. We evaluate the efficacies of these fusion approaches on an automotive engine data. The results demonstrate that the proposed fusion techniques outperform traditional fusion approaches. We also show that learning the parameters of individual classifiers as part of the fusion architecture can provide better classification performance. View full abstract»

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  • A Fuzzy Approach to Decision Making About Compliance of Environmental Electromagnetic Field With Exposure Limits

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 612 - 617
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Regulations and laws about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) require that it constantly remains below some fixed limits. It is demanded therefore that the experimenter make a decision about the conformity of measured values to such limits. The statement may indeed be reliable only up to a certain degree because of the uncertainty that affects the available measurements; thus, the possibility that the wrong decision is made because of the limited amount of knowledge available about the process must be considered. Ultimately, the task is to determine the most reliable condition of the EMF while minimizing the cost caused by a wrong decision. Based on a distributed system of mobile probes, a fuzzy logic approach to a decision-making procedure is presented in this paper and applied to the results obtained during a measurement campaign. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Instrument For Field Calibration of Electrical Energy Meters

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 618 - 625
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Calibration of electrical energy meters is coming up as a metrological concern. The latest European Union (EU) directives about measuring instruments adopted for commercial transactions state that their accuracy has to be verified in actual operating conditions. This requirement is leaving all laboratories involved in energy meter calibration in serious difficulty because this kind of metrological verification is, at the moment, still not fully developed or even clarified in all involved aspects. In this paper, a measurement equipment for the calibration of energy meters is presented. Its structure and metrological characterization are discussed. To improve its performances without increasing its costs, two online digital compensation procedures have been realized and are shown: one increases the spectral purity of test signals and one corrects the transducer frequency response. Experimental results relating metrological characterization have shown that the so-realized calibrator is suitable for the onsite calibration of energy meters. View full abstract»

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  • Proximity Effects in the Near-Field EMF Metrology

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 626 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the errors caused by multiple mirror reflections of an object calibrated (antenna) or exposed (animal and device) in a transverse electromagnetic cell. Although the effect may entirely be evident in the results of experiments performed with the use of the cell or similar devices, it has never been taken into account. Its role is of primary importance in biomedical investigations and may cause the experiments to be of qualitative, rather than quantitative, character. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of a 3-D Hyperspectral Instrument for Skin Imaging Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 631 - 638
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The many bands acquired by typical multispectral, hyperspectral, and ultraspectral instruments are collected in either a scanning or staring fashion. Staring instruments, like that described in this paper, are popular because they are capable of producing spatially coherent images of a target scene; therefore, they are suitable for noncontact inspection applications. However, the wavebands need to be coregistered. A new application of hyperspectral instrumentation is proposed, where a sheet-of-light method, produced by a low-power laser light, is used to compute range measurements, and a hyperspectral instrument is used to acquire spectral information in the visible (VIS) range of the spectrum. The main advantage of this method is that a single hyperspectral tunable filter arrangement is used to sweep the image to get 3-D information and acquire hyperspectral spectral measurements of a scene. This paper describes the implementation of the image acquisition subsystem, which was done in LabView, and the method used to obtain coregistered radiometrically calibrated spectral imagery and range information. Test cases showed that the instrument may be used to retrieve height and spectral information of small areas and could be used for skin-imaging applications. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Pulse Parameters and Propagation of Uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 639 - 648
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fundamental starting point for the analysis of all two-state waveforms is the determination of the low- and high-state levels. This is a two-step process. First, the data are grouped into points belonging to each state, and second, the value of each state is determined from the group mean, the mode, the median, or some other statistic. Once the state levels are determined, pulse parameters such as transition duration, amplitude, overshoot, and undershoot can be calculated. The IEEE 181-2003 Standard on Transitions, Pulses, and Related Waveforms recommends methods for grouping the data, determining the state levels, and determining pulse parameters, but gives no guidance for propagation of uncertainty, particularly in the presence of systematic and/or correlated sources of error. Correlations are important because certain pulse parameters, such as transition duration and pulse duration, are invariant with respect to, e.g., multiplicative error, which is correlated highly. We propose a new procedure for determining the pulse states that involves clustering the data and then using a robust location estimator to determine the state level. This technique allows the propagation of uncertainty from the covariance of a sampled waveform representation all the way to the calculation of pulse parameters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to verify the proposed procedure for some canonical pulse waveforms. View full abstract»

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  • Error Model Application in Neural Reconstruction of Nonlinear Sensor Input Signal

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 649 - 656
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach to the analysis of the metrological properties of a measuring chain with neural networks used for the reconstruction of an input signal of a nonlinear sensor. The general idea of this approach consists of building such an error model, which contains both the error sources arising in all the elements of the measuring chain with neural reconstruction and a description of the error propagation from the input to the output of the chain. The error source extraction requires the decomposition of the static and dynamic properties of the sensor, which results in the realization of the reconstruction in two stages independently. This paper shows how to use a built-up error model, which is described in probabilistic categories, for the analysis of the metrological properties of the measuring chain and to calculate uncertainty at every stage of the analysis. Theoretical considerations have been illustrated by the results obtained from measurement and simulation experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Economic Evaluation Model for International Standardization of Technology

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 657 - 665
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (933 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an economic evaluation model for international standardization to support the decision-making process of technology development and standardization. We make use of a cost of ownership (COO) model for analyzing both expected-benefit and cost-of-technology development and standardization. Then, we apply the proposed model to a case of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology by establishing four potential scenarios. From the scenario analysis, the expected profit of the international standardization is evaluated for each scenario. We also perform sensitivity analysis to consider the effect of various parameter settings. This paper is expected to lead companies in the choice of the best strategy of technology development and standardization that would bring maximum profit. View full abstract»

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  • Definition of Instantaneous Dielectric Loss Factor and Digital Algorithm for Online Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 666 - 673
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Among the digital algorithms currently available for online monitoring of the dielectric loss factor of power apparatus, there are unavoidable limitations, such as that most of them must strictly meet the synchronous sampling criterion simultaneously with a precondition that the power frequency must be invariable in the sampling periods. This paper presents a unique definition and a corresponding digital algorithm of the instantaneous dielectric loss factor. The theoretical basis of the algorithm is also deduced. In a nonstationary signal environment where power frequencies are randomly variable, the algorithm can accurately track the instantaneous frequency of power signals, recursively calculate the parameters of parallel equivalent circuit, and, finally, figure out the waveform of the instantaneous dielectric loss factor. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm renders good application performance without being affected by the limitations incurred from synchronous sampling and harmonics. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Measurement of Temperature in the Presence of a Strong Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 674 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the development of a temperature sensor suitable for use in a pulse power system. Such systems generate large time-varying magnetic fields, which complicate instrumentation. A temperature-sensing system has been developed that can remotely capture information necessary to determine the temperature of a surface in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field. This sensor is based on an interferometer using a thin sapphire die coated with nickel and nickel oxide as the sensing element. A model was developed to predict the behavior of the sensor to determine the ideal layer thickness. With this system, temperature measurement has been demonstrated in the presence of a large time-varying magnetic field at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz over a range of 20degC to 350degC. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703