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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 281
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 282 - 284
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  • Real-Time Calculation of Switching Angles Minimizing THD for Multilevel Inverters With Step Modulation

    Page(s): 285 - 293
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel inverters have been widely applied in industries. A family of optimal pulsewidth modulation (PWM) methods for multilevel inverters, such as step modulation, can generate output voltage with less harmonic distortion than popular modulation strategies, such as the carrier-based sinusoidal PWM or the space vector PWM. However, some drawbacks limit the application of optimal PWM. One of such crucial drawback is that the optimal switching angles could not be calculated in real-time and one has to rely on lookup tables with precalculated angles. We propose a novel real-time algorithm for calculating switching angles that minimizes total harmonic distortion (THD) for step modulation. We give a mathematical proof that the output voltage has the minimum THD. We implemented the algorithm on a digital signal processor and provide experimental results that verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A Comprehensive Study of a Hybrid Modulation Technique for the Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter

    Page(s): 294 - 304
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    This paper presents a hybrid modulation technique for the three-level neutral-point-clamped converter. A modulation strategy, based on two modulation signals per phase, was presented previously. This strategy completely removes the low-frequency voltage oscillations that appear at the neutral point (NP) in some operation conditions. However, it also has a major drawback: it significantly increases the switching losses of the converter. The proposal in this paper combines such a modulation strategy with sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM). The main characteristic of this hybrid modulation is the reduction in switching losses at the cost of some low-frequency voltage oscillations at the NP. The amplitude of these oscillations can be controlled by varying the combination of the two strategies. The performance of the hybrid modulation is analyzed and compared with the original strategies. Power losses and oscillation amplitudes on the dc-link capacitors are evaluated. Experimental results show how the hybrid modulation performs by balancing the dc-link capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage-Balance Compensator for a Carrier-Based Modulation in the Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter

    Page(s): 305 - 314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an optimal voltage-balancing compensator for a specific modulation technique applied to a neutral-point-clamped converter. The technique uses two modulation signals per phase, and it is called double-signal pulsewidth modulation. It completely eliminates low-frequency oscillations in the neutral-point voltage. However, it does not provide natural voltage balancing; therefore, a compensation loop is required. The proposed control generates a feedback compensation signal that correctly modifies the three-phase modulation signals. The optimal compensation signal is calculated by a dynamic limiter according to the intrinsic limitations of the system related to the variability range of the modulation signals. It significantly improves the voltage balancing under all operating conditions of the converter. In addition, this compensation strategy does not increase the switching frequencies of the power devices. The algorithm is tested and verified using both simulation and experimentation. View full abstract»

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  • Feed-Forward Space Vector Modulation for Single-Phase Multilevel Cascaded Converters With Any DC Voltage Ratio

    Page(s): 315 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modulation techniques for multilevel converters can create distorted output voltages and currents if the DC-link voltages are unbalanced. This situation can be avoided if the instantaneous DC voltage error is not taken into account in the modulation process. This paper proposes a feed-forward space vector modulation method for a single-phase multilevel cascade converter. Using this modulation technique, the modulated output voltage of the power converter always generates the reference determined by the controller, even in worst case voltage unbalance conditions. In addition, the possibility of optimizing the DC voltage ratio between the H-bridges of the power converter is introduced. Experimental results from a 5-kVA prototype are presented in order to validate the proposed modulation technique. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Use of Zero Vectors for Minimizing the Output Current Distortion in Matrix Converters

    Page(s): 326 - 336
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is focused on the current quality of matrix converter controlled by space vector modulation (SVM) feeding inductive loads. The analysis carried out in this paper leads to the determination of the optimal use of zero vectors, i.e., the switching pattern leading to the minimum rms value of the load current ripple. The optimization of the switching pattern is based on the graphical analysis of the loci described by the ripple of the current vector in the alpha- beta reference frame. As a result, a set of analytical relationships that allow the online calculation of the duty cycles of the zero vectors is presented. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm that the current ripple of the proposed modulation strategy is lower than that of traditional SVM strategies and, in some cases, with a reduced number of commutations. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Response Analysis of Current Controllers for Selective Harmonic Compensation in Active Power Filters

    Page(s): 337 - 347
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper compares four current control structures for selective harmonic compensation in active power filters. All controllers under scrutiny perform the harmonic compensation by using arrays of resonant controllers, one for the fundamental and one for each harmonic of interest, in order to achieve zero phase shift and unity gain in the closed-loop transfer function for selected harmonics. The complete current controller is the superposition of all individual harmonic controllers and may be implemented in various reference frames. The analysis is focused on the comparison of harmonic and total closed-loop transfer functions for each controller. Analytical similarities and differences between schemes in terms of frequency response characteristics are emphasized. It is concluded that three of them have identical harmonic behavior despite the fact that their implementation is significantly different. It emerges that the fourth one has superior behavior and robustness and can stably work at higher frequencies than the others. Theoretical findings and analysis are supported by comparative experimental results on a 7-kVA laboratory setup. The highest harmonic frequency that can be stably compensated with each control method has been determined, indicating significant differences in the control performance. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Decoupling Method for Current-Controlled Multiswitching Systems

    Page(s): 348 - 359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Among converter control techniques, the direct current tracking methods give fast and accurate response with good dynamic performance. Unfortunately, in multiswitching systems, these techniques have certain drawbacks. In particular, when the number of controlled switching elements is greater than the number of independent currents, undesirable interactions arise between the control algorithms. This paper proposes a general and systematic approach to decouple the controlled currents. This allows us to adopt simpler current tracking strategies (not discussed in this paper) for each controlled switching element even in complex multiswitching converters. Independence between lower level switching algorithms is achieved by means of a set of decoupling variables. Simulation and experimental results from a case study are reported. View full abstract»

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  • On Some Nonlinear Current Controllers for Three-Phase Boost Rectifiers

    Page(s): 360 - 370
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    Several flatness-based current controllers for three-phase three-wire boost rectifiers are compared. For this purpose, the flatness of a rectifier model is shown, and a trajectory planning algorithm that nominally achieves voltage regulation in finite time is given. The main focus lies on the inner loop current controllers. On one hand, linearization-based controllers using exact feedback linearization, exact feedforward linearization, and input-output linearization are discussed. On the other hand, two passivity-based approaches are compared. The first one is the energy shaping and damping injection method, and the other one uses exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback. Furthermore, a reduced-order load observer is given, and a method that allows the prevention of invalid switching patterns is presented. The presented control algorithms are tested by simulations on a switched model. View full abstract»

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  • Active Damping for Three-Phase PWM Rectifiers With High-Order Line-Side Filters

    Page(s): 371 - 379
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active rectifiers interfacing the grid have gained much attention in recent years due to their current control capability that enables the application to exchange a certain range of power at the benefit of low harmonic distortion compared to line commutated converters. Moreover, the amount of active and reactive powers can be arbitrarily chosen within certain limits. These limits as well as the degree of harmonic attenuation is determined by the line-side filter. This paper basically focuses on the current control of active rectifiers incorporating a line-side filter of first- up to third-order degree. Thus, it treats both the current-source converter (CSC) as well as the voltage-source converter (VSC). The basic models of the plant are derived for each case, and important dualities are pointed out. As a conclusion, a recipe for the controller design of particularly CSCs with LC filters and VSCs with LCL filters is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Limitations of Voltage-Oriented PI Current Control of Grid-Connected PWM Rectifiers With LCL Filters

    Page(s): 380 - 388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Voltage-oriented PI control of three-phase grid-connected pulsewidth-modulation rectifiers with LCL filters is addressed. LCL filters require resonance damping. Active resonance damping is state of the art to face the problem, but it is still under investigation because of the manifold solutions. It is often realized using many sensors and/or complex control algorithms. In contrast, pure PI control requires only one set of current sensors, and its implementation and design are rather simple and well known from the L filter control. PI control has already been shown to be a suitable solution also for LCL filters, but there are limitations. These are investigated in this paper. System stability is analyzed with respect to different ratios of LCL filter resonance and control frequencies. The latter are important parameters for system design and control. Both line and converter current control are analyzed. For a certain range of frequency ratios, the voltage-oriented PI control gives stable performance without additional feedback, but for ratios outside this range, stable operation is impossible. Experimental tests validate the theoretical results. In addition, an experimentally determined LCL filter transfer function is shown in this paper, which shows a lower resonance peak as expected from commonly used filter models. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit Model-Predictive Control of a PWM Inverter With an LCL Filter

    Page(s): 389 - 399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the control of pulsewidth modulation inverters connected to the grid through resonant LCL filters. It proposes two alternative (piecewise affine) models that account for the switched behavior of the converter. Based on these improved models, an explicit model-predictive control scheme is derived in order to provide a fast response, making it very suitable for applications, such as active filtering, where a large bandwidth is required. A state observer and a grid voltage estimator are used in order to reduce the number of required sensors and to eliminate noise. The control scheme relies only on filtered current measurements and on the DC voltage. View full abstract»

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  • One-Chip Class-E Inverter Controller for Driving a Magnetron

    Page(s): 400 - 407
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1189 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A one-chip class-E inverter controller is implemented in a 0.35 mum standard CMOS process. The control IC generates a control signal to turn on or off the insulated-gate bipolar transistor switch of the class-E inverter power supply driving a magnetron load which generates 2.45 GHz microwave for heating. It provides active power factor correction, soft start, and thermal protection. The rated RF output power of the magnetron is around 1.2 kW for a 100 V AC line, and an input power factor of over 0.98 is maintained. The proposed integrated solution gives better system performance with lower cost than conventional discrete solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Input Current Harmonics in a Regenerative Multicell Inverter With Single-Phase PWM Rectifiers

    Page(s): 408 - 417
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Harmonics are a very important issue in the design and operation of medium-voltage inverter drives, due to restrictions imposed by regulations. This paper studies the harmonics generated by a three-phase multicell cascade inverter, with single-phase pulsewidth modulation rectifiers at the input side of each cell; thus, the entire topology is able to regenerate power to the net. This paper identifies accurately the harmonic generation process in the dc-link voltage, the input current of each cell, and, therefore, at the input side of the inverter. Moreover, this paper proposes a method to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate the input current harmonics, reaching a very high input power factor for any operation condition. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Combined System for Harmonic Suppression and Reactive Power Compensation

    Page(s): 418 - 428
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1210 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a combined system of static Var compensator (SVC) and active power filter (APF) was proposed. The system has the function of power factor correction, voltage stability, and harmonic suppression. The SVC, which consists of delta-connected thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) and Y-connected passive power filter (PPF), is mainly for voltage stability and power factor correction. The small rating APF is used to filter harmonics generated by the nonlinear load and the TCR in the SVC and to suppress possible resonance between the grid and the PPFs. The configuration and principle of the combined system were discussed first, and then, the control method of the combined system was presented. An optimal nonlinear proportional-integral control was proposed to improve the dynamic response and decrease the steady-state error of the SVC. Harmonic detection with precompensation method and improved generalized integrator control were proposed to improve the performance of APF. The new combined system is compared to classical SVC. It is implemented in a 200-kVA prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed combined configuration can effectively stabilize system voltage, correct power factor, and suppress harmonic currents. View full abstract»

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  • Control of the Reactive Power Supplied by a WECS Based on an Induction Generator Fed by a Matrix Converter

    Page(s): 429 - 438
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new control system to regulate the reactive power supplied by a variable-speed wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on an induction generator fed by a matrix converter (MC), is presented. The control system discussed in this paper is based on an input current observer, implemented using an estimation of the modulation matrix, and a nonlinear control loop that regulates the displacement angle at the MC input. The reactive power capability of the proposed system is also investigated. The work presented in this paper demonstrates that, for the proposed WECS, the maximum reactive power supplied to the grid is about 40% of the nominal value. Experimental results obtained from an experimental prototype are presented in this paper. The performance of the system using a wind turbine emulator and typical wind profiles is discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Control of DFIG Systems During Network Unbalance Using PI–R Current Regulators

    Page(s): 439 - 451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) under unbalanced network voltage conditions. Coordinated control of the grid- and rotor-side converters (GSC and RSC, respectively) during voltage unbalance is proposed. Under an unbalanced supply voltage, the RSC is controlled to eliminate the torque pulsation at double supply frequency. The oscillation of the stator output active power is then compensated by the active power output from the GSC, to ensure constant active power output from the overall DFIG generation system. In order to provide precise control of the positive- and negative-sequence currents of the GSC and RSC, a current control scheme consisting of a proportional integral (PI) controller and a resonant (R) compensator is presented. The PI plus R current regulator is implemented in the positive synchronous reference frame without the need to decompose the positive- and negative-sequence components. Simulations on a 1.5-MW DFIG system and experimental tests on a 1.5-kW prototype validate the proposed strategy. Precise control of both positive- and negative-sequence currents and simultaneous elimination of torque and total active power oscillations have been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A Space Vector Modulation Strategy for a Back-to-Back Five-Level HVDC Converter System

    Page(s): 452 - 466
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The DC-capacitor voltage drift is the main technical drawback of a multilevel diode-clamped converter (DCC) system. This paper proposes a space vector modulation (SVM)-based switching strategy that takes advantage of the redundant switching states of the SVM to counteract the voltage drift phenomenon of a five-level DCC-based back-to-back high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter system. The proposed strategy is based on online minimization of a quadratic cost function, associated with the voltage deviations of the dc capacitors. The salient feature of the proposed strategy is that it enables voltage balancing of the DC capacitors with no requirements for offline calculations, additional controls, or auxiliary power circuitry. Performance of the proposed SVM-based balancing strategy for a back-to-back HVDC converter system, based on time-domain simulation studies in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment, is evaluated and experimentally verified. The studies demonstrate capability of the proposed SVM strategy to control and maintain voltage balance of DC capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Stage Soft-Switching AC–DC Converter With Input-Current Shaping for Universal Line Applications

    Page(s): 467 - 479
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel single-stage soft-switching ac-dc converter for universal line applications is presented. Unlike the conventional single-stage designs, the proposed input-current shaping scheme is intentionally arranged to be charged in the duty-off time. With this design, the switch current stress in the duty-on time is significantly reduced. Meanwhile, this design produces AC modulation effect on the charging time of the boost inductor so that the input i-nu curve drawn by the proposed converter has nearly linear relationship. Moreover, an active-clamp flyback-forward topology is used as the downstream DC-DC cell to alleviate voltage stress across the bulk capacitor. By deactivating the flyback subconverter and keeping the forward subconverter supplying the output power at light-load condition, the bulk-capacitor voltage can be alleviated effectively and guaranteed below 450 V in wide ranges of output load and line input (90-265 Vrms). Experimental results, obtained from a prototype circuit with 20-V/100-W output, have verified that three achievements can be obtained simultaneously, including the compliance with the line-current harmonic regulations, the reliable alleviation of the bulk-capacitor voltage stress, and the substantially promoted conversion efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Duty-Varied Voltage Pulse Charger for Improving Li-Ion Battery-Charging Response

    Page(s): 480 - 487
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    In this paper, a duty-varied voltage pulse-charge strategy (DVVPCS), that can detect and dynamically track the suitable duty of the charge pulse, is proposed to improve the battery-charge performance. To assess the system performance, a prototype of the duty-varied voltage pulse charger (DVVPC) is designed and implemented. Comparing with the standard constant-current and constant-voltage (CC-CV) charge strategy, the charge speed of the proposed DVVPCS is improved by about 14%, while the proposed DVVPCS is improved by about 5% in comparison with the conventional duty-fixed voltage pulse-charge strategy (DFVPCS). The charge efficiency of the proposed DVVPC has been improved by about 3.4% as compared with that of the general CC-CV. In comparison with conventional DFVPCS with D = 50%, the charge efficiency of the proposed DVVPCS is improved by about 1.5%. The results indicate that the DVVPCS can actually provide pulse with suitable duty to charge the battery, and the charge performance is improved. View full abstract»

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  • Managing the Dynamics of a Harmonic Potential Field-Guided Robot in a Cluttered Environment

    Page(s): 488 - 496
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the ability of the harmonic potential field (HPF) planning method to generate a well-behaved constrained path for a robot with second order dynamics in a cluttered environment. It is shown that HPF-based controllers may be developed for holonomic, as well as nonholonomic, robots to effectively suppress the effect of inertial forces on the robot's trajectory while maintaining all the attractive features of a purely kinematic HPF planner. The capabilities of the suggested navigation controller are demonstrated using simulation results for the holonomic and nonholonomic cases. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor Reduction for Backing-Up Control of a Vehicle With Triple Trailers

    Page(s): 497 - 509
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a cost-effective design based on sensor reduction for backing-up control of a vehicle with triple trailers. To realize a cost-effective design, we newly derive two linear-matrix-inequality (LMI) conditions for a discrete Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system. One is an optimal dynamic output feedback design that guarantees desired control performance. The other is an avoidance of jackknife phenomenon for the use of the optimal dynamic output feedback controller. Our results demonstrate that the proposed LMI-based design effectively achieves the backing-up control of the vehicle with triple trailers while avoiding the jackknife phenomenon. More importantly, we demonstrate that the designed optimal control can achieve the backing-up control without, at least, two potentiometers that were employed to measure the relative angles (of a vehicle with triple trailers) in our previous experiments. Since the relative angles directly relate to the jackknife phenomenon, the successful control results without two potentiometers are very interesting and important from the cost-effective design point of view. View full abstract»

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  • A Wide-Range Velocity Measurement Method for Motion Control

    Page(s): 510 - 519
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses velocity measurement for motor drives with optical encoders. Although many methods on velocity measurement have been proposed, accurate measurement was not achieved in a high-speed range. This paper therefore proposes synchronous-measurement method (S method) that measures the velocity synchronized with the alteration of pulse numbers in each sampling period. Accurate velocity measurement is achieved in all speed ranges with this method. Furthermore, other velocity prediction methods are applicable in addition to the method. Simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411