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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • List of Contributors

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Opinion

    Page(s): 725
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  • Edge Focusing

    Page(s): 726 - 741
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    Edge detection in a gray-scale image at a fine resolution typically yields noise and unnecessary detail, whereas edge detection at a coarse resolution distorts edge contours. We show that ``edge focusing'', i.e., a coarse-to-fine tracking in a continuous manner, combines high positional accuracy with good noise-reduction. This is of vital interest in several applications. Junctions of different kinds are in this way restored with high precision, which is a basic requirement when performing (projective) geometric analysis of an image for the purpose of restoring the three-dimensional scene. Segmentation of a scene using geometric clues like parallelism, etc., is also facilitated by the algorithm, since unnecessary detail has been filtered away. There are indications that an extension of the focusing algorithm can classify edges, to some extent, into the categories diffuse and nondiffuse (for example diffuse illumination edges). The edge focusing algorithm contains two parameters, namely the coarseness of the resolution in the blurred image from where we start the focusing procedure, and a threshold on the gradient magnitude at this coarse level. The latter parameter seems less critical for the behavior of the algorithm and is not present in the focusing part, i.e., at finer resolutions. The step length of the scale parameter in the focusing scheme has been chosen so that edge elements do not move more than one pixel per focusing step. View full abstract»

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  • An Iterative Thresholding Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    Page(s): 742 - 751
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    A thresholding technique is developed for segmenting digital images with bimodal reflectance distributions under nonuniform illumination. The algorithm works in a raster format, thus making it an attractive segmentation tool in situations requiring fast data throughput. The theoretical base of the algorithm is a recursive Taylor expansion of a continuously varying threshold tracking function. View full abstract»

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  • Error Analysis in Stereo Determination of 3-D Point Positions

    Page(s): 752 - 765
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    The relationship between the geometry of a stereo camera setup and the accuracy in obtaining three-dimensional position information is of great practical importance in many imaging applications. Assuming a point in a scene has been correctly identified in each image, its three-dimensional position can be recovered via a simple geometrical method known as triangulation. The probability that position estimates from triangulation are within some specified error tolerance is derived. An ideal pinhole camera model is used and the error is modeled as known spatial image plane quantization. A point's measured position maps to a small volume in 3-D determined by the finite resolution of the stereo setup. With the assumption that the point's actual position is uniformly distributed inside this volume, closed form expressions for the probability distribution of error in position along each coordinate direction (horizontal, vertical, and range) are derived. Following this, the probability that range error dominates over errors in the point's horizontal or vertical position is determined. It is hoped that the results presented will have an impact upon both sensor design and error modeling of position measuring systems for computer vision and related applications. View full abstract»

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  • Physically Based Simulation Model for Acoustic Sensor Robot Navigation

    Page(s): 766 - 778
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    A computer model is described that combines concepts from the fields of acoustics, linear system theory, and digital signal processing to simulate an acoustic sensor navigation system using time-of-flight ranging. By separating the transmitter/receiver into separate components and assuming mirror-like reflectors, closed-form solutions for the reflections from corners, edges, and walls are determined as a function of transducer size, location, and orientation. A floor plan consisting of corners, walls, and edges is efficiently encoded to indicate which of these elements contribute to a particular pulse-echo response. Sonar maps produced by transducers having different resonant frequencies and transmitted pulse waveforms can then be simulated efficiently. Examples of simulated sonar maps of two floor plans illustrate the performance of the model. Actual sonar maps are presented to verify the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Feature-Based Tactile Object Recognition

    Page(s): 779 - 786
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    Tactile sensing offers powerful capabilities for robotic perception. Through the use of array-force sensors, precisely located surface information about objects in the workspace is available wherever the robot arm may reach. In order to use this information to identify objects and their placement, interpretation processes should employ proprioceptive information and should use tactile image features which reflect object characteristics. A technique is described for the generation of constraints on object identity and placement such that information from multiple sensor contacts may cooperate towards interpretation. View full abstract»

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  • Finite Prolate Spheroidal Sequences and Their Applications I: Generation and Properties

    Page(s): 787 - 795
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    The finite prolate spheroidal sequences are those finite sequences which have extremal energy concentrations both in space and spatial frequency. The first part of the paper is devoted to a study of the eigenvalue problem defining the sequences. This reveals those fundamental properties of the sequences which are relevant in image processing applications and shows how they can be generated efficiently. A new version of the sampling theorem is also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesizing Statistical Knowledge from Incomplete Mixed-Mode Data

    Page(s): 796 - 805
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    The difficulties in analyzing and clustering (synthesizing) multivariate data of the mixed type (discrete and continuous) are largely due to: 1) nonuniform scaling in different coordinates, 2) the lack of order in nominal data, and 3) the lack of a suitable similarity measure. This paper presents a new approach which bypasses these difficulties and can acquire statistical knowledge from incomplete mixed-mode data. The proposed method adopts an event-covering approach which covers a subset of statistically relevant outcomes in the outcome space of variable-pairs. And once the covered event patterns are acquired, subsequent analysis tasks such as probabilistic inference, cluster analysis, and detection of event patterns for each cluster based on the incomplete probability scheme can be performed. There are four phases in our method: 1) the discretization of the continuous components based on a maximum entropy criterion so that the data can be treated as n-tuples of discrete-valued features; 2) the estimation of the missing values using our newly developed inference procedure; 3) the initial formation of clusters by analyzing the nearest-neighbor distance on subsets of selected samples; and 4) the reclassification of the n-tuples into more reliable clusters based on the detected interdependence relationships. For performance evaluation, experiments have been conducted using both simulated and real life data. View full abstract»

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  • A High Speed String Correction Method Using a Hierarchical File

    Page(s): 806 - 815
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    This paper describes a high speed string correction method using a hierarchical file. After reviewing a string correction method based on the Levenshtein distance, a hierarchical file construction method is introduced. A multistage string correction method using this file is proposed. The lower bound of computational complexity is estimated, and it is shown that a multistage method using a special type of a hierarchical file can reduce computational labor greatly. The larger the number of strings considered is, the more efficient the method becomes. The results of computer simulations on 5374 phoneme sequences using two and three stage correction methods are stated. The condition for a multistage string correction method to obtain higher correction rates than an ordinary dictionary method is included. View full abstract»

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  • A Parallel Architecture for Discrete Relaxation Algorithm

    Page(s): 816 - 831
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    Discrete relaxation techniques have proven useful in solving a wide range of problems in digital signal and digital image processing, artificial intelligence, operations research, and machine vision. Much work has been devoted to finding efficient hardware architectures. This paper shows that a conventional hardware design for a Discrete Relaxation Algorithm (DRA) suffers from O(n2m3) time complexity and O(n2m2) space complexity. By reformulating DRA into a parallel computational tree and using a multiple tree-root pipelining scheme, time complexity is reduced to O(nm), while the space complexity is reduced by a factor of 2. For certain relaxation processing, the space complexity can even be decreased to O(nm). Furthermore, a technique for dynamic configuring an architectural wavefront is used which leads to an O(n) time highly concurrent DRA3 architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a Sampling Technique Applied to Biological Images

    Page(s): 832 - 835
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    This correspondence examines the classification potential of two techniques based on spiral sampling of binary images of zooplankton. Image pixels are rearranged into a one-dimensional sequence by selecting samples in a spiral manner starting from the edge of the image and proceeding toward the center. The properties of this sample sequence are examined by Fourier transform and correlation techniques, using images from six major zooplankton categories of varying orientation and size. The ability of features extracted from spiral sequences to classify zooplankton samples, and their classification accuracy are investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Algorithms for Image Template Matching on Hypercube SIMD Computers

    Page(s): 835 - 841
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    This correspondence presents several parallel algorithms for image template matching on an SIMD array processor with a hypercube interconnection network. For an N by N image and an M by M window, the time complexity is reduced from O(N2M2) for the serial algorithm to O(M2/K2 + M * log2 N/K + log2 N * log2 K) for the N2K2-PE system (1 ¿ K ¿ M), or to O(N2M2/L2) for the L2-PE system (L ¿ N). With efficient use of the inter-PE communication network, each PE requires only a small local memory, many unnecessary data transmissions are eliminated, and the time complexity is greatly reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Local Languages, the Succesor Method, and a Step Towards a General Methodology for the Inference of Regular Grammars

    Page(s): 841 - 845
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    A methodology is proposed for the inference of regular grammars from positive samples of their languages. It is mainly based on the generative mechanism associated with local languages, which allows us to obtain arbitrary regular languages by applying morphic operators to local languages. The actual inference procedure of this methodology consists of obtaining a local language associated with the given positive sample. This procedure, which is very simple, is always the same, regardless of the problem considered, while the task-dependent features that are desired for the inferred languages, are specified through the definition of certain task-appropriate symbol renaming functions (morphisms). View full abstract»

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  • 1987 Index - IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-9

    Page(s): 846 - 851
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  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 852
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David A. Forsyth
University of Illinois